Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge   of intersecting inequalities               Naila Kabeer ...
ContentsAcknowledgements                                                                         2List of abbreviations   ...
Copyright © 2010List of abbreviations                                        by the United Nations Development Programme  ...
List of figures, tables and boxesList of figuresFigure 3.1 Global progress on achieving the MDGs                          ...
Table 3.9    Comparison of child malnutrition: eastern and western China (%)                    21           Table 3.10 Po...
ForewordI    n September 2010, ten years after signing the    aggregate progress if we want the MDGs to be    Millennium D...
Executive summary           A                    t the start of the 21st century, 189 world            This report argues ...
the extraordinary performance of China in recentyears. However, this has been accompanied byincreasing income inequalities...
committees, user groups of various kinds and                                                                   consultativ...
justice and it can provide advocate groups with thesupport they need to take action. However, wheresocial inequalities are...
Human Rights and the international conventions         marginalised groups more isolated and         on civil and politica...
Introduction: the fundamental values of       the Millennium Declaration                                                  ...
draw out lessons for promoting the MDGs as a                                                                    pathway to...
Intersecting inequalitiesand social exclusion                                                                             ...
Yunnan Province, China: members of the Bai ethnic minority, who traditionally wear blue clothing.          Photographer: J...
and language also feature in some countries. As in     Latin America, indigenous ethnic minorities in     Asia are often l...
3         Intersecting inequalities and the MDGs:          the regional picture          A                 global overview...
3.1 Progress on the MDGs in Latin America               Box 3.1 Institutional coverage of deliveries inLatin America, as a...
Spatial inequalities intersect with ethnicity. Table 3.6                                                         national ...
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities
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Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities

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By: Naila Kabeer

The starting point for this report is that inequalities matter for the achievement of the MDGs. Inequalities matter at the macroeconomic level because they slow down the pace at which a given rate of growth translates into poverty reduction. They also matter for society at large because they generate high levels of social tensions, crime and conflict, with adverse effects for human wellbeing and progress.

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Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities

  1. 1. Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? The challenge of intersecting inequalities Naila Kabeer Institute of Development Studies
  2. 2. ContentsAcknowledgements 2List of abbreviations 2List of figures, tables and boxes 3Foreword 5Executive summary 61 Introduction: the fundamental values of the Millennium Declaration 112 Intersecting inequalities and social exclusion 13 2.1 Relevance to the MDG agenda 13 2.2 The regional history and geography of social exclusion 143 Intersecting inequalities and the MDGs: the regional picture 16 3.1 Progress on the MDGs in Latin America 17 3.2 Social exclusion and the MDGs in Latin America 17 3.3 Progress on the MDGs in Asia 21 3.4 Social exclusion and the MDGs in Asia 23 3.5 Progress on the MDGs in sub-Saharan Africa 26 3.6 Social exclusion and the MDGs in sub-Saharan Africa 264 The intersecting dynamics of inequality: why social exclusion persists 30 4.1 The cultural dynamics of exclusion 30 4.2 The economic dynamics of exclusion: asset inequalities 32 4.3 The economic dynamics of exclusion: disadvantageous livelihoods 33 4.4 The dynamics of exclusion in service provision: access and quality 35 4.5 The political dynamics of exclusion 385 The MDGs as a pathway to social justice: equalising life chances 39 5.1 Responsive states, active citizens: towards a new social contract 39 5.2 Strengthening information policies to tackle exclusion 42 5.3 Macroeconomic policies and redistributive growth 43 5.4 Progressive fiscal policies 44 5.5 Legal policies and affirmative action 45 5.6 Land reform 47 5.7 Promoting livelihoods, decent work and access to credit 48 5.8 Investing in infrastructure and area development 50 5.9 Extending basic services to all groups 51 5.10 Inclusive social protection 546 Conclusion: key concerns and principles 57Further information 60Endnotes 61 Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 1
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010List of abbreviations by the United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USAADB Asian Development BankDHS Demographic and Health Survey All rights reserved. No part of this publication may beECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, Caribbean in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,FGM female genital mutilation photocopying, recording or otherwise, without priorGDP gross domestic product permission.GNP gross national productHDI human development index The analysis and policy recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the MDGIADB Inter-American Development Bank Achievement Fund or the United Nations DevelopmentIDP internally displaced person Programme. The report is an independent publicationILO International Labour Organization commissioned by the MDG Achievement Fund and is theINDISCO The Interregional Programme to Support Self- fruit of a collaborative effort with the Institute of Reliance of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples through Development Studies, Sussex. Cooperatives and Self-Help OrganizationsLAC Latin America and the Caribbean ISBN: 978 1 85864 947 1MDGs Millennium Development GoalsMPCE monthly per capita expenditure About the authorNAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Naila Kabeer is Professor of Gender andNGO non-governmental organisation Development at the School of Oriental andODA Official Development AssistanceODI Overseas Development Institute African Studies, University of London.OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development AcknowledgementsPPP purchasing power parity We wish to thank Professor Jo Beall (UniversitySSA sub-Saharan Africa of Cape Town/London School of Economics),UN ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Professor Ashwini Deshpande (Delhi School of Asia and the Pacific Economics, University of Delhi) and ProfessorUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Edward Telles (Princeton University), whoUNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social contributed regional background papers for this Development report. We also wish to thank Gabriele KoehlerWHO World Health Organization and Professor Hilary Standing for providing inputs on key themes, and Selim Jahan from UNDP and Minar Pimple from the UN Millennium Campaign for their comments. Excellent contributions were made by the research team: Peroline Ainsworth (research co-ordinator), Luisa Natali, Karin Seyfert, Devika Lal, Harsh Malhotra, Line Falkenberg Ollestad and Smriti Sharma. We also benefited from extremely useful and constructive comments from our readers group: Dr Sarah Cook (UNRISD), Jan Vandemoortele (formerly with the UN; now independent researcher and writer), Kevin Watkins (UNESCO) and Alexander Cobham (Christian Aid). Special thanks to Layla Saad from the UN MDG Achievement Fund for her role in overseeing the process and her valuable inputs throughout. Thanks finally to Kathryn O’Neill for editorial work and to Barbara Cheney for designing the report. Cover Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: the Petronas Twin Towers and the luxury Radisson Hotel rise behind slum housing in the centre of the city. Photographer: Mark Henley/Panos Pictures
