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Japanese Chaff Flower
 

Japanese Chaff Flower

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Presentation on the invasive Japanese chaff flower.

Presentation on the invasive Japanese chaff flower.

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    Japanese Chaff Flower Japanese Chaff Flower Presentation Transcript

    • JAPANESE CHAFF FLOWER (ACHYRANTHES JAPONICA)Chris EvansRiver to River CWMAwww.rtrcwma.org
    • BACKGROUND Perennial Forb  Up to 5-6 feet in height  Young plants single stemmed, older plants have multiple stems First located in 1981 in eastern KY and southwestern WV Rapid spread throughout the Ohio River Valley and other regions Form extensive infestations along riverine systems 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION Leaves opposite, entire, smooth edged Smooth to lightly pubescent Petioles vary in length, sometimes very long, sometime near sessile 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION Flowers occur in terminal spikes, diverge at right angles Start very compact and elongate as the progress Lack petals Brush like, dull green 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION Terminal spike continues to elongate as flowers mature into fruits Fruits deflex along the stem 2 stiff bracteoles on each fruit Remain on dead stalk throughout winter Easily attached to clothing, fur, etc. 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IDENTIFICATION Dense stands Flower or fruit spikes very noticeable 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • TIMING Initiates growing in late spring ‘Comes on’ in mid-late summer Flowering late summer Rapid seed set (late summer – early fall) Seed maturation – early fall Plant senescence – late fall 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • SPREAD Water Animals Humans Produces thousands of seeds per plant per year Appear to be very viable based upon initial attempts to grow in greenhouse 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • HABITAT Does best in moist, rich soils in partial shade – full sun  Sandy to loamy to silty soils Does not tolerate annual flooding or long periods of inundation  On big river systems, often found just above the driftwood line Can grow in deep shade 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • HABITAT Riparian areas Bottomland forests Roadsides Ditches Old fields Waste areas 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • IMPACTS Forms very dense thickets Near monoculture Seems to exclude many other species  Even displacing stiltgrass Preferred forage for deer Lots of evidence for insect feeding 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • MANAGEMENT Early Detection Rapid Response Monitoring and controlling this species in new areas Spread prevention techniques and adoption of BMPs in areas where this species is present Further education about this species*Very few people currently know about this plant or know to look for it* 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • MANAGEMENT Spread prevention  Clothing cleaning  Equipment sanitation Targeted surveys in and around hiking areas and campgrounds High use areas 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • MANAGEMENT Research on control efforts underway Foliar sprays before flowering(mid summer)  2% Glyphosate  2% Triclopyr Large roots and brittle stems seem to limit hand pulling 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO
    • SUMMARY This new species has rapidly spread throughout the Lower Ohio River Valley and into other portions of the SE and has recently been found in Missouri It is spread by flood waters and by humans and animals It can form dense stands that appear to potentially heavily impact riparian areas and bottomlands Spread prevention and EDRR should be implemented Control with foliar sprays of glyphosate or tricopyr seem to be effective Much more research is being started on this plant 2012 Invasive Species Workshop – St. Louis, MO