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An Assignment On Development & Implementation of Training in Bangladesh: A Study on Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Beximco

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  • 1. An Assignment On Development & Implementation of Training in Bangladesh: A Study on Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Submitted to: Mohammad Masudur Rahman Asst. Professor Faculty of Business & Industrial Management European University of Bangladesh Prepared by : Ashaduzzaman 1
  • 2. TABLE OF C O N T E N T S Serial n o. Particulars Page n o . 1 Executive summary 3 2 Beximco Pharmaceuticals at a glance 4 (a) Mission 10 (b) Manufacturing capabilities 10 (c) GMP Accreditations 14 (d) Research & Development 14 (e) Corporate citizenship 15 (f) Responsibility to the community at large 15 (g) Responsibility to the environment 17 (h) Global footprint 18 3 Background of the study 19 4 Industry Profile 20 2
  • 3. 5 Research objective of the assignment 20 6 Type, method, sample size, & research Technique 20 7 Significance of the study 30 8 Research limitation 33 9 Data Analysis and Interpretation 34 10 A Summary of research findings 43 11 Recommendation 44 12 Implication for further research 46 13 Selected bibliography 47 14 Annexure: Questionnaire 48 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This research is conducted in order to measure the implementation of training and development programs conducted in organizations. In order to conduct this research the system level audit was used. The need for this study arose because companies invest a lot into the training programs. The ROI obtained from training programs conducted must be sufficiently high in order to justify the amount spent on training the employees of an organization. The objective of this research is to use the system level audit in order to measure the effectiveness of training programs. This is done in order to identify the shortcomings of the existing training and development programs and to improve upon them. The findings of the study can be summed up as the following. Training and development programs are gaining more significance in the industry. Care should be taken 3
  • 4. in order to ensure that proper need identification is conducted before any training program is designed. The company should make it a point to employ the best trainers in the industry to conduct the programs. In order to improve the effectiveness of training programs, employees must also contribute while designing the training programs. Proper motivation should be provided to employees to attend the training programs. The training programs must be designed in such a way that it not only imparts technical knowledge and skill but also leadership skills and human competencies. The following recommendations were given in light of the research conducted. Proper training facilities must be in place in order to sustain creativity. Emphasis must be given to leadership and total quality. Experimental learning techniques must be used in the training programs. The communication channels must be very effective for any training to have an impact on the individual. Self learning by employees must be encouraged in the company. This will create a learning environment. Impact evaluations must be used in order to effectively improve the training programs. A chance must be given to the managers to perform different tasks in order to attain the various competencies. Beximco Pharma at a Glance Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of pharmaceutical formulations and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) in Bangladesh. It is the flagship company of Beximco Group, the largest private sector industrial conglomerate in Bangladesh. Beximco Pharma's state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities are certified by global regulatory bodies of Australia, European Union, Gulf nations, Brazil, among others. The company is consistently building upon its portfolio and currently producing more than 500 products in different dosage forms covering broader therapeutic categories which include 4
  • 5. antibiotics, gastro-intestinals, respiratory, analgesics, cardiovascular, anti-diabetics, etc, among many others. With decades of contract manufacturing experience with global MNCs, skilled manpower and proven formulation capabilities, the company has been building a visible and growing presence across the continents offering high quality and affordable generics. Ensuring access to quality medicines is the powerful aspiration that motivates more than 2,700 employees of the organization, and each of them is guided by the same moral and social responsibilities the company values most. Beximco Pharma has the unique distinction as the only Bangladeshi company to get listed on the AIM of London Stock Exchange. Investor Relations This section of our website contains essential information on Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. You can view and download our financial reports and keep up to-date with the latest news and company information. The information on this section is being disclosed for the purposes of AIM Rule 26. Information was last updated on 16th August 2007. AIM (London Stock Exchange) Dhaka Stock Exchange Chittagong Stock Exchange Key Company Information Year of Establishment Country of Incorporation Status Business Lines Main Country of operation Corporate Headquarter & Registered Address Operational Headquarters :: :: :: :: 1976 Bangladesh Public Limited Company Manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical Finished Formulation Products, Large Volume Parenterals and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) :: Bangladesh :: 17 Dhanmondi R/A, Road No. 2, Dhaka- 1205, Bangladesh Phone : +880-2-8611891 (5 lines) Fax : +880-2-8613470 Email : beximchq@bol-online.com :: 19 Dhanmondi R/A, Road No. 7, Dhaka- 1205, Bangladesh Phone : +880-2-8619151 (5 lines), +880-2-8619091 (5 lines) 5
  • 6. Overseas Offices & Associates :: Authorized Capital (Taka) Paid-up Capital (Taka) Number of Shareholders Stock Exchange Listings :: :: :: :: Fax : +880-2-8613888 Email : info@bpl.net Website : www.beximcopharma.com Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, Chile, Ghana, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Yemen 9,100 million 3,503.3 million Around 86,000 Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges of Bangladesh and AIM of London Stock Exchange 2,748 BXP Number of Employees :: TIDM: (Tradable Instrument :: Display Mnemonic) Date shares were admitted to :: Dhaka Stock Exchange trading Chittagong Stock Exchange AIM ( Alternative Investment Market) ISIN : 3 July, 1985 : 11June, 1995 : 21 October,2005 :: US0885792061 Board Details: Ahmed Sohail Fasiur Rahman ,Chairman Ahmed Salman Fazlur Rahman ,Vice Chairman Nazmul Hassan ,Managing Director Iqbal Ahmed,Director Mohammad Abul Qasem,Director Osman Kaiser Chowdhury,Director Abu Bakar Siddiqur Rahman,Director 6
  • 7. Executive Committee : The Executive Committee meets on a quarterly basis and its scope of work includes: business review; budget approval; and senior management appraisal. Executive committee comprises of five members : Mr. O.K. Chowdhury Nazmul Hassan, Rabbur Reza, Ali Nawaz Ahmed. Mr. O.K. Chowdhury, who are members of the board, are also members of the Executive Committee.and Afsar Uddin Nazmul Hassan Rabbur Reza Chief Operating Officer Ali Nawaz Chief Financial Officer Afsar Uddin Ahmed Director Commercial Management Committee: The Management Committee comprises operational heads and representatives of the Board and Executive Committee and is chaired by the Managing Director. The Management Committee meets on a monthly basis, is responsible for implementing the decisions of the Executive Committee and supervising the day to day affairs of the Company and reports to the Executive Committee at least on a quarterly basis Mr. O.K. Chowdhury, 7
  • 8. Mr. N. Hassan, Mr. R. Reza, Mr. A. Nawaz and Mr. A.U. Ahmed, Other members of the management committee are: Lutfur Rahman Director, Manufacturing Md. Zakaria Seraj Chowdhury Director, International Marketing Abdur Rouf Mohammad Zahidur Rahman Executive Director, Manufacturing Mohammad TahirSiddique Executive Director Quality Assurance Shamim Momtaz Executive Director, Manufacturing Jamal Ahmed Choudhury Executive Director, Accounts & Finance Prabir Ghose Executive Director, Quality Assurance Audit Committee: The Audit Committee consists of three non-executive directors. Barrister Faheemul Huq is currently the chairman of the audit committee while Osman Kaiser Chowdhury is the member. The Committee assists the Board of Directors of the Company in ensuring that its financial statements reflect true and fair view of its state of affairs and in ensuring a good monitoring and internal control systems within the business. The Audit Committee shall be responsible to the Board of Directors. 8