  4. 4. List of figures, tables and boxesList of figuresFigure 3.1 Global progress on achieving the MDGs 16Figure 3.2 Ratio of indigenous to non-indigenous infant mortality rate, 2000–02, selected Latin American countries 18Figure 3.3 Average number of years of education for indigenous people aged 17–22, selected countries 18Figure 3.4 Latin America (14 countries): extreme poverty rates among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants, as a multiple of the rate for the rest of the population (dollar-a-day line) 19Figure 3.5 Under-five mortality rate by wealth quintile and the ratio of poorest to richest quintile 21Figure 3.6 Nepal: poverty Head Count Rate (HCR) trends by social groups 21Figure 3.7 Percentage of adult population who have not completed any education, Vietnam 23Figure 3.8 Rural China: distribution of poverty among ethnic minorities and the majority population, 2002 24Figure 3.9 Western region of rural China: distribution of poverty among ethnic minorities and the majority population, 2002 24Figure 3.10 Malaysia: infant mortality rate by ethnic group, 1970–2006 25Figure 3.11 Malaysia: poverty Head Count Rate (HCR) trends by ethnicity 25Figure 3.12 Prevalence of child malnutrition by residence, Nigeria 27Figure 4.1 The Nepal caste pyramid according to the Muluki Ain (1854) 30Figure 4.2 Nepal: composite empowerment and inclusion index (CEI) by gender/caste/ethnicity 31Figure 4.3 Brazil: pay levels by gender, ethnic group and years of schooling, 1992 and 2002 32Figure 4.4 Pastoralists facing extreme education deprivation 35Figure 4.5 Nepal: ethnic/caste and gender representation in Parliament, 1959–99 36Figure 5.1 Maternal mortality rates, selected states in Mexico 54List of tablesTable 3.1 Absolute and relative overall progress of the MDGs: top 20 achievers 16Table 3.2 Institutional coverage in municipalities where indigenous people are a majority, minority or moderate proportion of the population, Bolivia, 2006 17Table 3.3 Poverty incidence (MDG 1) by household per capita income in selected Latin American countries 18Table 3.4 Primary school enrolment rates in selected Latin American countries 19Table 3.5 Comparing years in education of indigenous and non-indigenous groups in Bolivia 19Table 3.6 Education indicators by region, Mexico, 2005 19Table 3.7 Brazil: percentage of the population living below the extreme poverty line by race 20Table 3.8 Brazil: distribution of the poorest 10% and the richest 1% by race (2005) 20 Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 3
  5. 5. Table 3.9 Comparison of child malnutrition: eastern and western China (%) 21 Table 3.10 Poverty incidence for different social groups, selected states in India 22 Table 3.11 India: under-five mortality rate for different social groups, 1992/93 to 2005/06 23 Table 3.12 Nepal: early childhood mortality rates, 2006 23 Table 3.13 Access to public services among different groups in Vietnam 24 Table 3.14 Nigeria: childhood mortality rates by residence 27 Table 3.15 Socioeconomic indicators for selected regions in Ghana (%) 27 Table 3.16 South Africa: individual level poverty by race and gender (poverty line R515 per capita per month) 28 Table 3.17 Estimates of annual per capita personal income by race group in 2000 28 Table 3.18 Relative per capita personal incomes by race group (% of white level) 28 Table 3.19 Nigeria: states with the highest and lowest shares of poverty, 2006 29 Table 4.1 Time to reach nearest health facility in north and south Ghana (% of respondents) 34 Table 5.1 Collective land rights in new constitutions and agrarian codes 49 List of boxes Box 2.1 Intersecting inequalities and the persistence of social exclusion 15 Box 3.1 Institutional coverage of deliveries in Bolivia 17 Box 3.2 Distribution of income and extreme poverty in Brazil 20 Box 3.3 Poverty and social inequality in India 22 Box 3.4 Child health inequalities in India and Nepal 23 Box 3.5 Intersecting ethnic and spatial inequalities in Vietnam and China 24 Box 3.6 The intersection of spatial, ethnic and religious inequalities in Ghana and Nigeria 27 Box 3.7 Focus on South Africa 28 Box 3.8 Ethnic inequalities in child mortality in Africa 29 Box 4.1 The caste system in Nepal 30 Box 4.2 Why social exclusion persists: internalising inferiority 31 Box 4.3 Social exclusion and violent crime: life in the favelas of Brazil 32 Box 4.4 The Kamaiya system in Nepal 33 Box 4.5 Intersecting ethnic, religious and political inequalities in Sudan 37 Box 5.1 Making everyone count: collecting census data on excluded groups in Latin America 41 Box 5.2 The Right to Information in India 43 Box 5.3 Progressive hydrocarbon taxation in Bolivia 45 Box 5.4 Using equity-weighted transfer rules to spend more on excluded groups 45 Box 5.5 Affirmative action in Nepal 46 Box 5.6 Affirmative action in Malaysia 46 Box 5.7 Tackling institutionalised racism in Brazil 47 Box 5.8 Land rights campaigns in India 48 Box 5.9 Informal workers organise to claim rights 49 Box 5.10 Mobilising around maternal mortality in Mexico 53 Box 5.11 Reducing maternal mortality in Mexico 544 List of figures, tables and boxes
  6. 6. ForewordI n September 2010, ten years after signing the aggregate progress if we want the MDGs to be Millennium Declaration and committing to sustainable and address the root causes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), insecurity and instability.world leaders will convene at the United Nations It also demonstrates that social exclusion andGeneral Assembly to take stock of how far they its resulting inequalities are not only rooted inhave come in delivering on their promises to the denial of people’s social and economic rights,eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, and ensure but are also inextricably linked to the lack ofadequate education, health and gender equality voice and participation of marginalisedfor all. The gains that have been made with regard populations, thereby placing civil and politicalto these goals, as well as in reducing child and rights on a par with social and economic rights.maternal mortality and halting the spread of It asserts that fostering the growth of democraticdiseases, are undeniable. Some of the poorest institutions like the media and the rule of law iscountries in the world have shown remarkable instrumental in tackling exclusion and the denialprogress with scarce resources, demonstrating that of rights, while pushing for greater transparencypolitical will is one of the primary factors and accountability on behalf of governmentscontributing to development success. towards their citizens. This report on the MDGs and social justice This report renews the call for social justiceargues that despite these gains, the focus on made by the Millennium Summit in the year 2000.aggregate progress and the use of national It outlines policy recommendations andaverages to measure countries’ performance interventions that can be integrated into 2010–15disguises a picture of uneven achievement that is MDG Action Plans to tackle inequalities so thatcharacterised by deep disparities between social development benefits all groups in society. It callsgroups. In every country in every region, people on governments of rich countries as well as poorare being excluded from the opportunity to play countries, and on citizens and civil societyan active role in social and economic organisations to put the issue of social exclusiondevelopment on the mere basis of their race, and inequality firmly at the centre of the fightethnicity, religion, gender and, often, location. against poverty and all efforts to achieve the With the clock ticking rapidly to 2015, this Millennium Development Goals.report comes at a critical juncture for the MDGs.It aims to put the challenge of social inequality Layla Saadonto the 2010 MDG Review Summit agenda and Advocacy Advisorto demonstrate that equity is just as important as UN MDG Achievement Fund Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 5
