PhD Thesis: Operationalization of Collaborative Blended Learning Scripts

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PhD Thesis Presentation about a dissertation entitled: "Operationalization of collaborative blended learning scripts: a modle, computational mechanisms and experiments"

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PhD Thesis: Operationalization of Collaborative Blended Learning Scripts

  1. 1. Operationalization of collaborative blended learning scripts: a model, computational mechanisms and experiments<br />Author: Mar Pérez-Sanagustín<br />Advisors: Davinia Hernández-Leo & Josep Blat<br />PhD Thesis Presentation<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work <br />2<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work <br />3<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  4. 4. 1IntroductionOrchestration of collaboration<br />Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)<br />Orchestration collaboration for effective learning<br />CL scripts<br />social<br />Social +<br /> Comp. mediated<br />TYPE OF ORCHESTRATION<br />CSCL scripts<br />Comp. <br />mediated<br />4<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  5. 5. 1IntroductionOperationalization<br />Abstract and technologicalindependent definition of the CSCL/CSCBL script (design stage)<br />Social +<br /> Comp. mediated<br />CSCL scripts<br />OPERATIONALIZATION<br />Comp. <br />mediated<br />LOW<br />CSCBL scripts<br />Effective technological settingpresented to the students<br />(enactment stage)<br />DEGREE<br />HIGH<br />5<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  6. 6. 1IntroductionChallenge<br />New ways of <br />communication…<br />…new opportunities for collaboration<br />6<br />PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011<br />
  7. 7. Teacher<br />1IntroductionChallenge<br />…formal and informal activities…<br />?<br />Blending <br />activity <br />types<br />Blending <br />devices<br />Blending <br />spaces<br />…supported by different devices…<br />…occurring at different spatial locations…<br />CHALLENGE<br />How to organize and structure such as complex activities?<br /><ul><li>Blend of activity types
  8. 8. Blend of spatial locations
  9. 9. Blend of technologies</li></ul>7<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  10. 10. 1IntroductionOrchestration in blended learning settings<br />Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)<br />Orchestration collaboration for effective learning<br />CBL scripts<br />social<br />CL scripts<br />Blended Learning<br />Social +<br /> Comp. mediated<br />TYPE OF ORCHESTRATION<br />CSCBL scripts<br />CSCL scripts<br />Comp. <br />mediated<br />8<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  11. 11. Contributions<br />1IntroductionObjectives and contributions<br />Global Contribution: A conceptual model for assisting <br />practitioners and technicians in the design of meaningful CSCBL scripts <br />and of the technology to suit them for operationalizing their enactment <br />Provision and evaluation of different technological mechanisms for operationalizingthe orchestration of CSCBL scripts<br />Meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts<br /> Systematic definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts according with terminology in CSCL and to identify the factors intervening in their design<br />PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011<br />9<br />
  12. 12. 1IntroductionMethodology<br /><ul><li>Revision of literature:
  13. 13. Blended learning, CSCL and case studies with innovative uses of ICT
  14. 14. Proposing:
  15. 15. 4SPPIces: A conceptual model for designing CSCBL scripts
  16. 16. Computational solutions for operationalizing CSCBL scripts
  17. 17. Analyzing current technologies for the operationalization of CSCBL scripts
  18. 18. Evaluating of the proposals
  19. 19. Synthetic experiments
  20. 20. 2 multicase studies</li></ul>10<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  21. 21. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work <br />11<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  22. 22. 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts4SPPIces Model <br />4SPPIces: a conceptual model to assist practitioners and technicians in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />12<br />
  23. 23. 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts4SPPIces Model <br />SPACE<br /><ul><li>Agent able to activate or inhibit learning by shaping users interactions </li></ul>Learning flow<br />Activity<br />Group characteristics<br />Data flow<br />Number <br />Participants<br />Profile <br />Location<br />HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Flexibility
  24. 24. Relationships between factors</li></ul>A ONE UNIQUE REPRESENTATION<br /><ul><li>All the factors considered together in the design</li></ul>Virtual & physical spaces<br />Areas<br />Components <br />(Arragement,<br />Affordance, <br />Mobility)<br />Events on Pedagogical Method<br />Events on <br />Participants<br />Events on<br /> Space<br />13<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  25. 25. 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scriptsThe Space and the History factors<br />Describes the relationships between the facets of a particular factor with the other factors from the design to the enactment<br />Events on Pedagogical Method<br />Events on<br />Participants<br />Events on<br />Space<br />Virtual and physical spaces<br />Areas<br />Components <br />(Arragement,<br />Affordance, <br />Mobility)<br />Describes where the learning activity occurs and the elements that compose it<br />14<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  26. 26. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work <br />PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011<br />15<br />