  • 9. Advisers Nominated Adviser Libertas Capital Corporate Finance Limited 21 Wilson Street London EC2M 2SN UK Broker Daniel Stewart and Company PLC Becket House 36, Old Jewry London EC 2R 8DD Bangladeshi Legal Advisers to the Company Barrister Rafique-ul Huq 47/1, Purana Paltan Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh Depositary Bank the Bank of New York Mellon 101 Barclay Street New York New York 10286 USA Solicitors to the Company Jones Day 21 Tudor Street London EC4Y 0DJ UK Auditors Messrs. M. J. Abedin & Co. National Plaza (3rd Floor) 109, Bir Uttam C.R. Datta Road Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh Custodian Bank HSBC Anchor Tower, 1/1-B Sonargaon Road Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh Share Information 9
  • 10. Exchanges where quoted and traded AIM (GDRs* Only) Dhaka Stock Exchange ( Ordinary Share ) Chittagong Stock Exchange ( Ordinary Share ) *GDRs are not quoted and traded in Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges Number of AIM securities in issue: Percentage free float Percentage of shares not held in public hands Number of shares held in treasury Percentage of shares held in treasury :: :: :: :: :: 78,560,526 GDRs 100% 0 0 0 The identity and percentage holding of significant shareholders (i.e., holder of 3% or more AIM Securities in issue) are as follows:Significant Shareholders No. of GDRs held* Percentage of shares held HSBC Global Custody Nominees ( UK ) Limited 3.79m 6.17% Credit Suisse Client Nominees (UK) Limited 8.63m 15.3% Pershing Nominees Ltd. 6.97m 12.4% Vidacos Nominees Ltd. 2.70m 4.8% *Shareholder’s data are updated as of 17th November, 2011. These however do not include information relating to AIM Securities cleared through Eoroclear that does not disclose holding because of secrecy under the Belgian Law; and also AIM Securities held in certificated form (i.e., GDRs physically in the possession of the GD Rholders, not enabling us to furnish the name, address and number of GDRs held by such holders). Mission: We are committed to enhancing human health and well being by providing contemporary and affordable medicines, manufactured in full compliance with global quality standards. We continually strive to improve our core capabilities to address the unmet medical needs of the patients and to deliver outstanding results for our shareholders. 10
  • 11. Manufacturing Capabilities: Situated near Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, our manufacturing site extends over an area of 23 acres. This main site houses manufacturing facilities for producing various drugs in different strengths and delivery systems such as capsules, tablets, intravenous fluids, metered dose inhalers, sterile ophthalmic drops, prefilled syringes, dry powder inhalers, injectables and nebulizer solutions etc. The site has its own utility infrastructure to ensure adequate generation and distribution of electricity with an installed capacity of 10 MW, in addition to water purifying and liquid nitrogen generation facilities. The bulk drug unit for producing paracetamol is also located within this site while the penicillin API and formulation units are situated at Kaliakoir, a few kilometers from the main site. Oral Solid Dosage: The state-of-the-art Oral Solid Dosage unit is designed as per US FDA standards. The facility incorporates contemporary technological advancements with automated material handling systems and multilevel designs to enable gravity feed between various processing stages. This facility houses a total of five lines with an annual capacity to produce 5 billion tablets on a single shift basis. Our modern OSD facility is already accredited by the regulatory authorities of EU, Australia and the Gulf member states, and the Company is highly focused on entering the regulated markets of US, EU and Australia. Metered Dose Inhaler: 11
  • 12. Beximco Pharma was among the first few companies in the world who made the transition away from CFC-based inhalers to the ozone benign HFA based formulations, in compliance with the Montreal Protocol. The Company proactively developed ozone benign HFA based MDIs which require very high level of expertise and sophisticated technology. Beximco Pharma is currently the largest producer of MDIs in Bangladesh, and it produces a popular inhaler brand for a global MNC under a contract manufacturing agreement. The MDI units have been designed with the technical collaboration from Pamasol, Switzerland; which now have an annual production capacity of 20 million canisters. Ophthalmic: Beximco Pharma’s ophthalmic facility was launched in 2009. Today this facility has been accredited by the regulatory authorities of EU and Australia and the Company has differentiated itself by maintaining global quality standards. There is increasing response from European clients where the demand for generic ophthalmic products is rising due to patent expiration of a number of key products. Currently a good number of ophthalmic 12
  • 13. products are being manufactured which include products like Xalaprost (Latanoprost), Xalanol (Latanoprost+Timolol), Odycin (Moxifloxacin), Olopan (Olopatadine),etc. Intravenous Fluid: Our Intravenous (IV) fluid unit is ISO 9001: 2010 certified and was designed in collaboration with Pharmaplan, a sister concern of Fresenius AG of Germany. Absolute sterile manufacturing conditions are rigorously maintained through a series of fully automated manufacturing procedures including the robotics. The facility utilizes FFS (Form-Fill-Seal) BottlePack® aseptic system of Pharmaplan Germany. Plastic bottles are blow molded, filled with the solution and sealed under sterile conditions, in a single working cycle where there is no environmental exposure or human contact during manufacturing. The whole process is performed in a Class 100 clean room which ensures the highest standards of quality and purity. The facility produces a broad assortment of large volume parenterals (LVPs). As a line extension of this IV unit, the company has installed amino acid line to produce a range of parenteral nutrition products such as Nutrimin D (7% Composite Amino Acid IV Infusion with 10% Glucose and Electrolytes), Dexaqua (Dextrose 5%), Dexoride 500 (Sodium Chloride 0.9% and Dextrose 5%) etc. Liquid and Semisolid: 13
  • 14. Beximco Pharma has a broad range of liquid formulations like syrups etc. and semisolid dosage forms including creams and ointments. At present the capacity of liquid dosage facility is 37 million units per annum and the Company has taken up expansion program along with further upgradation of the existing unit to meet the growing demand. The Company currently has the capacity to produce 6 million units of creams and ointments and 10 million units of suppositories. Prefilled Syringe: Prefilled syringes (PFS) provide both convenience and accuracy to self-administered drugs. With their ease of use and improved safety features, PFS has become one of most widely used drug delivery systems today. Beximco Pharma launched PFS range with enoxaparin sodium, a low molecular weight heparin, which is widely used in cardiac emergency. The Company plans to add a few more high value products to its PFS portfolio shortly. The high precision PFS line employs 14
  • 15. sophisticated technology and the entire filling operation is done under laminar flow in a Class 100 environment to provide absolute sterile conditions. (Pfs) Dry Powder Inhaler: Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. DPIs do not require the timing and coordination that are necessary with metered-dose inhaler and they do not contain any propellants. Beximco Pharma offers dry powder inhaler in innovative patient-friendly packaging. Instead of bottle pack, we provide alu-alu blister pack which protects medicine from moisture. HPMC capsule shell ensures maximum protection against moisture. And our unique and simple Bexihaler® device, imported from Europe, and consisting of 8 pins, ensures optimum dose delivery. Currently the facility has the capacity to produce 36 million units of DPI every year. Lyophilized Injectable: Lyophilization is a complex and facility-intensive operation where Beximco has demonstrated its skill through quick and successful adoption of this relatively newer technology. The company within a short span of time emerges as an important player in this area with its range of PPIs and other formulations. GMP Accreditations: 15