  7. 7. Executive summary A t the start of the 21st century, 189 world This report argues that it is the socially excluded leaders signed the Millennium Declaration sections of the poor who are systematically left out and pledged to achieve the Millennium or left behind from their countries’ progress. Their Development Goals (MDGs) – a set of eight excluded status is the product of multiple and benchmarks to eradicate extreme poverty and intersecting inequalities. Along with the economic hunger, achieve universal primary education, deficits generally associated with poverty, excluded promote gender equality and empower women, groups face additional discrimination on the basis of reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, socially marginalised identities such as race, combat major diseases, ensure environmental ethnicity, caste and sometimes religion or language, sustainability and develop a global partnership with gender cutting across these various groups. for development by the year 2015. This Socially excluded groups suffer from spatial commitment provided a ringing call to action to inequalities; they tend to be concentrated in the international community to concentrate disadvantaged locations – remote and challenging efforts on freeing men, women and children from rural terrains or overcrowded slum the abject and dehumanising condition of neighbourhoods. Social, economic and spatial poverty. The Declaration was based on a set of inequalities in turn contribute to political exclusion; fundamental values that included freedom, such groups are generally denied voice and influence equality, tolerance and solidarity, which in collective decisions that affect their lives. together spell out a firm commitment to social It is the intersecting – and mutually justice as the guiding spirit of all efforts. reinforcing – nature of these inequalities that Unfortunately, the social justice agenda was lost makes socially excluded groups harder to reach in the process by which the Declaration was than other sections of the poor. It ensures that translated into an agenda for action centred on the they do not benefit to the same extent, if they eight MDGs and their targets and indicators to benefit at all, from national progress on the monitor progress. While the MDGs acknowledge MDGs. It gives their poverty an enduring quality, the multiple dimensions of poverty, they pay very lasting over a lifetime and often over generations. little attention to inequality or social injustice. They This report brings together evidence from are largely formulated in terms which measure Latin America, South/Southeast Asia and sub- ‘average’ progress in relation to the goals. While Saharan Africa to demonstrate the relationship these measures capture overall progress at global or between social exclusion and the MDGs and to national level, they do not indicate whether such deepen understanding of its underlying progress has been broad-based or equitable. dynamics. It focuses particularly on those countries for which data are available on howThe persistence of intersecting inequalities socially excluded groups are faring in relation toundermines progress on the MDGs and betrays the MDG-related objectives concerned with extremepromise of social justice contained in the Millennium poverty, children’s education and maternal andDeclaration child health. These data support the main contention of this report: the persistence of The starting point for this report is that intersecting inequalities undermines progress on inequalities matter for the achievement of the the MDGs and betrays the promise of social MDGs. Inequalities matter at the macroeconomic justice contained in the Millennium Declaration. level because they slow down the pace at which a Latin America continues to be among the given rate of growth translates into poverty most unequal regions in the world. These reduction. They also matter for society at large inequalities have strong ethnic, racial and spatial because they generate high levels of social dimensions. Extreme poverty is much higher tensions, crime and conflict, with adverse effects among indigenous and Afro-descendant for human wellbeing and progress. In addition, populations compared with the white/Latino inequalities ensure that the poorer sections of the population in most countries. world’s population are generally bypassed by Asia, as a region, is on track to meet the target ‘average’ rates of progress on the MDGs. on reducing extreme poverty, primarily due to6 Executive summary
  8. 8. the extraordinary performance of China in recentyears. However, this has been accompanied byincreasing income inequalities in many of theregion’s countries, including China. It is alsoevident from the data that the decline in povertyhas been uneven across different social groups:ethnic minorities remain over-represented in thepoorest strata. Caste and religious differences arealso reflected in unequal health, education andpoverty outcomes. Sub-Saharan Africa, as a region, is most offtrack in relation to the MDGs, but some countriesin this region are among the most successful in thedeveloping context when progress is measured inabsolute terms. However, data on how sociallyexcluded groups are faring in relation to theMDGs are, with the exception of South Africa, not Vietnam: minority hill-tribe woman with corn from her field,readily available. Data for the countries covered in pauses on the road to Dien Bien Phu, near the Laos border.the report point to spatial, religious and ethnic Tanks and other ordnance from the famous 1954 battle still littervariations in terms of progress on MDGs. the landscape. Photographer: Chris Stowers/Panos Pictures The evidence on the relationship betweensocial exclusion and the MDGs reviewed for the explicit norms such as legal restrictions on landreport allows for two broad generalisations. The ownership for specific social groups, and theirfirst is that the intersecting and mutually confinement to predetermined, and generallyreinforcing nature of the inequalities which give stigmatised, occupations. Or they can operaterise to social exclusion helps to explain its through the discriminatory behaviour of others,persistence over time and its apparent resistance to making it harder for excluded groups to translatethe forces of change. The second is that these the assets at their disposal into sustainedinequalities are not immutable; while progress on pathways out of poverty.the MDGs in relation to excluded groups has been The policy dynamics of social exclusion reflectextremely slow and uneven, there is, nevertheless, the availability, affordability and terms ofevidence that it has occurred. provision of the basic services essential to the There are policy lessons to be learned from achievement of the social MDGs. There is a veryboth these generalisations. Understanding the clear spatial dimension to this dynamic: areas inintersecting dynamics that reproduce social which marginalised groups are located tend to beexclusion over time points to the domains in which the most underserved by essential services.policy must operate and the underlying causalities Financial constraints also constrain access. Thisthat it must address if progress on the MDGs is to was dramatically illustrated by the fall inbe accelerated. Understanding the dynamics of utilisation of health and educational serviceschange, and the role of policy in making change when user fees were imposed as part of structuralhappen, provides lessons on what has worked in adjustment programmes.different contexts and how this can be adapted to There are also problems of quality andaddress similar problems in other contexts. relevance of services. The failure to reflect the The cultural dynamics of social exclusion – the needs, priorities and constraints of marginalisedsystems of norms and beliefs that define some groups in the provision of health and education,groups as inferior to others – do not merely the language used to communicate, the behaviourpromote discriminatory behaviour towards displayed towards members of these groups – allsubordinated groups. Persistent reminders of their of these shortfalls in the quality of service help toinferiority erode the self-confidence and sense of explain the poor pace of progress on the healthself-worth of members of these groups and their and education objectives of the MDG agenda.belief in the possibility of escaping poverty. High The political dynamics of social exclusionlevels of substance abuse, criminality and conflict operate through the denial of the opportunity toare often consequences of such frustration. socially excluded groups to participate in the The economic dynamics of social exclusion collective decision-making processes of theiroperate through inequalities in the distribution community and society. Formal democraticof productive assets and livelihood opportunities. processes are unlikely to be sufficient to overcomeThese economic dynamics can operate through historically entrenched exclusions, particularly Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 7