  27. 27. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsExisitingoperationalization solutions<br /><ul><li>Pedagogical Method operationalization
  28. 28. Educational modelling languages such as IMS Learning Design (Hernández-Leo (2006), Hernández-Gonzalo et al. (2008), Zarraonandia et al. (2006))
  29. 29. Learning platforms such as Moodle or .LRN
  30. 30. Participantsoperationalization
  31. 31. Specifications such as IMS Learner Information Package (Smythe et al. (2001))
  32. 32. Applications for group formation considering the students’ profile (Ounnas et al. (2001), Hwang et al. (2008))</li></ul>Lack of flexibility when applied to blended learning settings<br />16<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  33. 33. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />Operationalization of the interplay of the PM and P<br /><ul><li>The Meta-UoL: Definition of the PM on runtime according to P decisions
  34. 34. An adaptive UoL: Adaptive PM according to participants’ profile
  35. 35. The grouping tool: Adaptation of pre-defined groups of students according to intrinsic and extrinsic constraints of the PM</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />17<br />
  36. 36. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />“Proof of concept” evaluations<br />Meta-UoL: flexibility for democratic participatory methodologies<br /><ul><li>In the context of Agora association (2 trainers)
  37. 37. Flexibility, guidance and storage for learning practices</li></ul>Adaptive UoL: workflowadaptation according to the students’ level<br /><ul><li>In the context of an Algebra course (2 teachers)
  38. 38. Adaptation & monitoring of the students' activity</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />18<br />
  39. 39. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />“Proof of concept” evaluation<br />Grouping tool:<br /><ul><li>Simulation (5 teachers)
  40. 40. For complex collaborative tasks & huge groups
  41. 41. Monitoring of the students in class and the final distributions
  42. 42. Guidance supporting groups re-design on runtime through notifications </li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />19<br />
  43. 43. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />Physical space<br />Set of components that the users are physcially in contact with<br /><ul><li>Operationalization of the Space Method factor for interplaying with other factors</li></ul>Area<br />Sections physical space with components and associated to a task<br />Component<br />Atomic elements of the space with independent meaning<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />20<br />
  44. 44. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />Space tool:<br /><ul><li>Representing learning spaces
  45. 45. Formal and computational representation of the spaces for the integration with other factors.</li></ul>21<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  46. 46. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br />“Proof of concept” evaluation<br />Space tool: testing the descriptive potential of the model<br /><ul><li>Representation of the same learning practice occurring at two different spaces with real participants
  47. 47. The final group activity of the learning flow was different and adapted to the particular characteristics of the space</li></ul>22<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  48. 48. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br /><ul><li>Operationalization of the History factor: modelling the relationships between the P the PM and the S</li></ul>23<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  49. 49. 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions<br /><ul><li>NFC tags + Mobile phones (Ramírez et al., 2008)</li></ul>+ LOG FILES:<br /><ul><li>Capturing the actions of the students
  50. 50. Adapting the learning flow according students’ actions
  51. 51. (Santos et al., 2010)</li></ul> + MONITORING FUNCTIONALITY<br /><ul><li>Learning flows in parallel
  52. 52. Students actions on runtime</li></ul>24<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  53. 53. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work <br />25<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  54. 54. 4Two multicase studiesExperiments<br />MAIN QUESTION<br />Does 4SPPIces assists technicians and practitioner designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts and the technology operationalizingtheir enactment?<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />26<br />
  55. 55. 4Two multicase studiesMethodology<br /><ul><li>Multicase Study (Stake, 2005) cross-case analysis
  56. 56. Multicase study Q1: Design perspective
  57. 57. Multicase study Q2: Operationalization perspective
  58. 58. Mixed Method data gathering techniques (Martínez et al. 2003)
  59. 59. Data analysis through triangulation: comparative analysis of evidences from different resources</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />27<br />
  60. 60. 4Two multicase studiesResearch question<br />MAIN QUESTION<br />Does 4SPPIces assists technicians and practitioner designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts and the technology operationalizingtheir enactment?<br />SUB-QUESTION Q1: <br />Does 4SPPIces assist practitioners and technicians in the design of CSCBL scripts?<br /><ul><li>Q1-T1 Does 4SPPIces assist collaboration between practitioners and technicians?