  • 16. At present Beximco Pharma has the highest number of international accreditations in the country which include: AGES, Austria (European Union) Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), Australia Gulf Central Committee (GCC member states) ANVISA, Brazil INVIMA, Colombia* MCC, South Africa* People Of Beximco: Research & Development: R&D is the key to success for any pharmaceutical company. We have given top priority and made substantial investment in upgrading our generic drug capabilities as we firmly believe R&D plays the most important role in spurring innovation and helps a company go up the value chain. Our research and development activities are closely focused on market needs and driven by technological progress in order to create product differentiation. Our team comprising top class formulation and analytical scientists continuously strives to integrate the advanced technological changes in order to create competitive edge and match international standards. We have shown our generic drug capability with successful development of difficult-to-make formulations such as multi-layer tablets, dispersible tablets, chewable vitamins, sustained release tablets, CFC-free inhalers and so on. We have recently expanded our dosage delivery portfolio with technology driven products like prefilled syringes, total parenteral nutrition, dry powder inhalers, lyophilized products etc. Corporate Citizenship Every successful corporation has a responsibility to use its resources and influence to make a positive impact on the world and its people. Beximco Pharma endeavors to achieving success in ways that respect ethical values, people in need, their communities and the environment. The Company’s key strategies always aim to provide a strong return for shareholders, while creating social and economic value in the communities where it operates. Responsibility to the Community at Large Our vision is to make significant contribution to humanity by improving health. This vision guides our Company’s operations, including its commitment to corporate responsibility. Trusted Partner in Health 16
  • 17. We work together with non-profit organizations who work to improve people's lives through research, information, and advocacy. As the Company writes its success story as an emerging leader in the pharmaceutical industry, we also realize that responsibility towards all our stakeholders’ increases in tandem. We remain committed to being a good corporate citizen. In the year under review, we joined Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action (MAMA) in Bangladesh. MAMA is a country-owned, country-led initiative managed by an alliance of stakeholders. Through a core group of founding partners, MAMA Bangladesh is designing and testing a platform to provide both audio and text health messages to pregnant women and new mothers linked to their delivery date. The service also includes family gatekeepers for inspiring healthcare seeking behavior. The commercial brand name to be tested is Aponjon. As part of the new United States Global Health Initiative, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) catalyzed the creation of a publicprivate coalition in Bangladesh to support the execution of the service. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) and Access to Information (A2I) Program at Prime Minister's Office are official partners of the initiative. Global partners include Johnson & Johnson and United Nations Foundation, among others. Awareness Campaigns Prevention is the best cure and the first step is to create awareness. Every year, we launch campaigns touching on different forms of heath impediments ranging from asthma, diabetes, hypertension and many more. Campaign activities include rallies in addition to organizing and sponsoring scientific seminars and conferences for various associations and societies in medical disciplines. Employee Volunteering Program In this program, we sent employee volunteers to devote their time and energy in spreading smiles across the faces of children battling the ultimate battle of survival against cancer. The children are currently being treated at the ASHIC Foundation. We arranged an outing at an amusement park in the capital city where the children were accompanied by their parents and representatives from the not-for-profit organization. We had a wonderful day together packed with fun rides and great food. Later on we donated hospital equipment to the palliative care unit where the children at the terminal stage of cancer are being treated. We believe that a genuine spirit of giving itself is credential enough and therefore we stand by the unsung heroes who dedicate their lives for the betterment but do not get the 17
  • 18. recognition or enough support to carry out their intentions with optimized efficiency and impact. Preserving Cultural Heritage Preservation and promotion of cultural heritage are linked to economic welfare of any country. We at Beximco Pharma hope to preserve and promote our country’s vibrant heritage in a way that would imprint its immortal beauty in the hearts of our today’s modern demography and the generations to come. In 2011, we sponsored and organized the grand cultural event, at the National Museum, marking the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore; the legend who had irrefutable contribution towards the heritage and identity of Bengali culture. We also sponsored the making and distribution of a comprehensive documentary, highlighting Rabindranath Tagore's intermittent stay in Bangladesh. It was premiered on 7th May at the National Museum, Dhaka. The documentary, based on research by the eminent Tagore researcher Ahmed Rafique, was directed by Dr. Chanchal Khan, better known as a Tagore singer and exponent. Elements of the documentary include nine songs that were penned by the Nobel laureate poet during his stay in Bangladesh. The film also features glimpses from a play based on a Tagore short story; interviews of distinguished personalities and recitals. The rich content lends it historical, archival and educational value. Responsibility to the Environment We are always aware of environmental compliance and adopt policy to preserve the environment by practically minimizing emission and waste, thereby reducing our carbon footprint. The premise that drives us is we always put the needs of people before anything else in every chapter of our success story. Our Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) program is also based on a framework of consistent standards. Our Path to Protecting the Ozone Layer Inhaled therapy is essential for the treatment of patients with asthma and COPD. Unfortunately, CFC gases used in inhalers as propellants have ozone-depleting properties. The “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer”, the international agreement that established measures to control ozone-depleting substances, made it mandatory for Bangladesh and many other countries to implement and complete the phase-out of CFC based MDIs by December 31, 2009. 18
  • 19. It was a challenge for Bangladesh to make the transition from ozone-depleting CFC to ozone-benign HFA-based inhalers to save the environment and to ensure availability of inhalers for the patients. In 2006, we were the first Bangladeshi company to proactively and successfully make the shift to HFA inhalers to ensure that no patient in Bangladesh suffers from a lack of availability of MDIs when CFC would become scarce in the future. This was an enormous feat not only for a developing country like Bangladesh but also for the world at large. In addition to proactively adopting ozone-benign HFAs, Beximco Pharma actively advocated so that others would also do the same. As a follow-up to UNEP’s Langkawi Declaration on Public-Private Partnership, Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Bangladesh Lung Foundation designed an effective awareness raising strategy for CFC free MDIs for asthma and COPD patients. Today, we are the single largest producer of ozone-benign MDI in Bangladesh, and as a responsible company we conduct well thought-out multi-stakeholder campaigns when we launch a product. Such partnerships are now regarded as a successful role model of publicprivate partnership involving government, pharmaceutical industries, doctors, environmental agencies and others stakeholders that could be replicated in other developing countries. Responsibility to the Stakeholders Even though at the core of any business is the aim to maximize profit, we actively look out for our stakeholders’ best interest and ensure that our growth is “sustainable” in the long run. Once again, this year we achieved substantial growth and surpassed the industry average. From the handsome revenues earned, we always make it a point to invest in the future. We are committed to ensure the optimal utilization of resources in order to create and sustainably maintain our shareholders’ wealth. Every day we are mindful of our responsibilities to create value for our community, for instance, our support for Save the Children’s program on human rights; nourishing employee relations through the creation and maintenance of employment; creating change though environmental stewardship and progressing into the future with excellence in financial performance. In our everyday interactions with our stakeholders including employees, customers, suppliers, competitors and so on, we do our utmost to maintain integrity and fairness in all dealings. Global Footprint Beximco Pharma is the only pharma company in the country which has won the National Export Trophy (Gold) a record four times. This is the highest recognition for the companies in the export sector for significant contribution to Bangladesh's economic growth. We hope to persevere in stride in our service towards the progress of our country. At the 19