  9. 9. committees, user groups of various kinds and consultative exercises. Or they may be built from below through the self-organisation of excluded groups or through the support of civil society intermediaries. A comprehensive policy on information is necessary if social exclusion is to be tackled through the MDGs. States need to collect appropriately disaggregated data on all their citizens in order to track their progress – or failure to progress – as a result of development efforts. Such data need to be made widely available, to be subject to critical analysis and used to inform future policy directions as well as civil society advocacy efforts. Information policies should also produce information for excluded groups so that they are more knowledgeable about their entitlements andColombian boy from the mountainous indigenous region of rights, and more confident about claiming them.Paletará peers through the window. The community has long Different channels of information should alsobeen fighting for their rights to land and livelihood. be used to address discriminatory attitudes andPhotographer: Luis Alfonso Ortega Fernandez behaviour among the general public and to promote the values of tolerance, respect and since these groups are often minorities in their solidarity. The media can be a powerful ally in society. The denial of political voice and influence the fight against discrimination and should be to socially excluded groups in a society has often mobilised to educate, inform and entertain in been a major driver of violent conflict, as these ways that help to break down the barriers groups have no other forum to express their voice. between excluded groups and the rest of society. The intersecting dynamics of social exclusion, It is evident that recent patterns of economic and their resilience over time, suggest that growth have not always reduced, and have, in fact, piecemeal policy efforts in relation to the MDGs exacerbated economic inequality and social are unlikely to have a discernible impact. The exclusion. Macroeconomic frameworks which report makes a number of general policy promote broad-based growth and a general recommendations for tackling inequality and expansion of opportunities are much more likely to social exclusion and then considers examples of reach marginalised sections of society. At the same more MDG-specific interventions which have time, growth on its own is unlikely to overcome worked in different contexts. the barriers that have held them back in the past. At the most general level, the construction of Inclusive patterns of growth will need to be a more inclusive social contract between supplemented by redistributive policies that can responsive states and active citizens offers the serve to directly address the intersecting dynamics most enabling governance framework for the of social exclusion. Fiscal policies are an important holistic approaches needed to tackle social instrument for redistribution. In terms of exclusion. Such a contract would incorporate domestic revenue mobilisation, the redistributive commitment to transparency, accountability, potential of fiscal policies will depend on which democratic participation and civic values as the sectors, groups and activities are taxed and basic foundation of the relationship between a whether taxes are direct or indirect, progressive or state and all its citizens. These commitments regressive. Taxation policies are likely to have would be given operational form in different greatest relevance to economic MDG objectives, as policy interventions to address social exclusion. they have a direct bearing on livelihood activities. Given their isolation from the mainstream of On the expenditure side, the allocation of budgets their society, the organisation of socially excluded to different sectors and services and the groups and their mobilisation around self- distribution of social transfers and subsidies will identified needs, interests and priorities is a have a direct bearing on the financing of social critical precondition for their participation in the services and social protection measures of greatest construction of a new social contract. Such relevance to poor and excluded groups. organisations can be built as a deliberate aspect Legislation against discrimination is an of policy through the setting up of citizens’ important signal of state commitment to social8 Executive summary
  10. 10. justice and it can provide advocate groups with thesupport they need to take action. However, wheresocial inequalities are deeply entrenched, morepositive action may also be necessary. Manycountries have sought to take affirmative actionon behalf of excluded groups in order to breakwith past patterns and to set new precedents forthe future. Affirmative action may take the formof reserved places for members of excludedgroups in economic, political and educationalsystems or they may operate through recognitionof the explicit rights of minority groups. Economic exclusion has been addressedthrough a variety of means intended to strengthenthe resource base of excluded groups. Landreform and land titling programmes areimportant routes for transferring assets toexcluded groups. Labour regulations provideformal protection against the exploitation of Niger: The Fulani are nomadic people who have travelled andvulnerable workers, but they are most likely to be settled across the African continent. Many Fulani in Niger live asenforced when workers are sufficiently organised their forefathers did, maintaining their traditional culture.to exert the necessary pressure. Microfinance has Photographer: Giacomo Pirozzi/Panos Pictureshelped to overcome some of the limits of formalfinancial services, but has not proved effective in hence improving the resilience of poor people inreaching the most marginalised or promoting the face of crisis. Those found to be mostgraduation out of poverty. Microfinance service beneficial to excluded groups include conditionalprovision needs to be supplemented with other and unconditional transfers, often targeted tosupportive services as well as pathways into the children, the elderly or the poorest sections ofmainstream financial sector. society. The conditionality associated with The spatial concentration of many socially transfers may relate to work obligations, toexcluded groups lends itself to area-based encouraging women to make use of maternitydevelopment. Economies of scale may allow services or to ensuring children go to school andvarious aspects of spatial disadvantage to be for health checkups. Social transfers clearly have aaddressed simultaneously and cost-effectively. redistributive effect, but where they are providedThese include transport and communication, on a transparent, regular and predictable basis,water and sanitation, social service infrastructure they have also been found to have importantand the provision of services. developmental impacts. These include the Improving the outreach, quality and relevance of increased capacity to participate in local labourbasic social services is a critical precondition for markets, to upgrade skills and knowledge, toachieving the social MDGs. The abolition of user invest in productive assets, to access credit, alongfees, and social transfers to offset costs or provide with multiplier effects in the local economy.incentives to take up services (children’s education, There is sufficient evidence from across thematernal healthcare), are powerful mechanisms to world that addressing social exclusion through theaddress this. The report points to various MDGs can be achieved, but not through aexamples of how services can be made more ‘business-as-usual’ approach. The experiences ofrelevant and user-friendly to men, women and progress reported by different countries andchildren from excluded groups, including analysis of the policies that have worked suggest arecruiting and training staff from excluded number of key principles that can serve as thecommunities, relying on female staff in gender- basis for broader strategies to address exclusion.segregated societies, ensuring services are providedin languages understood by those who need them, The importance of a rights-based frameworkthe use of mobile schools and clinics. What these Social exclusion entails the denial of fullvarious policy options share in common is that personhood and full citizenship to certain groupsthey seek to address some aspect of the underlying on the basis of who they are, where they live ordynamics of social exclusion. what they believe. Efforts to overcome exclusion Social protection measures have assumed should be located within the broad structure ofincreasing importance in promoting livelihoods and rights, including the Universal Declaration of Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 9