  61. 61. Q1-T2 Are the CSCBL scripts designed meaningful, innovative and adequate to the learning context? </li></ul>SUB-QUESTION Q2:<br />Do operationalizationsolutions based in 4SPPIces support the scripts enactment?<br /><ul><li>Q2-T1 Does the operationalization solution successfully support teachers’’ orchestration tasks?
  62. 62. Q2-T2 Does the operationalization solution successfully support students’ tasks?</li></ul>MULTICASE STUDY Q1<br />MULTICASE STUDY Q2<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />28<br />
  63. 63. 4Two multicase studiesMulticase Q1 <br />CASE Q1-A<br />CSCBL scripts for discovering<br />the campus<br />CASE Q1-B<br />Discovering BCN<br />CASE Q1-C<br />4SPPIces seminar<br />Extending a design <br />with 4SPPIces<br />Creating a CSCBL<br />script from scratch<br />Enhancing designs<br />with 4SPPIces<br />31students<br />2 teachers<br />Mobiles GPS<br />QuesTInSitu<br />Moodle<br />Mobiles, NFC<br />Moodle .LRN<br />IMS+GSI<br />241 students<br />31 students<br />11 practitioners<br />2 technicians<br />Mobiles GPS<br />QuesTInSitu<br />Moodle<br />Campus ‘09<br />4SPPIces <br />seminar<br />Campus ‘10<br />Discovering<br /> BCN<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces support collaboration between technicians and practitioners?<br />Are 4SPPices-based design meaningful?<br />Are 4SPPIces-based designs descriptive?<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces help on supporting communication among practitioners and technicians for extending an existing educational practice?<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces help on designing a meaningful and motivational CSCBL script leading with the objectives of the practitioners?<br />Quitain Q1: Does 4SPPIces assist technologists and practitioners when designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts adapted to the needs of actual educational context?<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />29<br />
  64. 64. 4Two multicase studiesData from case Q2<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />30<br />
  65. 65. 4Two multicase studiesAssertions Multicase Q1<br />Assertion Q1-2: 4SPPIces is a good assistance for designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts or for extending existing practices particularized to a learning context <br />Assertion Q1-1: 4SPPIces is a good assistance for communities of practitioners and technicians to share knowledge when designing CSCBL scripts for extending and enhancing existing practices<br />CASE Q1-A<br />CSCBL scripts <br />campus<br />I, II, III, IV<br />CASE Q1-B<br />Discovering BCN<br />V, VI, VII<br />VII, VIII, IX, X, XI<br />CASE Q1-C<br />4SPPIces seminar<br />XII, XIII, XV<br />XII, XIII, XIV<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />31<br />
  66. 66. 4Two multicase studiesExample: case studie Q1-C<br /><ul><li>Meaningful differences between designs created with and without 4SPPIces
  67. 67. 4SPPIces-based designs make explicit the constraints of the activity that cannot be varied during the enactment [Comparative of the designs]
  68. 68. 4SPPIces-based designs make explicit the different locations where the activities take place and their characteristics [Comparative of the designs]
  69. 69. Usefulness of 4SPPIces from the designers’ perspective
  70. 70. “( the model) has helped me to consider unexpected situations and think about alternatives” [Designers Quest-d2]</li></ul>CASE Q1-C<br />4SPPIces seminar<br />Enhancing designs<br />with 4SPPIces<br />11 practitioners<br />2 technicians<br />Mobiles GPS<br />QuesTInsitu<br />Moodle<br />4SPPIces <br />seminar<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces support collaboration between technicians and practitioners?<br />Are 4SPPices-based design meaningful?<br />Are 4SPPIces-based designs descriptive?<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />32<br />
