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Media Industries and Production


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Media Life is a course intended for undergraduate students across campus. Its goal is to make people aware of the role that media play in their everyday life. The key to understanding a "media life" …

Media Life is a course intended for undergraduate students across campus. Its goal is to make people aware of the role that media play in their everyday life. The key to understanding a "media life" is to see our lives not as lived WITH media (which would lead to a focus on media effects and media-centric theories of society), but rather IN media (where the distinction between what we do with and without media dissolves).

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  • Interinstitutional news coherence Inhabited Institutions & Organized Networks (photo: the Time Warner building in New York; photo Rik Hamelink, 21 October 2004, URL: We need to look at LARGE or SMALL companies differently they are all interconnected HUGE communicative complexity High labor mobility and contingency Opportunities for CONTROL as well as creative FREEDOM
  • Media deconcentration: US Film & Video
  • So how is work organized? Key structure of the global media industries: HOURGLASS. Here an example of the computer & video game industry MAP courtesy of Chase Martin, IU graduate student
  • So how is work organized? Key structure of the global media industries: HOURGLASS. Here an example of the music industry MAP courtesy of Chase Martin, IU graduate student
  • So how is work organized? Key structure of the global media industries: HOURGLASS. Here an example of the advertising industry PUBLICIS: LA HOLISTIC DIFFERENCE
  • Why worry about media industries? Berlusconi & Baywatch Effects; Outsourcing
  • Why worry about media industries? Berlusconi & Baywatch Effects; Outsourcing BERLUSCONI: Media Ownership = Political Power BAYWATCH: Media Commercialization = Displacement of Public Discourse by Distribution of Commodifiable Entertainment Products He is the third longest serving Prime Minister of the Italian Republic (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held at three different times; 1994–1995, 2001–2006 and since 2008.[1] He is the leader of the Forza Italia political movement, a centre-right party he founded in 1993. Before the 2008 Italian general elections he announced his intention to establish a new political party, People of Freedom (Popolo Delle Libertà), to be constituted by the merging of Forza Italia with the National Alliance party (Alleanza Nazionale), and other right wing parties later in 2008. His victory in the 2008 general elections paved the way for the fourth term as prime minister.
  • Why worry about media industries? Berlusconi & Baywatch Effects; Outsourcing
  • All 175 newspapers opeds after start of war: good thing
  • Within a few years: Bertelsmann CEO’s: Thomas Middelhoff 1998-2002; Gunther Thielen 2002-2007; Hartmut Ostrowski 2008 - …
  • Du bist deutschland: initiative of Bertelsmann AG: Leading members include Lufthansa, telecoms company Deutsche Telekom and the publisher, Bertelsmann. According to the latter, the work will be carried by a wide range of German media and is designed to lead to "a new mood in Germany". Total media investment may reach as high as € 30 million.
  • Beate Uhse AG: It was founded by former German war-time pilot and sex pioneer Beate Uhse-Rotermund in 1946 and started out as a distibutor of pamphlets on family planning called Schrift X (roughly: Writing X or Paper X) which was a major success. In 1962 the company opened the world's first sex shop in Flensburg. When pornography was finally made legal in West Germany in 1976, Beate Uhse was well-prepared with a widely known and respected brand name and an established mail order business.
  • Ulrike Marie Meinhof (1934-1976) was a German left-wing militant and co-founder of the RAF or Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) after originally working as a journalist for the monthly magazine konkret. In the next two years Meinhof participated in the various bank robberies and bombings executed by the group. On 9 May 1976 she was found hanged by a rope, fashioned from a towel, in her cell in the Stammheim Prison. The official findings were not accepted by many in the RAF[5] and other militant organisations, and there are still some who doubt their accuracy and believe that she was murdered by the authorities.
  • Why worry about media industries? Berlusconi & Baywatch Effects
  • More people in germany feel sad about globalization and loss of power: Rammstein
  • titanic:
  • OUTSOURCING: movies
  • Globalization of production: trends towards centralized production (australia: postproduction) and regional specialization
  • GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA WORK: ADVERTISING Quote from an August 6 2007 story in the New York Times
  • GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA WORK: FILM TV Example of GPN/New International Division of Cultural Labor in the US movie industry: Runaway Production
  • OUTSOURCING: videogames
  • direct consequence of taking creative work out of the exclusive hands of professionals and companies AND outsourcing work translocally: corporations cutting transaction/overhead costs of knowledge work & outsourcing to consumers
  • A couple of slides of media workspaces Advertising agency.
  • Al Jazeera broadcast newsroom/workspace
  • BBC TV production “behind the scenes” (of a Doctor Who special)
  • Game developers on the EA Vancouver campus. What do these spaces tell us: Its all informal (dressed down, casual), fun (lots of smiles), cool, hip, young people (!) But ALSO: high pressure, hard at work, busy, dynamic AND: IT/technology driven, office work, desktop work So in Media Work two contradictory claims about the future of work come together: high-tech rationalized/bureaucratized/deskbound knowledge work versus 2. flexible, creative, dynamic, open, fluid “work as play”
  • examples: recruitment video of Pandemic: - video for Troika design group: - band video of Eve Online employees:
  • POC: Technology; Law & Policy; Organization of Work; Careers; Markets
  • POC: CAREERS: flexibility (biased towards the young and the restless)
  • POC: MARKETS: 1. Editorial logic
  • First step: Analysis of the society structure (the establishment survey). Second step: Selection of the group of families as a representation of country (construction of the telemetric panel). Third step: Equipping the households with data collecting electronic devices. Fourth step: Day-to-day data transmission from the households to the computerized ''library'' of AGB Nielsen Media Research. Fifth step: Data processing and creation - out of thousands of elements - one consistent database. Sixth step: Determining, second by second, what programs were broadcast by individual stations. Seventh step: Providing customers with files, which, when used with appropriate software, give a full picture of the TV audience.
  • POC: MARKETS: 1. Convergence Culture Logic:
  • Final thoughts 1: TALENT = FANDOM Media work & FANDOM: social contract producers/consumers = leave me alone to do what I want to do + please acknowledge my work/what I’m doing
  • Transcript

