Good afternoon everyone.I’m Mar Pérez Sangustín Today I’m going to present the results of two different experiments that we called Discovering the Campus together. Both experiments are the result of an effort to orchestrate collaborative scripts with the peculiarity that the activities does not happen on a unique spatial locations but in a combination of locations, concretely in the campus, the classroom and at home.
All of you have been students. And I’ sure that the transition from the high school to the uni was not easy, at least for me. In fact, last university studies at the UPF say that around 20 % of students leave the technical degrees the first year. In front of these numbers, this was the challenge to face with these two experiments: to facilitate the transition from the High school to the university.
Studies of the university detect four main reasons for this abandonement 1. Socialization: students do not know each other 2. Non familiar with campus services 3. No idea bout professional career 4. Non familiar with methodologies.
Expert propose different solutions to face these problems Some propose using technology (mainly web-based solutions): *with web-based lessons to reinforce the f2f lessons *With mentoring * Put in contact with professionals All these approaches faced some of the above-mentioned problems but do not face them all. So… how can we use a holistic approach?
IN order to do that, we have benefit from two things: For the pedagogical part of collaboration we use CLFP. These are good practices for structuring collaboration to produce effective leanring On the other hand, we benefit from the interactions that and mobile technologies for allowing activities anywhere. The result is a script that combines activities supported by diverse technologies combined and that we call CSCBL script.
Concreltely, we adapted the Jigsaw CLFP. The result is a CSCBL script distributed into three phases. An individual phase in which students get familiar with the environment. For this phase, 50 NFC tags were distributed around the campus hidden information about the different areas and services. The students could access to this information using mobile phones with an NFC reader. All the actions of the students were stored in log files The second phase is the expert groups. The log files of the first phase were analyzed to extract the expertice of each student. Those that had visited more tags in a particular area, became experts in that area. Then, experts in the same area, were grouped and had to prepare a presentation with the information gathered. These presentations were uploaded to a Moodle platform by the teacher. And ll the students could access the presentations from their colleagues In the last phase, students had to revidw the presentations from their partners and answer an individual questionnaire about the campus. Therefore, we have a collaborative activity in which activities in the campus, at home and in the classroom are combined.
This script was evaluated in a case study with students of first ICT Engin. Degree of UPF. 241 students and 3 teachers The activity was organized for the 2 weeks of the course.
Resutls: good solution SOCIALIZATION. We provided a collaborative activity in which the students had to interact ENVIRONMENT: The contact with the services that the campus offer PROFESSIONAL CAREER: During the visit, they use the type of technology that they will developed during the degree UNIV. METHODOLOGY: Combination of activities enable them to keep in contact with the methodologies that they will see along their degree.
However, as a result of this experiment, some problems were dected. These problems had to do with the demanding tasks that the teacher had to do for organizing the whole activity. Let me show you which were these limitations more precisely: The first limitation has to do with the group management: the teacher had to analyze the data from the students and form the groups consequently. Distribute the tasks between the groups. These tasks were very demanding: analyzing the data was very time demanding On the other hand, during the first days of the course, lost of students leave the degree and groups have to be re-organized from one week to the other. Altogether made the activity no scalable at all. In summary, a very nice experience but with an unefficient orchestration.
Therefore, we had a new problem with new challenges: *looking for scalability *Looking for group management support *looking fro support for data anlaysis *maintaingin the same learning outcomes.
- In front of these situation we looked for a new solution. *4SPPIces is a model that defines four conditioning factors in the design of collaborative activities combining activities in different spatial locations. *For analyzing the requirements that a system solving these limitations had to accomplish, we used 4SPPIces. This analysis lead us to use the Generic Integration System - GSI, is system to integrate third party services as a regular resource in a learning experience. The result was a new CSCBL script the technological environment for it support.
This is how the technological environment used for this script looks like We proposed to manage the learning flow with a Unit of Leanring codified in IMS LD This UoL enabled organizing the leanring flow automatically for the different groups participating in the activity. For the group management, this UoL was integrated with Google forms. The teacher directly uploloaded the log files and the groups were automatically gnerated. IN case of last- minute changes, the teacher could change directly the group formation using the google forms.
This activity was also enacted. - This activity was enacted in one day into 5 different 2hours sessions. - 34 students and 5 teachers. - Unfortunatly, due to weather conditions, only 34 students could participated in the activity, but, even though, the activity could be enacted.
Therefore, coming back to the initial challenges adressed we can see that: 1.The activity was scalable because we could replictae the activity 5 times into the same day 2. The workload was extremely reduced because the group management, that took 2 weeks in the first case, could be done into a 2h session. 3. Moreover, the solution was flexible in case of having unestable groups. 4. Same educational benefits. Therefore, we can affirm that the orchestration was improved.
Therefore, to summarize: We have to CSCBL scripts for supporting the transition from the high school to the uni. The two experiments were a success in terms of learning benefits, but the first edition entailed orchestration difficulties that were solved in the second edition of the experiment In terms of duration, we pass from 2 weeks to a 2hours session Ratio of mobile per erson is solved Scalable solution because it is possible to have all the students into the same instance. Por tanto, podemos decir de nuevo que la solución que surge de la combinación de 4SPPIces + GSI es exitosa.
All these results are collected into these three publications and the last edition is goign to be published in a journal.
