PhD Thesis: Operationalization of Collaborative Blended Learning Scripts
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PhD Thesis Presentation about a dissertation entitled: "Operationalization of collaborative blended learning scripts: a modle, computational mechanisms and experiments"

PhD Thesis Presentation about a dissertation entitled: "Operationalization of collaborative blended learning scripts: a modle, computational mechanisms and experiments"

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PhD Thesis: Operationalization of Collaborative Blended Learning Scripts PhD Thesis: Operationalization of Collaborative Blended Learning Scripts Presentation Transcript

  • Operationalization of collaborative blended learning scripts: a model, computational mechanisms and experiments
    Author: Mar Pérez-Sanagustín
    Advisors: Davinia Hernández-Leo & Josep Blat
    PhD Thesis Presentation
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    2
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    3
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    View slide
  • 1IntroductionOrchestration of collaboration
    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
    Orchestration collaboration for effective learning
    CL scripts
    social
    Social +
    Comp. mediated
    TYPE OF ORCHESTRATION
    CSCL scripts
    Comp.
    mediated
    4
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    View slide
  • 1IntroductionOperationalization
    Abstract and technologicalindependent definition of the CSCL/CSCBL script (design stage)
    Social +
    Comp. mediated
    CSCL scripts
    OPERATIONALIZATION
    Comp.
    mediated
    LOW
    CSCBL scripts
    Effective technological settingpresented to the students
    (enactment stage)
    DEGREE
    HIGH
    5
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 1IntroductionChallenge
    New ways of
    communication…
    …new opportunities for collaboration
    6
    PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011
  • Teacher
    1IntroductionChallenge
    …formal and informal activities…
    ?
    Blending
    activity
    types
    Blending
    devices
    Blending
    spaces
    …supported by different devices…
    …occurring at different spatial locations…
    CHALLENGE
    How to organize and structure such as complex activities?
    • Blend of activity types
    • Blend of spatial locations
    • Blend of technologies
    7
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 1IntroductionOrchestration in blended learning settings
    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL)
    Orchestration collaboration for effective learning
    CBL scripts
    social
    CL scripts
    Blended Learning
    Social +
    Comp. mediated
    TYPE OF ORCHESTRATION
    CSCBL scripts
    CSCL scripts
    Comp.
    mediated
    8
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Contributions
    1IntroductionObjectives and contributions
    Global Contribution: A conceptual model for assisting
    practitioners and technicians in the design of meaningful CSCBL scripts
    and of the technology to suit them for operationalizing their enactment
    Provision and evaluation of different technological mechanisms for operationalizingthe orchestration of CSCBL scripts
    Meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts
    Systematic definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts according with terminology in CSCL and to identify the factors intervening in their design
    PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011
    9
  • 1IntroductionMethodology
    • Revision of literature:
    • Blended learning, CSCL and case studies with innovative uses of ICT
    • Proposing:
    • 4SPPIces: A conceptual model for designing CSCBL scripts
    • Computational solutions for operationalizing CSCBL scripts
    • Analyzing current technologies for the operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    • Evaluating of the proposals
    • Synthetic experiments
    • 2 multicase studies
    10
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    11
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts4SPPIces Model
    4SPPIces: a conceptual model to assist practitioners and technicians in the design of CSCBL scripts
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    12
  • 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts4SPPIces Model
    SPACE
    • Agent able to activate or inhibit learning by shaping users interactions
    Learning flow
    Activity
    Group characteristics
    Data flow
    Number
    Participants
    Profile
    Location
    HISTORY
    • Flexibility
    • Relationships between factors
    A ONE UNIQUE REPRESENTATION
    • All the factors considered together in the design
    Virtual & physical spaces
    Areas
    Components
    (Arragement,
    Affordance,
    Mobility)
    Events on Pedagogical Method
    Events on
    Participants
    Events on
    Space
    13
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 2Factors in the design of CSCBL scriptsThe Space and the History factors
    Describes the relationships between the facets of a particular factor with the other factors from the design to the enactment
    Events on Pedagogical Method
    Events on
    Participants
    Events on
    Space
    Virtual and physical spaces
    Areas
    Components
    (Arragement,
    Affordance,
    Mobility)
    Describes where the learning activity occurs and the elements that compose it
    14
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    PhDPresentation, 1stJuly 2011
    15
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsExisitingoperationalization solutions
    • Pedagogical Method operationalization
    • Educational modelling languages such as IMS Learning Design (Hernández-Leo (2006), Hernández-Gonzalo et al. (2008), Zarraonandia et al. (2006))
