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Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking

Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking



This presentation discusses possible use of linked data in library community, focusing on how to lift existing metadata into a semantic level.

This presentation discusses possible use of linked data in library community, focusing on how to lift existing metadata into a semantic level.



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    Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking  Digital Library Applications Of Social Networking Presentation Transcript

    • Digital Library Applications of Social Networking
      Dr. Myungdae Cho
      Library School
      SungKyunKwan University
    • Agenda
    • 1. Social Networking & Information Fluency
      From PIM (Personal Information Management) level
      - Is Memex incarnated?
      - more than hyperlink …
      To “Sociality” by Link and Tags
      -> Inter-subjectivity
      - a thought in a user links to many thoughts in
      internet community
      ->Principle of Emergence
    • Socialty
      Streaming media)
    • Machine, Humanand Socialty in Information Discovery
      Forms Inter-subjectivity
      Ontology (gives Subjective Path)
      In other words: Top down + Bottom up
    • Another view of Machine, Humanand Socialty in Information Discovery
      RDF vocabularies
      User-Created Metadata
      Linked Data
      (semantically organized data)
      Mapped data from existing DB (such as MARC)
    • 2. Social Networking in Libraries
      Social networking could enable librarians and
      patrons not only to interact, but to share and
      changeresources dynamically in an electronic
    • Why do libraries care about social networking sites?
      The next big thing after Google is Social Networking.
      ( From “As facebook takes off, Myspace strikes
      back” Kirkpatrick, Davis. Foutune. Sept. 19, 2007)
    • 2.1 Existing Library Application of Social Networking
      Librarything in libraries
      Delicious in libraries
      Mashup….. couldbe as an application of Linked data
    • 2.1.1 Librarything in libraries
      “Personalized desire from individual’s needs”
      “Cataloguing thru Social Networking”
      LibraryThing is a prominent social cataloging
      web application for storing and sharing personal library catalogs and book lists.
    • Librarything in libraries
      LibraryThing helps you create a library-quality
      catalog of your books.
      LibraryThing connects people based on the books
      they share.
    • 2.1.2. Delicious in libraries
    • del.icio.us-like PennTags
      PennTags - When card catalogs meet tags
    • 2.1.3 Mash up in libraries
      Mashup your Library's Twitter, Flickr, Youtube,
      Facebook accounts!
      • Libraries mash up content, services and ideas
      Meebo Instant Messaging. Library Lookup.
    • 3. how to lift existing metadata into a semantic level
      Mapping (Marc21 -> DC, Marc -> FRBR etc)
      Open Sources (Open Api)
      Linked Data
    • 3.1 Open Source
      Open Source Social Platforms: 10 of the Best
      10 open source software platforms
      SungKyunKwan University: Use ofOpen API http://lib.skku.edu/index.ax
    • 3.2 Linked Data
      “Oh my goodness, the original web of documents was just the tip of iceberg.”
      ( Sir Tim Berners Lee, July 2008)
    • What is it?
    • Closed containers of data
      Information systems, such as library catalogs, have
      been, and still are, for the greatest part closed
      containers of data, or “silos” without connections
      between them, inaccessible to Web architecture (No Url, no links) with a few exception.
      (Tim Berners Lee)
      free from the capsules of the catalog
    • Linked Data
      Linked Data is a methodology for providing
      meanings and relationships between things anywhere on the web, using
      URISfor identifying,
      RDF for describingand
      HTTP for publishing
    • Two valuable notions from library community
      • 1876 / Charles Cutter
      • Resources with the same or related content are grouped together.
      • clarification that follows from the
      removal of ambiguity
    • Collocations through Linked Data
      Wiki: http://www.wikipedia.org/
      dbpedia : http://dbpedia.org/About
      WorldCat: http://www.worldcat.org/
      Fictionfinder (FRBR model): http://fictionfinder.oclc.org