  11. 11. Human Rights and the international conventions marginalised groups more isolated and on civil and political rights and on social, impoverished than before. The need for more economic and cultural rights. These provide an collective approaches introduces another route internationally agreed basis on which to tackle through which ‘difference’ may have to be built the violation of the basic rights of such groups. into the design of policies. Building tolerance and solidarity among A new social contract for an interconnected citizens world: states, citizens and MDG 8 While responsive states and actively engaged The problems of poverty and social exclusion are citizens are essential to building a more not purely national in their causes or democratic society, relations between citizens are consequences. They are the product of structural as important as the relationship between states inequalities at the global level. This is not and citizens. Social exclusion is partly adequately acknowledged in the MDGs. While perpetuated by the discrimination that citizens MDGs 1 to 7 concern objectives to be achieved practise against each other. Legislating against the by developing countries, MDG 8 encompasses practice of discrimination, along with educating, the relationships between developed and informing and challenging long-held prejudices, developing countries. Not only does it fail to is an essential aspect of building democracy. address the unequal nature of these relationships – as manifested in aid, trade and debt – but it is Getting the right balance between equality also the only MDG with no targets or indicators and difference to monitor any form of progress. Broad-based or universal policies to promote It is extremely unlikely that developing equality of opportunity, and special provision for countries will be able to achieve growth, those who have been systematically excluded in prosperity and social justice without greater the past, can work successfully in tandem. attention to building greater solidarity, a genuine Universalist approaches are essential to building a partnership of equals, at the global level. This sense of social solidarity and citizenship, should constitute the central platform for the particularly critical for excluded groups. At the post-2015 successor to the MDGs. However, in same time, the fact that it is their ‘difference’ the run-up to 2015, rich countries should from the rest of the poor that has led socially prioritise a number of actions to accelerate the excluded groups to be left behind or locked out pace of progress: of processes of growth and development suggests strong grounds for plurality and diversity within Honour the commitment to increase Official universal frameworks of provision. Development Assistance (ODA) to 0.7 per cent of gross national product (GNP). Beyond amelioration to transformation Recognise and support the role of civil society It is quite possible to meet the basic needs of organisations in mobilising excluded groups, poor and marginalised groups without holding governments to account, and strengthening their capacity to do so themselves, transforming power relationships. thereby leaving their longer-term vulnerability Provide support for a universal social intact. Addressing the root causes of social protection floor that allows marginalised exclusion and adopting integrated and groups to cope with risk, invest in their future transformative approaches are necessary in order and lobby on their own behalf. to shatter the resilience of social exclusion. Promote fairer trade relations, with special attention to the needs of the working poor in Group-based exclusion requires group-based the informal economy. solutions Hold corporations and the private sector to Related to this is the inadequacy of policies that account for socially responsible investments. target individuals or households in tackling Strengthen government capacity and problems that are essentially collective and commitment to the international human group-based. Individual solutions may leave rights framework.10 Executive summary
  12. 12. Introduction: the fundamental values of the Millennium Declaration 1 T he Millennium Declaration was signed in 2000 ‘averages’ and ‘proportions’. For example, two of by 189 of the world’s leaders on behalf of the the indicators for measuring progress on the key international community. It represents a goal of eradicating extreme poverty (MDG 1) are promise to coordinate and accelerate efforts to ‘free halving, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion our fellow men, women and children from the abject of people who live on less than $1 a day and and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty’ by those who suffer from hunger. Such indicators 2015.1 It is based on a set of fundamental values that capture overall progress at global, regional and include freedom, equality, tolerance and solidarity. national levels, but they do not show whether this Together, these spell out a firm commitment to social progress has been equitable. Only one indicator justice as the guiding spirit of the Declaration. under MDG 1 touches on inequality: the share of the national income that goes to the poorestSocial justice and the Millennium Declaration income quintile. But this is also the measure that features least frequently in MDG reports.3‘Men and women have the right to live their lives and MDG 3 deals explicitly with gender equality (inraise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from education, paid work and political participation)the fear of violence, oppression or injustice… The equalrights and opportunities of women and men must be but does not address how the most deprivedassured… Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve women might fare within overall progress onhelp from those who benefit most… Human beings must these indicators.respect one another, in all their diversity of belief, culture This report takes, as its starting point, theand language. Differences within and between societies growing body of evidence that inequality imposesshould be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as costs on society. It imposes costs at thea precious asset of humanity.’ macroeconomic level, because it slows down the(Millennium Declaration 2000, para. 6) pace at which a given rate of economic growth translates into poverty reduction.4 And it imposes costs at the societal level, because of its impacts in Unfortunately, this commitment to social justice terms of social tensions, crime, violence and was not carried over into the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which sought to give ‘Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their actionable content to the Declaration through a children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, number of objectives, targets and indicators. The oppression or injustice...’ (Millennium Declaration 2000, para. 6). MDG agenda has been welcomed for its integrated Photographer: Barbara Cheney and multi-dimensional approach to the challenge of poverty reduction – one that addresses income deprivation, deficits in human capabilities, and lack of access to basic services such as health and education. Its major limitation is the failure to incorporate concrete measures on equality and social justice. ‘The integrated treatment of multiple disadvantages – the “more than poverty” element of social exclusion – is already a major element of the development agenda. The Millennium Development Goals demonstrate a recognition that a whole package of areas of progress is required, and that poverty, although of crucial importance, cannot be tackled in isolation…’2 The measures used to monitor progress on the MDGs are couched in terms of national Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 11