    • Learning platforms such as Moodle or .LRN
    • Participantsoperationalization
    • Specifications such as IMS Learner Information Package (Smythe et al. (2001))
    • Applications for group formation considering the students’ profile (Ounnas et al. (2001), Hwang et al. (2008))
    Lack of flexibility when applied to blended learning settings
    16
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    Operationalization of the interplay of the PM and P
    • The Meta-UoL: Definition of the PM on runtime according to P decisions
    • An adaptive UoL: Adaptive PM according to participants’ profile
    • The grouping tool: Adaptation of pre-defined groups of students according to intrinsic and extrinsic constraints of the PM
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    17
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    “Proof of concept” evaluations
    Meta-UoL: flexibility for democratic participatory methodologies
    • In the context of Agora association (2 trainers)
    • Flexibility, guidance and storage for learning practices
    Adaptive UoL: workflowadaptation according to the students’ level
    • In the context of an Algebra course (2 teachers)
    • Adaptation & monitoring of the students' activity
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    18
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    “Proof of concept” evaluation
    Grouping tool:
    • Simulation (5 teachers)
    • For complex collaborative tasks & huge groups
    • Monitoring of the students in class and the final distributions
    • Guidance supporting groups re-design on runtime through notifications
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    19
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    Physical space
    Set of components that the users are physcially in contact with
    • Operationalization of the Space Method factor for interplaying with other factors
    Area
    Sections physical space with components and associated to a task
    Component
    Atomic elements of the space with independent meaning
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    20
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    Space tool:
    • Representing learning spaces
    • Formal and computational representation of the spaces for the integration with other factors.
    21
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    “Proof of concept” evaluation
    Space tool: testing the descriptive potential of the model
    • Representation of the same learning practice occurring at two different spaces with real participants
    • The final group activity of the learning flow was different and adapted to the particular characteristics of the space
    22
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    • Operationalization of the History factor: modelling the relationships between the P the PM and the S
    23
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 3Operationalization of CSCBL scriptsProposed operationalization solutions
    • NFC tags + Mobile phones (Ramírez et al., 2008)
    + LOG FILES:
    • Capturing the actions of the students
    • Adapting the learning flow according students’ actions
    • (Santos et al., 2010)
    + MONITORING FUNCTIONALITY
    • Learning flows in parallel
    • Students actions on runtime
    24
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    25
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 4Two multicase studiesExperiments
    MAIN QUESTION
    Does 4SPPIces assists technicians and practitioner designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts and the technology operationalizingtheir enactment?
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    26
  • 4Two multicase studiesMethodology
    • Multicase Study (Stake, 2005) cross-case analysis
    • Multicase study Q1: Design perspective
    • Multicase study Q2: Operationalization perspective
    • Mixed Method data gathering techniques (Martínez et al. 2003)
    • Data analysis through triangulation: comparative analysis of evidences from different resources
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    27
  • 4Two multicase studiesResearch question
    MAIN QUESTION
    Does 4SPPIces assists technicians and practitioner designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts and the technology operationalizingtheir enactment?
    SUB-QUESTION Q1:
    Does 4SPPIces assist practitioners and technicians in the design of CSCBL scripts?
    • Q1-T1 Does 4SPPIces assist collaboration between practitioners and technicians?
    • Q1-T2 Are the CSCBL scripts designed meaningful, innovative and adequate to the learning context?
    SUB-QUESTION Q2:
    Do operationalizationsolutions based in 4SPPIces support the scripts enactment?
    • Q2-T1 Does the operationalization solution successfully support teachers’’ orchestration tasks?
    • Q2-T2 Does the operationalization solution successfully support students’ tasks?
    MULTICASE STUDY Q1
    MULTICASE STUDY Q2
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    28
  • 4Two multicase studiesMulticase Q1
    CASE Q1-A
    CSCBL scripts for discovering
    the campus
    CASE Q1-B
    Discovering BCN
    CASE Q1-C
    4SPPIces seminar
    Extending a design
    with 4SPPIces
    Creating a CSCBL
    script from scratch
    Enhancing designs
    with 4SPPIces
    31students
    2 teachers
    Mobiles GPS
    QuesTInSitu
    Moodle
    Mobiles, NFC
    Moodle .LRN
    IMS+GSI
    241 students
    31 students
    11 practitioners
    2 technicians
    Mobiles GPS
    QuesTInSitu
    Moodle
    Campus ‘09
    4SPPIces
    seminar
    Campus ‘10
    Discovering
    BCN
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces support collaboration between technicians and practitioners?