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, 2 Socialization difficulties Non familiar with campus services Non familiar with university methodologies (Bologna) Ignorance about the profesional career Problems
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, 2 Can we create an integrated environment for introducing students to their academic context and educational methodologies while fostering their interest and passion towards technology and future profession ? <ul><li>Experts’ solutions: Using technology for generating motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using technology: web-based lessons (Sticklen, 2009), e-mentoring systems (Müeller, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting students in contact with professionals in the field: interviews with engineers (Couter, 2009) </li></ul></ul>Related work
Adopt a Collaborative Learning Flow Pattern (CLFP) using mobile and online technologies for designing an evaluate an innovative Computer Supported Collaborative Blended Learning Script (CSCBL) CLFP capturing the essence of well-known techniques for structuring the flow of learning activities to potentially produce effective learning from collaborative situations Technologies for supporting different types of activity (fromal and informal) In different spaces Proposal: A CSCBL script Working area 1 Working area 2 CSCBL
Individual Phase Discovering the campus Expert groups Preparing presentations Jigsaw groups Reflecting individually Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Discovering the campus together! 2009 <ul><li>Students in experts groups and assigned to a building </li></ul><ul><li>Each group prepares a presentation about their assigned builidng and uploads it to the Moodle Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Students review the presentations of their colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Students answer an individual questionnaire about the campus using Moodle University Platform </li></ul>Students reflect about the campus <ul><li>Students Explore the campus: </li></ul><ul><li>Web page </li></ul><ul><li>Walking around the campus </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory activity with Mobile phones: students access information in RFID tags distributed for the campus and their actions are registered </li></ul>Students become experts in a builidng
Evaluation: a case study <ul><ul><li>Context: Introduction to ICT 1rst Engineering Degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-Weeks experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>241 students & 3 teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>74 used mobile phones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>167 control group </li></ul></ul></ul>
Results CSCBL script : a suitable solution for facilitating students the transition from the High School to the University Collaborative activities make them to meet new people Students learn about the campus and its services Combining activities and methodologies: a good approach for closing students to University Methods Pérez-Sanagustín, M.; Ramorez-Gonzalez, G.; Hernández-Leo, D.; Muñoz-Organero, M.; Santos, P.; Blat, J. & Delgado Kloos, C. Discovering the Campus Together: a mobile and computer-based learning experience. Journal of Network and Computer Applications (in press). Students are motivated because contacted with technology applications and research career
Teacher <ul><li>Administer portable devices </li></ul><ul><li>Examine students' data and create groups </li></ul><ul><li>Notify groups </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise and grade students </li></ul><ul><li>Revise presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Generate final questionnaire </li></ul>Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Inestable group management Time demanding students' data analysis Lack of scalability Results Unnefficient orchestration
Support for group management A scalable solution Support for the students data analysis Maintaining learning outcomes Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, New challenges: orchestration efficiency New challenges: orchestration efficiency
<ul><li>4SPPices : A model for the orchestration of Computer Supported Collaborative Blended learning scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S pace : place where the activity occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P edagogical Method : Learning flow, roles and group recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P articipants : Actual people participating in the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H i story : what happened during the process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… c ollaborative s cenario s/s cript s </li></ul><ul><li>GSI Generic Service Integration (GSI) to embed the use of any third party service as a regular resource in a learning experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of Google Forms to implement assessment in a IMS Learning Design based course. </li></ul></ul>Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, A new solution: & GSI
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, <ul><li>UoL in IMS LD to orchestrate </li></ul><ul><li>Groups modelled with properties </li></ul><ul><li>Submissions modelled with file-type properties </li></ul><ul><li>25 students per course instance </li></ul><ul><li>Property values guided by GSI </li></ul><ul><li>Each course is related with a Google spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>“ Calculates” are spreadsheet-sahped IMS LD events triggers information retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Final questionnaire in QTI </li></ul>Discovering the campus together! 2010
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, <ul><li>One day with 5 sessions </li></ul><ul><li>34 students & 5 teachers </li></ul>Teacher <ul><li>Parse and import log files into the spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Create formulae to calculate groups </li></ul><ul><li>Mark the activity as finished </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise students progress </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise and grade students </li></ul>Results *Results sent to the Journal Future Generation Computer Systems
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Results A scalable solution Support for the students data analysis <ul><ul><li>Flexible group solution ready to face unexpected events related with groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 different sessions in the same day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload dramatically reduced, group distribution in the same 2 hs session </li></ul></ul>Support for group management Maintain learning outcomes <ul><ul><li>Same learning outcomes than in the first edition of the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestration efficiency improved ! </li></ul></ul>
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Conclusions: comparing the two editions 2009 2010 Duration 2 weeks 2 hours Physical space Some of the activities were not performed in the classrooom Face-to-Face activities Mobile exploration Imposible ratio 1 mobile/1 person Ratio 1 mobile/ 1 person Course Structure All the students in the same course instance Sessions of 25 students
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Related publications <ul><ul><li>Pérez-Sanagustín, M.; Ramírez-Gonzalez, G.; Hernández-Leo, D.; Muñoz-Organero, M.; Santos, P.; Blat, J. & Delgado Kloos, C. Discovering the Campus Together: a mobile and computer-based learning experience. Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2011) ( in press) doi:10.1016/j.jnca2011.020.11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luis de-la-Fuente-Valentín; Mar Pérez-Sanagustín; Patrícia Santos; Davinia Hernández-Leo; Abelardo Pardo; Carlos Delgado Kloos; Josep Blat. In: Daradoumis T.; Caballé S.; Juan A.; Xafa F.; (eds.). System orchestration support for a collaborative blended learning flow. Intelligent Adaptation and Personalization Techniques in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, Series "Studies in Computational Intelligence". (to appear in 2012). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>de-la-Fuente-Valentín, L.; Pérez-Sanagustín, M.; Santos, P.; Henández-Leo, D.; Pardo, A; Blat, J.; Delgado-Kloos, C. System orchestration support for a flow of blended collaborative activities. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems. Thessaloniki: 2010. p. na </li></ul></ul>
Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Future work <ul><ul><li>Guidelines of ubiquitous collaborative activities from CSCBL scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design support for CSCBL scripts : </li></ul></ul>