  13. 13. draw out lessons for promoting the MDGs as a pathway to social justice.7 Unfortunately, the problems of social exclusion in relation to certain groups manifest themselves in a dearth of data about their situation. There are very few references to the effects of intersecting inequalities in most of the MDG reports. A great deal of the discussion in this report is, therefore, necessarily dictated by the availability of data. We focus, first, on countries that show marked evidence of the category of inequalities that we are interested in. Second, we focus on those countries for which we have disaggregated data that reveal the extent of these inequalities. These are not necessarily the countries with the most marked forms of inequality. Indeed, some of the most unequal countries have very little data because they areTwo Mauritanian girls look shyly at the camera in their home affected by conflict (or have been until recently).village in the sparsely populated desert area between Senegal Third, even where countries have disaggregatedand Mauritania. data, they may not give uniform coverage to all thePhotographer: Layla Saad, MDG Achievement Fund MDGs. As a result, we will be focusing primarily conflict, and their knock-on effects on investments on the MDGs dealing with income poverty, health in both human and economic capital.5 and education, the most consistently addressed in The costs of inequality mean that the poorest the disaggregated data. Despite these limitations, sections of the world’s population are generally the countries selected are sufficiently diverse and bypassed by ‘average’ rates of progress on the offer sufficiently robust evidence on patterns of MDGs. This report contends that deprivation is exclusion to support the key contention of this not randomly distributed. Rather, it report: the persistence of intersecting inequalities disproportionately affects certain groups that face undermines progress on the MDGs and betrays the discrimination on the basis of their social promise of social justice contained in the identities. These groups are harder to reach than Millennium Declaration. the rest of the poor population, giving their poverty an enduring quality and undermining ‘Data from wealthy OECD countries show the pace of progress on the MDGs. that regardless of levels of per capita GNP (gross national product), higher levels of ‘Sometimes poverty arises when people have inequality within a society are associated with no access to existing resources because of who higher levels of crime, violence, obesity, they are, what they believe or where they live. mental illness, prison populations, teenage Discrimination may cause poverty, just as pregnancies and anxiety. Equality, in other poverty may cause discrimination…’6 words, is better for everyone.’8 This report aims to bring together evidence in The report is structured as follows. Section 2 support of this argument and to deepen our discusses the phenomenon of intersecting understanding of the processes that perpetuate inequalities, the exclusions they give rise to, and the systematic exclusion of certain social groups. their relevance to the MDGs. Section 3 tracks While it recognises that social exclusion is evident patterns of equality in the Latin America, sub- in wealthy OECD (Organisation for Economic Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia regions Co-operation and Development) countries as well in relation to selected MDGs. Section 4 examines as in the transitional economies, our focus is on some of the factors which explain the persistence developing regions, specifically Latin America, of these inequalities, while Section 5 focuses on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South/Southeast the policies and interventions that hold out the Asia. Progress on the MDGs within these regions promise of transformative change. Finally, and countries has been far from uniform. There Section 6 draws out some broad principles for has been more progress in some countries than the promotion of equality, including the values of others, and on some goals than others. We will tolerance and solidarity spelt out in the analyse examples of such progress in order to Millennium Declaration.12 Introduction: the fundamental values of the Millennium Declaration
  14. 14. Intersecting inequalitiesand social exclusion 22.1 Relevance to the MDG agenda economic and other disadvantages that explains ‘Human diversity is no secondary the intensified nature of the disadvantages faced complication (to be ignored or introduced by poorer women and girls. ‘later on’): it is a fundamental aspect of our Identity-based inequality intersects with other interest in inequality.’9 forms of inequality to define social exclusion. Its intersection with economic inequalities – the factAs the key indicators to measure progress for that socially excluded groups face particularMDG 1 suggest, poverty has been largely barriers in gaining access to resources andunderstood in terms of individual deprivation. The opportunities – means that those most likely toconventional approach to the measurement of be left behind in national progress on the MDGspoverty is based on the economic characteristics of are disproportionately drawn from ethnic andindividuals or individual households – primarily religious minorities, from racially disadvantagedtheir income or wealth. The subsequent ranking of groups and from the lowest castes. Women andhouseholds by these characteristics gives rise to girls from these groups are frequently at a greaterwhat has been described as a ‘vertical’ model of disadvantage.inequality.10 The focus on the national income Social exclusion also frequently entails spatialshare of the poorest 20 per cent (the poorest inequalities, consigning culturally devalued andquintile) of the income distribution that features economically impoverished groups to inhabitin MDG 1 is derived from such a model. physically deprived spaces. Spatial disadvantage The literature on social exclusion, on the in rural areas tends to be associated withother hand, takes group-based disadvantages (or remoteness, ecological vulnerability, low levels of‘horizontal’ inequalities11) as its entry point into agricultural productivity, a meagre resource basethe discussion of inequality. These disadvantagesare products of social hierarchies which define A child being weighed by the village health volunteer while thecertain groups as inferior to others on the basis district nurse supervises in the Tigray region of Ethiopia.of their identity. Such hierarchies are created Photographer: Sophie de Caen, MDG Achievement Fundthrough cultural norms and practices which serveto disparage, stereotype, exclude, ridicule anddemean certain social groups, denying them fullpersonhood and equal rights to participate in theeconomic, social and political life of their society. ‘[Social exclusion is] the process through which individuals or groups are wholly or partially excluded from full participation in the society in which they live.’12 The identities in question may take differentforms in different societies, but the moreenduring forms of poverty in most contexts areassociated with identities that are ascribed frombirth, such as race, caste, ethnicity – as well asreligious beliefs when they are in a minority.Gender cuts across these inherited identities, sothat within most groups, women are subordinateto men. However, unlike most sociallysubordinate groups, women are distributed fairlyevenly across different economic classes, so thatgender on its own does not constitute a markerof poverty. It is the intersection of gender with Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 13