    Are 4SPPices-based design meaningful?
    Are 4SPPIces-based designs descriptive?
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces help on supporting communication among practitioners and technicians for extending an existing educational practice?
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces help on designing a meaningful and motivational CSCBL script leading with the objectives of the practitioners?
    Quitain Q1: Does 4SPPIces assist technologists and practitioners when designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts adapted to the needs of actual educational context?
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    29
  • 4Two multicase studiesData from case Q2
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    30
  • 4Two multicase studiesAssertions Multicase Q1
    Assertion Q1-2: 4SPPIces is a good assistance for designing meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts or for extending existing practices particularized to a learning context
    Assertion Q1-1: 4SPPIces is a good assistance for communities of practitioners and technicians to share knowledge when designing CSCBL scripts for extending and enhancing existing practices
    CASE Q1-A
    CSCBL scripts
    campus
    I, II, III, IV
    CASE Q1-B
    Discovering BCN
    V, VI, VII
    VII, VIII, IX, X, XI
    CASE Q1-C
    4SPPIces seminar
    XII, XIII, XV
    XII, XIII, XIV
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    31
  • 4Two multicase studiesExample: case studie Q1-C
    • Meaningful differences between designs created with and without 4SPPIces
    • 4SPPIces-based designs make explicit the constraints of the activity that cannot be varied during the enactment [Comparative of the designs]
    • 4SPPIces-based designs make explicit the different locations where the activities take place and their characteristics [Comparative of the designs]
    • Usefulness of 4SPPIces from the designers’ perspective
    • “( the model) has helped me to consider unexpected situations and think about alternatives” [Designers Quest-d2]
    CASE Q1-C
    4SPPIces seminar
    Enhancing designs
    with 4SPPIces
    11 practitioners
    2 technicians
    Mobiles GPS
    QuesTInsitu
    Moodle
    4SPPIces
    seminar
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces support collaboration between technicians and practitioners?
    Are 4SPPices-based design meaningful?
    Are 4SPPIces-based designs descriptive?
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    32
  • 4Two multicase studiesMutlicase Q2
    CASE Q2-B
    Discovering BCN
    CASE Q2-C
    Discovering the campus
    2010
    CASE Q2-A
    Discovering the campus
    2009
    S&P-focussed
    Operationalization
    S-focussed
    Operationalization
    S&P&PM-focussed
    Operationalization
    31students
    2 teachers
    Mobiles GPS
    QustInsitu
    Moodle
    Mobiles, NFC
    Moodle .
    241 students
    3 teachers
    Mobiles NFC
    IMS + GSI
    .LRN
    31students
    4 teachers
    Campus ‘09
    Discovering
    BCN
    Campus ‘10
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on supporting the monitoring of the participants across spatial locations on runtime?
    ISSUE/S Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations and the adaptability of the activity on runtime?
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations?
    Quintain Q2: Does 4SPPIces-based operationalization solutions successfully support the enactment of a CSCBL script?
    33
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 4Two multicase studiesData multicase Q2
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    34
  • 4Two multicase studiesAssertions Multicase Q2
    Assertion Q2-2: 4SPPIces supports the desing of technolgical solutions with different operationalization degrees that successfully support students’ tasks during the CSCBL script enactment
    Assertion Q2-1: 4SPPIces suppots the design of technolgical solutions with different operationalization degrees that succesfully support teachers’ tasks during the CSCBL script enactment
    CASE Q1-A
    Discovering
    Campus 2009
    I, III
    II, IV
    CASE Q1-B
    Discovering BCN
    V, VI, VII, VIII
    V, VII, VIII
    CASE Q1-C
    Discovering
    Campus 2010
    IX, X, XI, XIII
    X, XII, XIV
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    35
  • 4Two multicase studiesExample: case Q2-A
    • Successful aspects of the CSCBL space-focussed operationalization
    • “You know the campus better because you can follow the mobile phone indications” [Students Exploration Questionnaire]
    • “The combination of formal and informal activities help students to get familiar with the university methodologies” [Students Exploration Questionnaire]
    • Weak points of the CSCBL script space-focussed operationalization
    • “The most time demanding and difficult part was to organize the groups depending on the students’ activity registered in the log files and the preferences answered in the questionnaires” [Teachers final Questionnaire]
    CASE Q2-A
    Discovering the campus
    2009
    S-focussed
    Operationalization
    Mobiles, NFC
    Moodle
    241 students
    3 teachers
    Campus ‘09
    ISSUE/S
    Does 4SPPIces help on identifying the operationalization requirements for enacting a CSCBL script focussed on the integration of activities across spatial locations?