    • 1.
      • media industries / media production
      • each year: more media owned by less corporations
      • recently: a parallel process of media deconcentration
      • berlusconi effect: media ownership equals political power
      • baywatch effect: media concentration equals lowest common denominator content
      • globalization of production equals outsourcing
      • media production: the precarious balance between Content, Connectivity, Creativity, and Commerce (4C)
    • 2.  
    • 3. horizontal and vertical integration
    • 4.  
    • 5.  
    • 6. the hourglass structure of the media industries
    • 7. hourglass example: videogames
    • 8. hourglass example: music
    • 9. hourglass example: advertising
    • 10. why care about media ownership? the berlusconi, baywatch, and global production networks effects
    • 11. berlusconi effect: media ownership equals political power
    • 12. media power and political power: the case of Rupert Murdoch
    • 13.  
    • 14. media power and political power: the case of Bertelsmann
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. baywatch effect: concentration of media ownership equals lowest common denominator content
    • 19. baywatch effect and globalization
    • 20. gpn effect: media conglomeration means all production is global, all labor is local
    • 21.  
    • 22. global production networks and media industries
    • 23. “ The plan is to build a global digital ad network that uses offshore labor to create thousands of versions of ads […] Publicis executives see [China, India, Russia and Brazil] as important sources of low-cost labor […] the Publicis Groupe will benefit from the global talent pool ”
    • 24. runaway production
    • 25.  
    • 26. 60% of game studios outsource production: “ it's no longer necessary or efficient to develop games entirely in one location”
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30.  
    • 31.  
    • 32.  
    • 33.  
    • 34. videogame localization
    • 35. remote control journalism
    • 36. precarity in media work 2006
    • 37. 2007
    • 38. 2008
    • 39. so what it is like to work in the media today?
    • 40. typical media workspaces: advertising
    • 41. typical media workspaces: television news
    • 42. typical media workspaces: tv entertainment
    • 43. typical media workspaces: computer and video games
    • 44. WETA: “formal Fridays”
    • 45.  
    • 46.  
    • 47.  
    • 48. work in the media as “playbor”
    • 49. media production = production of culture technology laws & regulations organizations careers markets
    • 50. technology: to empower or enslave?
    • 51. law & regulation: constraint or enabling?
    • 52. organization: firms or networks?
    • 53. careers: soloist or superstar DJ?
    • 54. how media workers make decisions: editorial logic
    • 55. how media workers make decisions: market logic
    • 56. today: convergence culture logic?
    • 57. media professionals as fans