  15. 15. Yunnan Province, China: members of the Bai ethnic minority, who traditionally wear blue clothing. Photographer: Jeremy Horner/Panos Pictures and weak integration into the national economy. ethnicity, involving categories of white, In urban contexts, it is associated with poor- indigenous, black and mixed race, are the key quality housing and sanitation, inadequate markers of social exclusion. There are more than services and infrastructure and, very frequently, 50 million indigenous peoples and more than with subcultures of criminality, violence, drug 120 million individuals of African descent (Afro- dependence and squalor.13 descendants) in Latin America and the Caribbean Finally, there is an inter-temporal dimension to (LAC), comprising around 33 per cent of the social exclusion. The intersecting inequalities that population.14 These groups are not uniformly constitute social exclusion, and the cumulative distributed across the region. For instance, more disadvantage they entail, explain why it persists than 25 per cent of the population of Bolivia, over time (see Box 2.1). Social exclusion denies Guatemala, Peru and Ecuador are indigenous, the groups who experience it the ‘normal’ escape while more than 25 per cent of the population in routes out of poverty, reinforcing inequalities over Panama, Brazil, Nicaragua and almost all the people’s lifetimes, and often over generations. Caribbean countries are Afro-descendants. They make up just 6 per cent in Uruguay and have a 2.2 The regional history and geography of negligible presence in Argentina. social exclusion There is a spatial dimension to social exclusion The exclusion of certain groups on the basis of within countries as well.15 In each country except socially ascribed identity generally has deep roots Brazil, over 45 per cent of the indigenous or Afro- in a country’s history. In some countries, it is tied descendant population live in rural areas.16 up with experiences of colonisation – frequently Indigenous groups tend to live in the more remote accompanied by the genocide of indigenous and hard-to-reach parts of their countries, often populations – and with slavery, war and conflict, pushed out of more productive areas by non- as well as the continued practice of indigenous groups.17 Afro-descendants live mainly discrimination into the present day. In others, it along coastal areas of the Pacific and Atlantic is linked to concepts of superiority-inferiority Oceans and the Caribbean Sea, and in urban areas. drawn from religious or cultural beliefs. Across the Asia region, social exclusion reflects In the Latin American context, race and ethnic, tribal and indigenous identities, but religion14 Introduction: the fundamental values of the Millennium Declaration
  16. 16. and language also feature in some countries. As in Latin America, indigenous ethnic minorities in Asia are often located in remote geographical areas. And as in Latin America, this location has not always been a matter of choice. The mountain ranges that stretch from Afghanistan to the Gulf of Tonkin have long been a refuge for indigenous communities who have, for various reasons, occupied a marginal position in relation to the dominant majorities in the valleys and plains. Ethnic and indigenous groups make up around 8 per cent of the population in China, 10 per cent in Vietnam, 8 per cent in India and 37 per cent in Nepal. They are to be found in the poorest areas: rural areas of China’s western region; the remote, usually upland, mountainous areas of northern and central Vietnam; the hilly and forested regions of India, Bangladesh and Nepal. In India, spatial concentration means that indigenous minorities or Adivasis comprise a Women selling clothes in Soweto on the outskirts much higher proportion of the population in of Johannesburg. Photographer: Barbara Cheney some states than others. More than 80 per cent of indigenous minorities are found in nine states in suffer from the carving up of the continent by central-western India: Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, colonial powers in 1884 with scant regard for Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Gujarat, existing social, political, ethnic and linguistic Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. Most contours. As a result, the political geography of the of the rest are in the north east of the country. region, which has more countries than any other region of the world, has long been characterised by regional and civil armed conflicts. Added toSocial exclusion also frequently entails spatial these deep historic divisions is a physicalinequalities, consigning culturally devalued and environment that is characterised by longeconomically impoverished groups to inhabit distances and low population density.physically deprived spaces In countries like South Africa and Zimbabwe, where colonial powers had a strong presence, In addition, India and Nepal, with intersecting inequalities have a strong racial predominantly Hindu populations, are dimension. More pervasive across the sub- characterised by a caste hierarchy that goes back continent are social cleavages associated with many centuries. Caste is closely intertwined with ethnicity, frequently reinforced by geographical an occupational hierarchy that assigns menial location and distance from main urban centres. and ritually polluting occupations to the lowest Religion itself may not necessarily be a driver of ‘untouchable’ castes or Dalits. Dalit groups exclusion unless it intersects with ethnic or comprise 17 per cent of the population in India. regional disparities. They tend to be more geographically dispersed than indigenous groups, but around 80 per cent Box 2.1 Intersecting inequalities and the persistence of live in rural areas.18 Nepal’s population is divided social exclusion between a Hindu majority (58 per cent as of 2001), Janajatis (indigenous minorities) (37 per Social exclusion is the product of intersecting inequalities: cent), and religious minorities, mainly Muslims The cultural devaluation of certain groups, deeming them (around 4 per cent).19 Around 12 per cent of the inferior to others in ways which undermine their sense of population is made up of Dalits. self-worth and agency Sub-Saharan Africa is home to more than Their disadvantaged position in the distribution of valued 2,000 distinct ethnic groups characterised by resources, services and opportunities within their society different language, culture and traditions, and, Their location in places where their efforts yield poorer returns sometimes, religious beliefs. Ethnic groups in The denial of voice and influence in the decisions that affect Africa vary in size from millions of people to a few their lives and their communities hundred thousand, and are often associated with a The mutual interaction between these inequalities, which leads to their persistence over time. specific territory. Much of the region continues to Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 15
  17. 17. 3 Intersecting inequalities and the MDGs: the regional picture A global overview of progress on the MDGs It is also important to note that even though shows that the world is closer to meeting countries may be off track in terms of progress some goals and targets than others (see relative to global MDG targets, they have Figure 3.1). It is on track in relation to extreme nonetheless made considerable progress in poverty, gender parity in primary and secondary absolute terms, measured as overall progress. education enrolment and access to safe drinking This is particularly the case for sub-Saharan water. But there is still some way to go to achieve Africa, where a recurring theme in policy goals and targets relating to universal primary discussions is that it will be ‘off target’ for every education completion rates, access to sanitation, one of the MDGs by 2015.21 Comparing overall and the proportion of people living in hunger. It absolute progress on the MDG goals with relative is most seriously off track for meeting the progress in relation to MDG targets puts this objectives relating to under-five child mortality ‘Afro-pessimism’ in perspective.22 It reveals that: and maternal mortality.20 The MDGs discussed in this report thus include one on which there has 11 African countries featured among the 20 been considerable progress (MDG 1: eradicating top countries in terms of absolute overall extreme poverty and hunger), one where there is progress on the MDGs but only 3 countries some way to go (MDG 2: achieving universal featured in terms of relative progress primary education) and two that remain a major 6 Asian countries featured among the 20 top challenge (MDG 4: reducing child mortality, and performers in terms of absolute progress and MDG 5: improving maternal health). 4 featured in terms of relative progress The global picture is useful in drawing 3 Latin American countries featured among attention to some of the more intractable the top 20 performers in terms of absolute dimensions of poverty facing the world progress and 9 featured in terms of relative community. A more disaggregated picture is progress. necessary to establish how different countries, and socially excluded groups within them, are Table 3.1 Absolute and relative overall progress on faring. As we have noted, measuring ‘average’ the MDGs: top 20 achievers progress at the national level tends to conceal major inequalities at the sub-national level. Top 20 Top 20 Absolute progress Progress relative to MDG targets Figure 3.1 Global progress on achieving the Benin Ecuador Mali China MDGs Ethiopia Thailand 100 Gambia Brazil ◆ distance to goal achieved ◆ distance to goal to be on track to achieve the target by 2015 Malawi Egypt 80 Vietnam Vietnam Uganda Honduras Nepal Belize 60 India Nicaragua Cambodia Armenia Bangladesh Kazakhstan 40 Honduras Sri Lanka Mauritania Cuba 20 Ghana Mexico China El Salvador Burkina Faso Benin 0 Rwanda Chile MDG 2 primary completion rate MDG 3 gender parity (primary) MDG 3 gender parity (secondary) MDG 5 maternal mortality MDG 7.c access to safe water MDG 1.a extreme poverty MDG 1.c hunger MDG 7.c access to sanitation MDG 4 child mortality under five Nicaragua Malawi Guatemala Gambia Togo Guatemala Source World Bank (2010) Global Monitoring Report: The MDGs After the Crisis Source ODI (2010)2216 Intersecting inequalities and the MDGs: the regional picture