  • 20. moment, we have the highest number of international accreditations in the country and we aim to leverage our resources as we venture into new territories. We have so far expanded our global footprint to 47 countries across the continents and our strategy is to capitalize further on the generic drug opportunities. In addition to strengthening our position in current export markets, we are targeting export opportunities in new overseas markets, particularly in the regulated and emerging markets. Our products have been well received in the overseas markets and our global customers include reputed institutions such as the Raffles Hospital, Heathway and K K Women's & Children's Hospital in Singapore, MEDS and Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, among others. Beximco Pharma is also an enlisted supplier for UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund), Save the Children, WHO (World Health Organization) and ADF (Asthma Drug Facility). Contract Manufacturing Opportunities Rising cost of healthcare and medicines has become a global concern, and in order to reduce cost across the value chain, pharmaceutical companies from developed markets continue to look for suitable partners in developing countries for shifting or outsourcing their production. With decades of experience in generic drug manufacturing, world class capabilities as well as significant cost advantages, Beximco Pharma can be an ideal partner for you to meet your contract manufacturing needs. Since its inception, Beximco Pharma has established itself as a reliable partner for a number of world's leading pharmaceutical companies. The company has maintained a track record of sound professionalism and its management has always adhered to international standards providing a culture and working environment similar to that of a multinational company. Currently the company has contract manufacturing agreement with GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) for producing Metered Dose Inhaler product. These partnerships have provided BPL much valuable expertise and know-how to manufacture world-class products. BACKGROUND SCENARIO OF THE STUDY William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if these same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90 percent of their capabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity could well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of the means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources. 20
  • 21. Training and development has been considered an integral part of any organization since the industrial revolution era. From training imparted to improve mass production to now training employees on soft skills and attitudinal change, training industry has come a long way today. In fact most training companies are expecting the market to double by the year 2007, which just means that the Indian training industry seems to have come of age. The market is unofficially estimated to be anywhere between Rs 3000 cores and Rs 6000 crores. What is surprising is that the Indian companies. Perception regarding corporate training seems to have undergone a sea-change in the past two years, with most companies realizing it to be an integral part of enhancing productivity of its personnel. While MNC.s with their global standards of training are the harbingers of corporate training culture in India, the bug seems to have bitten most companies aiming at increasing their efficiency. According to Ms Pallavi Jha, Managing Director, Walchand Capital and Dale Carnegie Training India, "The Indian training industry is estimated at approximately Rs 3,000 crores per annum. The NFO study states that over a third of this is in the area of behavior and soft skills development. With the exponential boom in the services sector and the emergence of a full-fledged consumer-driven market, human resources have become the key assets, which organizations cannot ignore. Soft skills training gaining so much momentum, it’s imperative to understand if it. Serving the right purpose or not. With this background, I plan to research if training indeed is proving to be effective in the behavioral area. The following steps must form the basis of any training activity: Determine the training needs and objectives. Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees. Evaluate the results. There are few generalizations about training that can help the practitioner. Training should be seen as a long term investment in human resources using the equation given below: Performance = ability (x) motivation Training can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment and encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used. INDUSTRY PROFILE The Current Status of the training department: 21
  • 22. Beximco Pharmaceuticals have a training and development Department with two training room. It has a training Manager, two asst. Manager, four Training Executive & 6 staff to train the trainee. Every year they have to train 8 batches with at least 70 trainees in a year for newly recruit. They also have to arrange two training program with 100 trainees to improve their skill, who are selected by the Sales and Marketing team by their performance on the basis of their total sales achievement, communication skill, sales skill, competitor activities knowledge & product knowledge .Every year the training department trained average 600 trainees. For accelerate their activities SFE (Sales Force Excellence) team, Marketing team, & HR give special logistic support. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The core objectives of our research investigation are: 1. To conduct a systems-level audit of the effectiveness of training and development programs. 2. To recommend appropriate measures to enhance the effectiveness of training and development. TYPE OF RESEARCH The research is qualitative in nature. The study is based on data collected through structured questionnaire from the respondents. The data has been collected by contacting employees through Internet, as well as through personal contact. The data so generated has been tabulated using Tables, Charts, Graphs; and inferences have been drawn accordingly. RESEARCH METHOD The method adopted in this research is a survey method. DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE Data for the study was obtained by extensive use of internet and communicating with Professionals of Beximco training department. RESEARCH TECHNIQUE The research technique used is structured questionnaire. SAMPLE SIZE 10 professionals from the training department of beximco and 20 trainees for the present study. Respondents were requested individually to answer the questionnaire. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Sample technique used is stratified random sampling. 22
  • 23. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED Percentages and other mathematical tools. SAMPLE DESCRIPTION Training Managers (1) Asst.Manager (2) Management (3) Trainers (4) Trainee (20) What is Training? Training is the act of increasing the knowledge of an employee for doing a particular job. -Edwin B Flippo Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job. What is Development? Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality. Training a person for a bigger and higher job is development, this process includes not only imparting skills but also certain mental and personality attributes. Why Training is needed?  To increase Productivity  To improve Quality  To help the company to fulfill its Goals & Future Needs  To improve Organizational Climate  Obsolescence Prevention  Personal Growth The identification of training needs is primarily based on the skills that are required to perform the organization's set of standard processes. Certain skills may be effectively and efficiently imparted through vehicles other than in-class training experiences (e.g., informal mentoring). Other skills require more formalized training vehicles, such as in a classroom, by Web-based training, through guided self study or via a formalized on-the job training program. The formal or informal training vehicles employed for each situation should be based on an assessment of the need for training and the performance gap to be addressed. Success in training can be measured in terms of the availability of opportunities 23