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    36
  • Contributions
    Evaluation
    • Definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts
    • 4SPPIces model: for supporting the design of CSCBL scripts
    4Two multicase studiesContributions and evaluation
    • 3 IMS LD based operationalizationsolutions supporting the flexible adaptation of the interplay between P and PM
    • Considering the History in third tool applications: NFC kit and QuesTInSitu
    • Specification of the space factor
    • 3 CSCBL scripts and associated operationalization systems
    • 4SPPIces-based CSCBL designs by practitioners in media education
    Synthetic experiments
    Testing the computational mechanisms for operationalizing 4SPPIces factors
    Multicase study Q1
    A cross case analysis of 3 case studies
    Multicase study Q2
    A cross case analysis of 3 case studies
    37
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • Outline
    Introduction
    Factors in the design of CSCBL scripts
    Operationalization of CSCBL scripts
    Two multicase studies
    Summary of contributions and future work
    38
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
  • 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 1
    Contribution 1. Systematic definition of CBL and CSCBL scripts according with terminology in CSCL and to identify the factors intervening in their design
    • Modelingoperationalized CSCBL scripts for blended learning settings
    • Definition of CBL and CSCBLscripts according to the terminology in CSCL
    • Operationalization framework for organizing approaches in CSCL
    • 4SPPIces model: for supporting the design of CSCBL scripts
    • Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (JCAL, conditionally accepted) (JCR)
    • IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine, 2009 (history factor)
    • Two ICALT papers, 2009 (participants factor)
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    39
  • 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 2
    CONTRIBUTION 2.Provision and evaluation of new usage meaningful and innovative CSCBL scripts
    • Novel educational experiments
    • 3 CSCBL scripts and operationalization systems with different operationalization degrees
    • 1 seminar with 4SPPIces and real educational practitioners in media education
    • Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2011) (JCR);
    • International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ijCSCL) (JCR, conditionally accepted)
    PhDPresentation, 1st July 2011
    40
  • 5Summary of contributions and future workContribution 3
    CONTRIBUTION 3. Provision and evaluation of technological mechanisms for operationalizing the orchestration of CSCBL scripts
    • Computational mechanisms facilitating the design and enactment of orchestrated collaborative blended activities
    • 2 operationalization solutions based in IMS LD to support an operationalization focussed on the adaptation of the PM method
    • An operationalization solution for managing participants on runtime and recommends adaptations according to the contextual situations
    • Influence in the development of NFC kit and QuesTInSitu
    • Formal representation of the space factor
    • International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) (2008);
    • Book chapter in “Studies in computational intelligence”, Springer (in press) (extended version of conference paper INCOS 2009);
    • ECTEL (2010)
    • Book chapter (under revision) (extended version of conference paper INCOS 2010);
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    41
  • 5Summary of contributions and future workFuture work
    • 4SPPices as an organizational framework for suggesting the technological solutions
    • Include 4SPPIces into existing CSCL existing tools
    • Propose new operationalization solutions for the different factors`
    • Extend IMS LD with the specification of the Space Model
    • Extract patterns or guidelines of the CSCBL experiments to facilitate the enactment of similar experiences
    • CSCBL scripts as a particular type of ubiquitous learning scenarios
    • Operationalization solutions as a link between spaces
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    42
  • 5Summary of contributions and future workRelated publications
    • Publications
    • 2 international journal papers (iJET 2008, JNCA, 2010) + 2 under revision positivelyconsidered for publication(JCAL, ijCSCL)
    • 1 book chapter (Springer) + 1 under revision (Springer)
    • 7 international conference papers (ICALT09 (2 contributions), INCOS09, INCOS10, ECTEL10, TENCompetenceOpenWorkshop 2009, CSCL2009)
    • 1 magazine (IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine)
    • Projects
    • European projects: TENCompetence
    • Spanish Ministry of Education and Science projects: Learn3
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011
    43
  • Thank you
    http://www.marps.info
    44
    PhD Presentation, 1st July 2011