    • rdf identifiers as a disambiguation
    • rdf identifiers as a disambiguation
      Disambiguation process
    • rdf identifiers as a disambiguation
    • Another disambiguation_dereferenceable URIs
    • In summary so far:Paradigm Shift in www
    • 4. Library’s role in Semantic Web
      Phase 1: Semantifying MARC, Thesaurus etc
      Translating LC controlled vocabularies and authority control for named entities, thesauri from domain specific societies and institutions into RDF/RDFS, OWL, SKOS with URIs assigned according to ‘Linked Data Design Principles (TBL, 2007)
      Phase 2:
      Authority data discovery, sharing, and reuse, e.g., LC authorities & Vocabularies, OCLC’s Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST) etc
      Phase 3: Into the Semantic Web
      Web of Linked data
    • Case: OCLC Semantic Web Projects
      • FRBRising projects
      • Developed FRBR work set algorithms’ andxISBN Web Services
      • FictionFinderhttp://fictionfinder.oclc.org
      • WorldCat Identifiers (20 million identifiers)
    • CV: Why establish controlled vocabularies?
      Control values that occur in metadata
      Reduce ambiguity
      Control synonyms
      Make documentation available for reuse
      validate terms (by subject heading /LCSH)
      Establish formal relationships among values where appropriate
      Controlled vocabularies: ALA program on Linked Data
      ALA Annual 2009
    • Types of Controlled Vocabularies used in metadata standards
      Lists of enumerated values
      Code lists (e.g. language, country)
      Formal Thesauri
      Locally controlled enumerated lists
      Controlled vocabularies: ALA program on Linked Data
      ALA Annual 2009
    • Thesauri
      A thesaurus is a controlled vocabulary with multiple types of relationships
      UF Paddy
      BT Cereals
      BT Plant products
      NT Brown rice
      RT Rice straw
    • Standards maintained at LC contain controlled vocabularies
      Thesaurus of Graphic Materials
      ISO 639-2 (language codes)
      MARC (including code lists)
      MIX (XML schema for NISO Z39.87 Technical metadata for digital still images)
      … and some others
    • Representing information about controlled vocabulary values
      Data elements in metadata formats, e.g. MARC Authority format
      XML schemas (sometimes as enumeration values)
      RDF/XML and RDFS (Resource Description Framework)
      MADS (Metadata Authority Description Schema)
    • Reasons for developing a web service for vocabularies
      Facilitate development and maintenance process for vocabularies
      Make controlled lists “openly” available
      Provide comprehensive information about controlled values
      Experiment with semantic web technologies and linked data
      Expose vocabularies to wider communities
    • Popular Rdf Vocabularies
      People + Organisations
      FOAF, HCard, Relationship, Resume
      Geonames, Geo
      Social Media
      SIOC, Review
      Topics + Tags
      SKOS, MOAT, HolyGoat
      GoodRelations, CC Licensing
      Scovo, DOAP, Recipes, Measurements, ...
    • SKOS
      “Simple Knowledge Organisation System(s)”
      A Semantic Web standard called Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) defines the organization of terms into thesaurus form, with broader and narrower terms and alternate terms including alternate language entries
      Simple, extensible, machine-understandable representation for “concept schemes”
      Classification Schemes
      Subject Headings
      Other types of ‘controlled vocabulary’…
      Disadvantage: unusual concept schemes don’t fit into SKOS (original structure too complex)
    • A Method to Convert Thesauri to SKOS
      Original XML data file: http://www.esd.org.uk/standards/ipsv/ipsv.xml
      Original XML Schema filehttp://www.esd.org.uk/standards/xmlschemas/taxonomy-v3.0.xsd
      Conversion program: convertipsv.pl (contains instructions for usage)
      Resulting RDF: ipsv/rdf/ipsv.rdf
      SKOS Core schema: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core/history/2005-10-14 (version used for this paper, for latest version seehere)
      Additional IPSV schema: ipsv/ipsv1-eswc06.rdf
      Case 2
      Partial original data files: gtaa/SampleOfGTAA.zip
      Conversion program: gtaa/GTAAtoSKOSinstanceRDFSv6.pl
      Resulting RDF: gtaa/GTAAinstancesSKOSv7.rdf