  • 24. to acquire the skills and knowledge needed to perform new and ongoing enterprise activities. Skills and knowledge may be technical, organizational or contextual. Technical skills pertain to the ability to use the equipment, tools, materials, data and processes required by a project or process. Organizational skills pertain to behavior within and according to the employee's organization structure, role and responsibilities and general operating principles and methods. Contextual skills are the self-management, communication and interpersonal abilities needed to successfully perform in the organizational and social context of the project and support groups. Training and the Workplace Most training takes place in an organizational setting, typically in support of skill and knowledge requirements originating in the workplace. We can identify five basic points at which we might take measurements, conduct assessments or reach judgments. These five points are: 1. before Training 2. during Training 3. after Training or Before Entry (Reentry) 4. in the Workplace 5. upon Exiting the Workplace Training Purpose As a management tool, training serves many masters and many purposes. The purposes for or uses of training are given in the list below. The evaluation of training might vary with the purpose or use of the training itself. 1. Focusing energy on issues. 2. Making work and issues visible. 3. Supporting other interventions. 4. Legitimizing issues. 5. Promoting change. 6. Reducing risk. 7. Creating a community based on some shared experience. 8. Building teams. 9. Indoctrinating new staff. 10. Communicating and disseminating knowledge and information. 11. Certifying and licensing 12. Rewarding past performance. 13. Flagging "fast trackers." 14. Developing skills. Given the diverse array of purposes listed above, it seems reasonable to conclude that the results sought from the training would also be diverse. Changing expectations of training Organizational expectations for training have shifted dramatically. The most pronounced change is a new and vigorous justification of the cost of training based on return on 24
  • 25. investment (ROI) and organizational impact. This transition has been driven by the competitive nature of the international economy and resulting changes in organizational structure, which produce flatter, thinner and fewer administrative cost centers. In addition, training professionals are being asked to do more and play an important role in the strategy of the organization. The ability to generate and apply knowledge is a competitive advantage and source of new products, services and revenue. The nature of training itself is undergoing a transformation. Trainers no longer hold the privileged position of "all knowing" content expert. Groups being trained often contain individuals with more depth of knowledge about, more experience applying or more time to access current knowledge on the subject of the training. The training professionals thus become facilitators of learning and guides to available knowledge instead of content experts who bring "the info" into the training room with them. Trainers no longer "own" the knowledge. Instead, they synthesize and provide resources to clients who also have access to the knowledge. As training has moved from satisfying trainees to improving organizational performance, the definition of customer has broadened. Trainees themselves are still among the "customers" of training -- and the trainee's evaluations are important sources of feedback for continuous improvement and quality -- but the trainee's organizational unit and the organization as a whole are now part of the client system. Training is performed to solve the business problems of the unit and have a positive impact on the organization. Steps in the Training Process 1. Organizational objectives 2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES & STRATEGIES The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Decision making: In basket Business games Case studies Interpersonal: TA Role play Sensitivity Behaviors Organizational: Position rotation Multiple mgmt Responsible for Training 25
  • 26. Top Mgmt – Frames the Trig policy HT Dept – plans, establishes and evaluates Supervisors – implement and apply development procedure Employees – provide feedback, revision and suggestions Need for Evaluation Training and development staff is becoming more and more accountable for the effectiveness of their programs. Evaluation can be used to determine whether the training achieves its objectives. Evaluation can also assess the value of the training, identify improvement areas and identify unnecessary training that can be eliminated. Many training professionals agree that evaluation is important to successful training, but few conduct complete and thorough evaluations. Evaluation can seem anti-climatic to the excitement and creativity of creating a new course. Typically evaluation is an afterthought or not done at all. "Evaluation builds in rigor. It's an integral part of the whole quality effort. If you don't measure, how do you know whether what you've done is worthwhile?. With more emphasis on return on investment, companies are asking: what is the value of training? Too often, training departments have little or no idea how their training relates to the business objectives of the company. This could be due partially to trainers' lack of measurement and evaluation skills, which result in measurements that are not valid, reliable or even useful to the management of the company. Figure - The Evaluation Process 26
  • 27. Training -- A Model Business changes have resulted in increased pressure on training professionals to demonstrate their worth. Do they do a good job? What is their impact on our work? Is there a cheaper way to do this? What is the value added? What is the effect on our profitability -- that is, will we have a return on our investment in training? The literature of training evaluation provides a framework to answer these questions and has addressed many of the current issues for trainers. Some time ago Donald Kirkpatrick (1975) provided a framework of four levels of evaluation: Level I -- the effectiveness as perceived by the trainee Level II -- measured evaluation of learning Level III --observed performance Level IV-- business impact 27
  • 28. More recently, Jack Phillips (1991) has written that evaluation must go beyond Level IV and focus on real measurement of ROI. Dana Gaines Robinson, who.s writing (1989) redirected the attention of trainers to business impact, now (1995) exhorts trainers to become "performance consultants" and de-emphasizes training as an intervention. Robert Brinkerhoff (1988) uses data gathering and evaluation to make the training function more customer-focused and practice continuous improvement. A New way of looking at Evaluating Training Kirkpatrick's Level I data is still needed to get feedback on the trainee's perceptions of the experience. Level II evaluation has probably become less important in today's business environment. Level III evaluation is all important to both trainees and their business units. Individual performance (Kirkpatrick's Level III) is not a level in itself; it is a focus only when individual performance is the solution of a business problem or is integral to customer satisfaction. Level IV evaluation -- the impact on the business problem probably provides the most important data to the unit and organization. Evaluators must respond to the new requirements by implementing all these concepts and evaluating at multiple levels. These levels will measure training's success at completing its business tasks. 1. Customer Satisfaction. The evaluation of customer satisfaction may be multidimensional for two reasons. First, the definition of training has expanded to include the trainee's unit manager, the unit and the organization -- not just the trainee in the classroom. Second, we are measuring perception of quality, convenience and value. This information is crucial to continuous improvement. 2. Impact on the Business Problem. This level is usually the most important to the business unit manager. It answers the question, "Did the training make a positive difference in the business problem I have?" You work with the business unit manager to identify the business problem up front, not what needs to be taught, delivery or trainees to be serviced. This level of evaluation also makes trainers think of training as one problem solving intervention among many. 3. Return on Investment. Training professionals have no choice but to demonstrate the effects of their work on corporate profitability in today's organization. This is true of every unit in the organization. Whereas it was once considered impossible to measure the ROI of training, many organizations now are doing so. The knowledge to achieve this goal is readily available to the practitioner, although the goal is still difficult, complex and dependent on a long-term perspective. Discussions with cost accounting experts are helpful. However, the goal is reachable and once you begin to measure ROI your process will improve. The challenges to justifying investments in training are significant and more meaningful methods of evaluation will provide solutions. Training professionals are being asked to do more, to meet an expanded definition of "customer." But these changes and the changing organizational context have created new roles and opportunities for training. 28