  18. 18. 3.1 Progress on the MDGs in Latin America Box 3.1 Institutional coverage of deliveries inLatin America, as a region, falls into the middle- Boliviaincome category. Historically, it has been one of In Bolivia, estimated to have one of the highestthe most unequal regions in the world, with the maternal mortality ratios in Latin America, a highpoorest income quintile earning around 3 per proportion of deliveries do not take place withincent of the total regional income.23 But progress is institutions. Table 3.2 shows that less than half ofevident. Poverty declined from around 44 per deliveries happen in healthcare facilities in 52.5cent in 2002 to 33 per cent in 2008, while per cent of municipalities classified as ‘majority indigenous’.extreme poverty declined from 19 to 13 percent.24 Most countries in the region are on track Table 3.2 Institutional coverage in municipalities whereto meet the goal of halving extreme poverty by indigenous people are a majority, minority or moderate2015, but a few of the least developed countries proportion of the population, Bolivia, 2006lag behind: Bolivia, Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras,Nicaragua and Paraguay. Percentage Minority Moderately Majority There are grounds for cautious optimism with of deliveries indigenous indigenous indigenous that occurred (under 33%) (33–66%) (over 66%)regard to equity of progress on the MDGs, as in a healththere is evidence of a marked decline in income facilityinequality between 2000 and 2007 in 12 out of 17countries for which data are available.25 These No % No % No %include many of the countries with a highpercentage of socially excluded groups, such as <50% 22 44.9 14 26.4 116 52.5Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia and Mexico. ≥50% <70% 11 22.4 19 35.8 58 26.2 >70% 16 32.7 20 37.7 47 21.33.2 Social exclusion and the MDGs in Latin Source Adapted from UDAPE/CIMDM (2006) Progreso de losAmerica Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, Cuarto Informe asociados alHistorically, Latin America has been one of the most Desarrollo humano, La Paz, Programa de las Naciones Unidas paraunequal regions of the world... but there are el Desarrollo (PNUD)grounds for cautious optimism with regard toequity of progress on the MDGs. broad-based expansion of basic education is ‘The concepts of social exclusion and inclusion one of the key factors behind the decline in emphasize how the benefits of development, income inequality in the region.27 In some social interaction networks, and political countries, though, group-based inequalities participation are distributed inequitably… Social remain high (between indigenous and non- exclusion manifests itself in Latin America most indigenous groups in Bolivia, for example, see clearly in persistent unequal income distribution, Table 3.5 on page 19). which gives rise to poverty that is worse than the Children from indigenous groups are more region’s level of development would suggest.’26 likely to die than those from non-indigenous groups (see Figure 3.2 on page 18). AccordingLatin America is one of the few developing to the most recent Demographic and Healthregions that has systematically collected and Survey (DHS) data from Bolivia, Ecuador,synthesised data disaggregated by ethnicity in Guatemala, Peru and Brazil, children ofrelation to the MDGs. These allow some degree indigenous origin were also between 1.6 andof comparison across the region, from which 2.5 times more likely to be undernourishedsome general patterns can be discerned: than children of non-indigenous origin. Gender and ethnic inequalities intersect with While moderate and extreme poverty have economic status to keep indigenous women from decreased, extreme poverty remains higher low-income households at the bottom of the among indigenous people and Afro-descendants hierarchy in education (see Figure 3.3 on page than among the white population in many 18) and health. Maternal mortality is generally countries (see Table 3.3 on page 18 and much higher among indigenous communities, Figure 3.4 on page 19). particularly those in remote areas, where it can Ethnic identity remains associated with be two or three times the national average. For inequalities in enrolment rates at all levels of instance, in Ecuador in 2003, the national education, although there is some narrowing of maternal mortality rate was 74.3 per 100,000 ethnic disparities in many countries for primary live births, whereas it was 250 per 100,000 education (see Table 3.4 on page 19). The among remote indigenous communities.28 Can the MDGs provide a pathway to social justice? 17
  19. 19. Spatial inequalities intersect with ethnicity. Table 3.6 national average.29 In Guerrero, for example, the rate (page 19) demonstrates the intersection between was 128.2 deaths per 100,000 live births – nearly five spatial inequality, ethnicity and education in Mexico. times the rate in the more developed northern state The poorest southern states (for example, Chiapas, of Nuevo León (26.9 per 100,000).30 There has, Oaxaca and Guerrero), home to around 75 per cent however, been an overall decline in maternal of the country’s indigenous peoples, report far lower mortality rates which these states, with the exception levels of education. These states also reported of Guerrero, participated in, which is discussed maternal mortality ratios that were higher than the further below.Table 3.3 Poverty incidence (MDG 1) by household per capita income in selected Latin American countriesCountry Year 1 USD per day Official extreme poverty line White Non-white Total White Non-white TotalBolivia 1997 14.8 45.3 28.7 27.8 57.5 41.3 2002 16.6 37.1 27.7 25.5 45.8 36.6Brazil 1995 4.7 12.7 8.3 17.7 40.9 28.2 2002 5.1 10.6 7.6 17.7 38.0 27.0Chile 2000 3.4 9.4 3.5 4.5 3.1 4.5Colombia 1999 15.2 24.1 16.2 20.5 31.0 21.7Ecuador 1998 29.0 61.0 30.3 16.0 38.9 16.9Guatemala 2002 11.4 31.5 20.0 14.3 39.1 24.9Mexico 1992 10.7 53.3 12.8 No figures available 2002 12.3 40.9 13.9 14.5 47.9 16.4Nicaragua 1998 24.5 46.0 24.9 17.0 37.7 17.5 2001 15.0 35.0 15.8 14.5 33.9 15.2Panama 2002 9.3 54.7 12.4 19.2 74.4 23.0Paraguay 1995 2.7 24.3 11.8 4.8 24.5 13.1 2001 2.2 17.3 9.9 5.0 24.9 15.2Peru 2001 14.6 26.9 19.5 18.7 33.5 24.6Source Busso et al. (2005)14Figure 3.2 Ratio of indigenous to non-indigenous infantmortality rate, 2000–02, selected Latin American countries 4.0 3.5 54.1* 3.0 2.5 Figure 3.3 Average number of years of education for 59.3*Ratio 2.0 82.2* indigenous people aged 17–22, selected countries 29* 10 1.5 54.6* Country average 75.9* 37.1* 50.3* 36.9* Indigenous 1.0 22.6* 8 Indigenous female Average years of education 0.5 6 Poor, indigenous female 0 Ecuador (2001) Bolivia (2001) Brazil (2000) Paraguay (2002) Panama (2000) Chile (2002) Guatemala (2002) Mexico (2000) Costa Rica (2000) Honduras (2001) 4*Indigenous infant mortality rate 2Source Del Popolo, F. and Oyarce, A. (2005) ‘América Latina,Población Indigena: Perfil Sociodemigráfico en el Marco de laConferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarollo y de 0las Metas del Milenio’, Notas de Población no. 79, Santiago de Bolivia Peru Colombia GuatemalaChile: CELADE Source UNESCO (2010)10718 Intersecting inequalities and the MDGs: the regional picture

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