      SKOS Core schema: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core/history/2005-10-14 (version used for this paper, for latest version seehere)
      Additional GTAA schema: gtaa/GTAAskosModelRDFSv4.rdfs
    • Converting into SKOS graph
    • Identify
      Step 1: Identify concepts…
    • Describe
      Step 2: Describe…
    • Publish
      Step 3: Publish…
      Put the file on a web server for programs to download & process
      Put the file on special RDF server on which you can query with SQL-like language:
      Select * from … Where …
    • Publishing LCSH in the Web
      Project LCSH into RDF (i.e., create an RDF representation)
      Library of Congress Subject Headings available as linked-data using the SKOS vocabulary. http://lcsh.info
    • LCSH in SKOS
    • LCSH in SKOS
    • LCSH in SKOS
    • Skosuse cases_2: NSDL Metadata Registry
    • Skosuse cases_3: getty
    • Skosuse cases_4: Agricultural Information Management Standards (AIMS)
    • FRBR conceptual model
      Coyle (2008) advocates FRBR conceptual model
      as part of a semantic model in saying
      “Since FRBR is about entities and relationships, it seems to be perfectly positioned as the first step in the transformation of library data to the
      semantic web.”
    • FRBR
      Expression of Core FRBR Concepts in RDF
      This vocabulary is an expression in RDF of the
      concepts and relations described in the IFLA
      report on the Functional Requirements for
      Bibliographic Records (FRBR).
    • FRBR as a RDF vocabulary
      FRBR is a complete data model that is a new way of looking at our data, not just taking existing records and identifying work relationships.
      FRBR a type of RDF vocabulary
      entities and the relationships inFRBR is identifiable,
      linkable, usable, and reusable, and everything can
      be matched up.
    • RDA (Resource Description and Access)
      The new cataloging rules, replacing AACR2
      RDA -> RDF
      Joint DCMI/RDA task force
      Seed funding to develop initial prototype RDF vocabularies for bibliographic information
      Based on FRBR and data model implicit in RDA
      Early stage year
      Karen Coyle
    • library related Linked Data projects
      A brief and incomplete list of some library related
      Linked Data projects:
      RDF BookMashup – Integration of Web 2.0 data sources like Amazon, Google or Yahoo into the Semantic Web.
      Library of Congress Authorities – Exposing LoCAutorities and Vocabularies to the web using URI’s
      DBPedia – Exposing structured data from WikiPedia to the web
      LIBRIS – Linked Data interface to Swedish LIBRIS Union catalog
      Scriblio+Wordpress+Triplify – “A social, semantic OPAC Union Catalogue”
    • Language of Interoperability
      Universal identifiers (URIs): like written word
      – For “connecting the dots”
      Abstract syntax (RDF triples): sentence grammar
      – Foundation of syntactic interoperability
      Vocabularies: words and concepts
      – Foundation of semantic interoperability
      Platform for compatible domain models
      – Application Profiles
      Human-understandable – machine-processable
    • 5. Proposed Models for Libraries with Linked data
      A publisher provides basic information about a book
      (e.g., using onix)
      The National Library adds bibliographic and authority
      A local library adds holding information
      Some nice guy out there adds links from, say, Wikipedia
      A library’s IT staff creates a Webpage where I can find all related information regarding this book, links to related books from the same author, on the same subject, the author’s bio from wikipedia, comments from other Portals.
      =>Since, instead of following links between HTML pages, Linked Data browsers enable users to navigate between different data
      sources by following RDF links.
      How about User-created metadata
    • Advantages over other methods
      No crosswalk/mapping
      - Each one uses his own metadata format, all triples can be aggregated
      No data redundancy
      - Each one creates only the data he needs, and retrieves already existing information
      No harvesting
      - The data is available directly on the Web
      No branding issue
      - The URIs allow to track down the original data whatever its origin
      No software-specific developments
      - Everything relies on open standards as RDF, SPARQL … no need to learn a new protocol or query
    • Thank you for listening!