  • 29. For an organization, the competitive advantage arising from training and development may not be restricted to just equipping people with the requisite skills and knowledge. It also has a tremendous impact on the recruitment and retention of employees. At the American Society of Training and Development 2005 International Conference and Expo, keynote speakers outlined research results that indicate employee learning and skill development not only increase the bottom line but are high on the list of criteria that job applicants seek. Training and development has moved up on the business agenda and the challenge is now for the trainers to demonstrate to our colleagues in the boardroom that development is not simply a motivational tool. It also strengthens and adds value to the individual and the organization as a whole. Today it is not sufficient for a trainer to conduct a workshop using well prepared presentations, an articulate manner with a generous display of theatrical skills to hold audience attention. The bottom line and focus is the effectiveness of a training workshop. The question posed by most trainers is. How can I ensure that a Trainee learns in a classroom to make a difference in the workplace? This is the real challenge. Training effectiveness as we can see needs to be gauged from 2 angles; delivery style of Instructor and post training follow ups by them. As students, we can recall classrooms where the teacher determined the content, structure, sequence, presentation and evaluation of instruction. As a matter of fact, most formal education relies on this model. However, for some students who are curious and internally motivated, striking out on their own can result in a richer and more successful learning experience than one directed by the teacher. Likewise, teaching styles depend on the instructor and can differ profoundly from individual to individual. An individual’s teaching style will usually result in greater or lesser degrees of comfort with the many instructional tactics employed, such as lecture, roleplay, small group activities, simulations, etc. When these 2 conditions-the learning orientation of the student and the teaching style of the instructor -are successfully integrated, effective learning can occur. The predominant learning philosophy underlying the design of many of today’s training programs comes from the behavioral tradition that dominated the psychology of learning until the 1960s. What interested me is that Behavioral science defines learning as changes in behavior while cognitive science defines learning as changes in mental structures what goes on inside our heads. The Behavioral model is grounded in the following basic assumptions: 1. Observable behavior, rather than ideas or mental activity, must occur to confirm that learning has taken place. 2. The environment shapes the behavior of the learner, not the reverse. 3. How closely in time teaching and learning bond together and reinforcement occurs is critical. 29
  • 30. `The behaviorist takes the position that the learner moves from a low-level, knowledgebase state through a rule-based state to a skill based state. And by organizing training around this philosophy, outcomes can be determined through a series of measured and measurable accomplishments. Don Kirkpatrick's 4 levels of evaluation One of the most widely used model for evaluating training programs is one that was proposed in 1959 by Donald L. Kirkpatrick. The model maintains that there are four levels to measure the quality or effectiveness of a training course. Moving down the column, the matrix presents these levels, in order, from simple and inexpensive to complex and costly. Each level has its advantages and disadvantages. It is important to plan the evaluation process as the training is being planning. It is important to consider all levels at the outset, even though only one or two levels may be used ultimately. The four levels of Kirkpatrick's framework are defined below using Kirkpatrick's original definitions. 1. Reactions. "Reaction may best be defined as how well the trainees liked a particular training program." Reactions are typically measured at the end of training. However, that is a summative or end-of-course assessment and reactions are also measured during the Training, even if only informally in terms of the instructor's perceptions. 2. Learning. "What principles, facts and techniques were understood and absorbed by the conferees?" What the trainees know or can do, can be measured during and at the end of training but, in order to say that this knowledge or skill resulted from the training, the trainees' entering knowledge or skills levels must also be known or measured. Evaluating learning, then, requires measurements before, during and after training. 3. Behavior. Changes in .on-the-job behavior. Kirkpatrick did not originally offer a definition per se for this element in his framework; nevertheless, the definition just presented is taken verbatim from Kirkpatrick's writings. The fourth and final article. Clearly, any evaluation of changes in on-the-job behavior must occur in the workplace itself. It should be kept in mind, however, that behavior changes are acquired in training and they then transfer (or don't transfer) to the work place. It is deemed useful, therefore, to assess behavior changes at the end of training and in the workplace. Indeed, the origins of human performance technology can be traced to early investigations of disparities between behavior changes realized in training and those realized on the job. The seminal work in this regard is Karen Brethower's paper, "Maintenance: The Neglected Half of Behavior Change". 4. Results. Kirkpatrick did not offer a formal definition for this element of his framework either. Instead, he relied on a range of examples to make clear his meaning. Those 30
  • 31. examples are herewith repeated. "Reduction of costs; reduction of turnover and absenteeism; reduction of grievances; increase in quality and quantity or production; or improved morale which, it is hoped, will lead to some of the previously stated results." These factors are also measurable in the workplace. It is worth noting that there is a shifting of conceptual gears between the third and fourth elements in Kirkpatrick's framework. The first three elements center on the trainees; their reactions, their learning and changes in their behavior. The fourth element shifts to a concern with organizational payoffs or business results. The following is a description of Kirkpatrick's 4 levels of evaluating training: Donald Kirkpatrick's 4 Levels of Evaluating Training Levels Description Comments Level 1 Trainee reaction to course. The Most primitive and Reaction Does the trainee like the widely-used method of course? Usually in the form of evaluation. It is easy, quick, evaluation forms sometimes and inexpensive to called .smile sheets.. administer. Negative indicators could mean difficultly learning in the course. Level 2 Learning Did the trainee learn what was based in the course objectives? Level 3 Behavior Trainee behavior changes on the job - are the learners applying what they learned? Level 4 Results Ties training to the company's bottom line. Generally applies to training that seeks to overcome a business problem caused by lack of knowledge or skill. Learning can be measured by pre- and post tests, either through written test or through performance tests. Difficult to do. Follow up questionnaire or observations after training class has occurred. Telephone interviews can also be conducted. Examples include reductions in costs, turnover, absenteeism and grievances. The results of training When we speak of measuring the results of training --we mean results beyond those of simply equipping people with the skills and knowledge necessary to carry out their assigned tasks and duties -- we are redefining training as an intervention, as a solution to some problem other than equipping people to do their jobs. In cases where skill and 31
  • 32. knowledge deficiencies are leading to mistakes, errors, defects, waste and so on, one might argue (and many do) that training which eliminates these deficiencies and in turn reduces mistakes, errors, defects and waste, is a solution to a performance problem. This argument is extended to assert that the reductions in mistakes, errors, defects and waste, as well as the financial value of any such reductions constitute the "results" of training. The logic of this argument has a certain superficial appeal but it is far from impeccable and even farther from compelling. In short, it does not withstand serious scrutiny. It is frequently pointless to ask "What business results were achieved as a result of training?" because the goal of training is generally one of preventing mistakes, errors, defects and waste, not correcting them. Thus, by a strange twist of circumstances, the only way to prove that such training is successful is to shut down the training. As is the case with some other things, it is sometimes the case with training that the true measure of its value lies in its absence, not its presence, but shutting down training is hardly a practical way of testing that proposition. Measuring Training Effectiveness Training can be measured in a variety of ways including [List (Items I-V) is in increasing order of business value]: I - Prior to training The number of people that say they need it during the needs assessment process. The number of people that sign up for it. II - At the end of training The number of people that attend the session. The number of people that paid to attend the session. Customer satisfaction (attendees) at the end of training. Customer satisfaction at the end of training when customers know the actual costs of the training. A measurable change in knowledge or skill at end of training. Ability to solve a "mock" problem at end of training. Willingness to try or intent to use the skill/ knowledge at end of training. III - Delayed impact (non-job) Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the end of training. Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the training when customers know the actual costs of the training. Retention of knowledge at X weeks after the end of training. Ability to solve a "mock" problem at X weeks after end of training. Willingness to try (or intent to use) the skill/ knowledge at X weeks after the end of the training. IV - On the job behavior change Trained individuals that self-report that they changed their behavior / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months). Trained individuals whose managers report that they changed their behavior / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months). 32