  71. 71. 4Two multicase studiesMutlicase Q2<br />CASE Q2-B<br />Discovering BCN<br />CASE Q2-C<br />Discovering the campus <br />2010<br />CASE Q2-A<br />Discovering the campus <br />2009<br />S&P-focussed<br />Operationalization<br />S-focussed<br />Operationalization<br />S&P&PM-focussed<br />Operationalization<br />31students<br />2 teachers<br />Mobiles GPS<br />QustInsitu<br />Moodle<br />Mobiles, NFC<br />Moodle .<br />241 students<br />3 teachers<br />Mobiles NFC<br />IMS + GSI<br />.LRN<br />31students<br />4 teachers<br />Campus ‘09<br />Discovering<br /> BCN<br />Campus ‘10<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on supporting the monitoring of the participants across spatial locations on runtime?<br />ISSUE/S Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations and the adaptability of the activity on runtime?<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations?<br />Quintain Q2: Does 4SPPIces-based operationalization solutions successfully support the enactment of a CSCBL script?<br />33<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  72. 72. 4Two multicase studiesData multicase Q2<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />34<br />
  73. 73. 4Two multicase studiesAssertions Multicase Q2<br />Assertion Q2-2: 4SPPIces supports the desing of technolgical solutions with different operationalization degrees that successfully support students’ tasks during the CSCBL script enactment<br />Assertion Q2-1: 4SPPIces suppots the design of technolgical solutions with different operationalization degrees that succesfully support teachers’ tasks during the CSCBL script enactment<br />CASE Q1-A<br />Discovering<br />Campus 2009<br />I, III<br />II, IV<br />CASE Q1-B<br />Discovering BCN<br />V, VI, VII, VIII<br />V, VII, VIII<br />CASE Q1-C<br />Discovering <br />Campus 2010<br />IX, X, XI, XIII<br />X, XII, XIV<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />35<br />
  74. 74. 4Two multicase studiesExample: case Q2-A<br /><ul><li>Successful aspects of the CSCBL space-focussed operationalization
  75. 75. “You know the campus better because you can follow the mobile phone indications” [Students Exploration Questionnaire]
  76. 76. “The combination of formal and informal activities help students to get familiar with the university methodologies” [Students Exploration Questionnaire]
  77. 77. Weak points of the CSCBL script space-focussed operationalization
  78. 78. “The most time demanding and difficult part was to organize the groups depending on the students’ activity registered in the log files and the preferences answered in the questionnaires” [Teachers final Questionnaire]</li></ul>CASE Q2-A<br />Discovering the campus <br />2009<br />S-focussed<br />Operationalization<br />Mobiles, NFC<br />Moodle<br />241 students<br />3 teachers<br />Campus ‘09<br />ISSUE/S<br />Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations?<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />36<br />
  79. 79. Contributions<br />Evaluation<br /><ul><li>Definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts
  80. 80. 4SPPIces model: for supporting the design of CSCBL scripts</li></ul>4Two multicase studiesContributions and evaluation<br /><ul><li>3 IMS LD based operationalizationsolutions supporting the flexible adaptation of the interplay between P and PM
  81. 81. Considering the History in third tool applications: NFC kit and QuesTInSitu
  82. 82. Specification of the space factor
  83. 83. 3 CSCBL scripts and associated operationalization systems
  84. 84. 4SPPIces-based CSCBL designs by practitioners in media education</li></ul>Synthetic experiments<br />Testing the computational mechanisms for operationalizing 4SPPIces factors<br />Multicase study Q1<br />A cross case analysis of 3 case studies<br />Multicase study Q2<br />A cross case analysis of 3 case studies<br />37<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  85. 85. Outline<br />Introduction<br />Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts<br />Operationalization of CSCBL scripts<br />Two multicase studies<br />Summary of contributions and future work<br />38<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />
  86. 86. 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 1<br />Contribution 1. Systematic definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts according with terminology in CSCL and to identify the factors intervening in their design<br /><ul><li>Modelingoperationalized CSCBL scripts for blended learning settings
  87. 87. Definition of CBL and CSCBLscripts according to the terminology in CSCL
  88. 88. Operationalization framework for organizing approaches in CSCL
  89. 89. 4SPPIces model: for supporting the design of CSCBL scripts
  90. 90. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (JCAL, conditionally accepted) (JCR)
  91. 91. IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine, 2009 (history factor)
  92. 92. Two ICALT papers, 2009 (participants factor)</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />39<br />
  93. 93. 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 2<br />CONTRIBUTION 2.Provision and evaluation of new usage meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts<br /><ul><li>Novel educational experiments
  94. 94. 3 CSCBL scripts and operationalization systems with different operationalization degrees
  95. 95. 1 seminar with 4SPPIces and real educational practitioners in media education
  96. 96. Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2011) (JCR);
  97. 97. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ijCSCL) (JCR, conditionally accepted)</li></ul>PhDPresentation, 1st July 2011<br />40<br />
  98. 98. 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 3<br />CONTRIBUTION 3. Provision and evaluation of technological mechanisms for operationalizing the orchestration of CSCBL scripts<br /><ul><li>Computational mechanisms facilitating the design and enactment of orchestrated collaborative blended activities
  99. 99. 2 operationalization solutions based in IMS LD to support an operationalization focussed on the adaptation of the PM method
  100. 100. An operationalization solution for managing participants on runtime and recommends adaptations according to the contextual situations
  101. 101. Influence in the development of NFC kit and QuesTInSitu
  102. 102. Formal representation of the space factor
  103. 103. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) (2008);
  104. 104. Book chapter in “Studies in computational intelligence”, Springer (in press) (extended version of conference paper INCOS 2009);
  105. 105. ECTEL (2010)
  106. 106. Book chapter (under revision) (extended version of conference paper INCOS 2010);</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />41<br />
  107. 107. 5Summary of contributions and future workFuture work<br /><ul><li>4SPPices as an organizational framework for suggesting the technological solutions
  108. 108. Include 4SPPIces into existing CSCL existing tools
  109. 109. Propose new operationalization solutions for the different factors`
  110. 110. Extend IMS LD with the specification of the Space Model
  111. 111. Extract patterns or guidelines of the CSCBL experiments to facilitate the enactment of similar experiences
  112. 112. CSCBL scripts as a particular type of ubiquitous learning scenarios
  113. 113. Operationalization solutions as a link between spaces</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />42<br />
  114. 114. 5Summary of contributions and future workRelated publications<br /><ul><li>Publications
  115. 115. 2 international journal papers (iJET 2008, JNCA, 2010) + 2 under revision positivelyconsidered for publication(JCAL, ijCSCL)
  116. 116. 1 book chapter (Springer) + 1 under revision (Springer)
  117. 117. 7 international conference papers (ICALT09 (2 contributions), INCOS09, INCOS10, ECTEL10, TENCompetenceOpenWorkshop 2009, CSCL2009)
  118. 118. 1 magazine (IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine)
  119. 119. Projects
  120. 120. European projects: TENCompetence
  121. 121. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science projects: Learn3</li></ul>PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />43<br />
  122. 122. Thank you<br />http://www.marps.info<br />44<br />PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011<br />

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