  • 33. Trained individuals that actually are observed to change their behavior / use the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months). V - On the job performance change Trained individuals that self-report that their actual job performance changed as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months). Trained individuals who's manager's report that their actual job performance changed as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months). Trained individuals who's manager's report that their job performance changed (as a result of their changed behavior / skill) either through improved performance appraisal scores or specific notations about the training on the performance appraisal form (within X months). Trained individuals that have observable / measurable (improved sales, quality, speed etc.) improvement in their actual job performance as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months). The performance of employees that are managed by (or are part of the same team with) individuals that went through the training. Departmental performance in departments with X % of employees that went through training ROI (Cost/Benefit ratio) of return on training dollar spent (compared to our competition, last year, other offered training, preset goals etc.). 33
  • 34. OTHER MEASURES CEO / Top management knowledge of / approval of / or satisfaction with the training program. Rank of training seminar in forced ranking by managers of what factors (among miscellaneous staff functions) contributed most to productivity/ profitability improvement. Number (or %) of referrals to the training by those who have previously attended the training. Additional number of people who were trained (cross-trained) by those who have previously attended the training and their change in skill/ behavior/ performance. Popularity (attendance or ranking) of the program compared to others (for voluntary training programs. 34
  • 35. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Training effectiveness is easier to measure in technical training but when it comes to soft skills training it is a whole different ballgame. .Has the workshop actually made a difference to the way a trainee performs back on the job?. How can this be measured in definite, quantifiable terms? One can sooner ask these questions and seldom answer them, resulting in much head scratching and frustration. Many companies today are pouring resources into training and developing their employees. Some organizations rely heavily on external expertise whilst some engage inhouse resources and material. Benefits, results, measurement, return on investment, behavioral change, performance improvement, accountability and learning applied on the job are the .new age. Language of education, training and performance of development. Tony Bingham, CEO and president of American Society for Training and Development [ASTD] states that, .To be relevant, the workplace learning and performance professional must be able to prove that the learning initiatives of the organization are driving meaningful results. Organizations that merely measure the quantity or the dollar amount of their learning activities miss the boat. It’s not how much you do or how much you spend; it’s how you leverage the investment by generating results and communicating their impact. Training design includes the sequencing of training events, deciding the evaluating strategy and incorporating learning principles to maximize learning and transfer. A key dilemma for training designers is how to determine the behaviors that are likely to be modified or enhanced by the various instructional approaches. Employee attitude is a very important aspect in the corporate world where it has to be tackled like an emergency. Therefore research in this area becomes very crucial. Crores of rupees are being spent annually by corporate on training but is there a proportional ROI being received by the Companies? Is there a change noticed by managers in their team members? Are they seeing them more effective at the work place? In most trainers. Experience, one interesting thing that has been observed is that people change their behavior only when they feel the need to change it. But then there has to be somebody who can act as a .change agent. to bring about this inner realization in the individual. A trainer feels that training does make people reflect within and motivates them to change. Having said this, the researcher does understand and acknowledge that a lot 35
  • 36. depends on the way or methodology a trainer adopts in bringing about this motivation in his or her participants. This assumption gives rise to one basic question. What is the best methodology to bring in a change? Or alternatively, how does a trainer come to know that what he or she is training is helping people and prompting them to change? While it’s true that the feedback a trainer takes soon after the training session does help him or her know how the program was received by the participants, however it doesn’t help him to know if the learning will be taken forward by the participants outside the classroom to bring about the necessary change. While a mere 2% consider assessing trainee reactions to be the purpose of evaluation and 50% see the purpose as judging the quality and worth of the program in order to effect improvements and/or identify the benefits of the training it should be remembered that studies already referred to provide evidence that many trainers are not evaluating beyond the level of trainee reactions. What trainers believe should be done and what they do in practice seem to differ markedly. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 1. Since the scope of research is restricted to one unit in one area, the problem of generalization is obvious. 2. Research investigation is restricted to select key personnel of the organization. 3. Respondents may not have been open and honest in their responses. 36
  • 37. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Q1. In your company, induction training is given more importance now than in the past. TABLE 1 IMPORTANCE OF INDUCTION PROGRAM VERY TRUE 10 MOSTLY TRUE 9 PARTLY TRUE 5 NOT TRUE 6 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-1 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q2. The induction program is a well-planned exercise and is of sufficient duration. TABLE 2 EXERCISE EXECUTION 37
  • 38. VERY TRUE 12 MOSTLY TRUE 8 PARTLY TRUE 6 NOT TRUE 4 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-2 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q3. Senior managers spend time with the new recruits during induction training. TABLE 3 TIME MANAGEMENT VERY MOSTLY TRUE TRUE 3 2 PARTLY TRUE 4 NOT TRUE 21 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-3 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION 38
  • 39. SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q4. There is a structured widely-shared training policy in your company based on the business needs. TABLE 4 TRAINING STRUCTURE VERY TRUE 8 MOSTLY TRUE 10 PARTLY TRUE 5 NOT TRUE 7 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-4 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q5. Your company’s training and development programs are evaluated and improved upon every year. TABLE 5 EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 6 5 8 11 30 39
  • 40. very most part not Graph-5 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q6. Employees are helped to upgrade their technical knowledge and skills through training. TABLE 6 ROLE OF TRAINING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 16 12 1 1 30 very most part not Graph-6 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q7.Trainees are encouraged and rewarded for training to acquire higher qualifications. TABLE 7 REWARD FOR EMPLOYEES VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL 40
  • 41. TRUE 17 TRUE 3 TRUE 8 TRUE 2 30 very most part not SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q8. Human relations competencies are developed through training in human skills. TABLE 8 HUMAN SKILLS DEVELOPED THROUGH TRAINING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 10 11 3 1 30 very most part not Graph-8 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q9. Employees are sponsored for training programs on the basis of carefully identified needs. 41
  • 42. TABLE 9 NEED IDENTIFICATION TO SELECT TRAINEES VERY MOSTLY PARTLY TRUE TRUE TRUE 8 10 5 NOT TRUE 7 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-9 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q10. Employees participate in determining their training and know the skills they must acquire. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 13 12 5 0 30 very most part not Graph-10 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) 42
  • 43. Q11. Experimental action-oriented techniques, including games, are used in training programs. TABLE 11 TECHNIQUES USED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 12 9 8 1 30 very most part not Graph-11 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q12. Impact evaluations are conducted and used for the revision of training programs. TABLE 12 REVISION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 2 6 5 17 30 43
  • 44. very most part not Graph-12 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q13. Various methods are used to help employees learn and implement creative ideas. TABLE 13 METHODS OF DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE 7 11 10 2 30 very most part not Graph-13 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q14. A system of mentoring providing emotional support and guidance to young managers is followed. TABLE 14 MENTORING FOR THE YOUNG MANAGERS 44
  • 45. VERY TRUE 12 MOSTLY TRUE 8 PARTLY TRUE 7 NOT TRUE 3 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-14 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q15. The company encourages and supports self-learning and education by its managers. TABLE 15 SELF-LEARNING ENCOURAGED AND SUPPORTED BY COMPANY VERY TRUE 2 MOSTLY TRUE 6 PARTLY TRUE 6 NOT TRUE 18 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-15 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) Q16. Managers are provided with opportunities to perform different tasks and acquire competencies. 45
  • 46. TABLE 16 OPPORTUNITIES TO PUT IN PRACTICE TRAINING DATA VERY TRUE 7 MOSTLY TRUE 1 PARTLY TRUE 2 NOT TRUE 20 TOTAL 30 very most part not Graph-16 SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATION SAMPLE DESCRIPTION: Training Managers (1), Asst.Manager (2), Management (3), Trainers (4), Trainee (20) A SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS Induction programs in companies have not gained much importance over the years even as industries are growing at a very fast pace. The induction program must be well planned and of sufficient duration. During the induction program, managers must spend time with the new recruits in order to welcome them and make them feel at home. Highest number of respondents believes that every company has a well structured training program which is evaluated and revised regularly in order to gain the maximum benefit. Impact evaluations are also conducted and the findings used in the improvement process. The employees should be involved in the designing of the training programs. The skills needed are also analyzed before the commencement of any training program. Motivation can be provided to employees in the form of rewards. Before any candidates are selected for 46
  • 47. training, the need for training is done. Based on the need identification, trainees are sponsored. Leadership skills are also developed through training programs. The trainees are briefed and debriefed for the training session. The training programs should be conducted by the best faculty that the company can access. The training programs should also contain experimental action-oriented techniques which includes games. The learning and retention process is faster when these kinds of programs are used. The managers should be provided the opportunity to transfer the skills and knowledge obtained through the training. RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations emerge from our research findings: Provide better training facilities for employees. Customized rewards and incentives. Provide updated technology and software packages. Encourage time off for self development. Provide challenging work profile and clear career path. Provide and open work culture facilitating individual growth. Create a dynamic organization open to changes. 47
  • 48. Ensure transparency in all processes. Provide an increase in responsibility and quality work. Avoid indifferent attitude and interference in work. Improve communication and communication channel. Management should avoid adhoc decision-making. Avoid politics, bureaucracy, favoritism that could de-motivate employees. Provide facilities for outbound learning Provide facilities for training for creativity by adopting EREWHON MODEL. Some of the best practices in this regard are (a) break down the creative process into several steps that can be easily taught (b) instill the importance of suspending judgment till other options emerge; (c) teach people to look at a problem from the prospective of the customer (d) train managers to get the creative chemistry right between team members (d) transfer creative practices which have been adopted by people in related fields Train for leadership. Some of the best corporate practices are: (a) institutionalize leadership training for every tier of the company (b) invest in an off-job leadership training module to initiate the process (c) develop a formal in-house program to retrain people in leadership (d) modify the rewards system to constantly reinforce leadership behavior (e) insist 'A Team' sets standards of leadership by example Train for total quality. Some of the best practices are: (a) provide employees firsthand experience of global corporate practices (b) ensure that supervisors and managers are trained along with workers (c) expose employees to the environments in which customers use the products (d) constantly retrain employees in the theory and practice of TQM including six sigma (e) link quality in the workplace to quality on employees' lives Retrain the middle managers who are prone to obsolescence. Some of the best practices are: (a) detail every competence and skill which middle managers must process (b) revise training schedules only to retrain them for their new roles (c) devote two-thirds of training budget to retrain middle managers (d) use job rotation as a crash course in retraining middle managers (e) expose middle managers to key customers as often as possible Provide facilities induction training module vigorously Use experiential learning technique profusely in the training and development program particularly in cross-cultural training To sum up, auditing the effectiveness of training and development programs is a tedious task. The focus of the systems-level audit should be on: • Making learning one of the fundamental values of the company • Committing major resources and adequate time to training • Using training to bridge the gap with the external environment • Integrating training into initiatives for change management • Using training as developmental tool for individual employees • Linking organizational, operational and individual training needs • Installing training systems that substitute work experience • Ensuring the training allows the soft skills to bloom • Using retraining to continuously upgrade employees' skills • Creating a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training 48
  • 49. Implication for further research The following are the fertile areas for further research The following are the fertile areas for further research: Training Templates. A Diagnostic Study Evaluation of Cross Cultural Training Programs Evaluation of Experiential Training Programs 49
  • 50. Evaluation of Training Program for Creativity Evaluation of Training Program for TQM Evaluation of Training Program for Retraining the Middle Managers SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: 1. "EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT" EDITED BY RAYMOND A. NOE , McGraw-HILL.(chapter-1,2,& 3) 2. EFFECTIVE TRAINING SYSTEM, STRATEGIES,& PRACTICE BY P.NICK BLANCHARD,J.W THACKER & V.A RAM. (Page-288-320) 3. .HAND BOOK OF TRAINING EVALUATION & MEASUREMENT METHODS. BY JACK J. PHILLIPS, GULF PUBLICATION COMPANY, THIRD EDITION. 4. .TRAINING FOR DEVELOPMENT. BY ROLF PLYNTON, UDAI PAREEK, VISTAR PUBLICATION, SECOND EDITION. 50
  • 51. 5. .HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BY JOHAR IVANCEVICH, TATA Mc GRAW HILL, 2003. . (Chapter-3) JOURNALS: 1. HUMAN CAPITAL 2. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 3. ICFAI EFFECTIVE EXECUTIVE 4. ICFAI HRM REVIEW BUSINESSMAGAZINES: 1. BUSINESS TODAY 2. BUSINESS WORLD 3. THE ECONOMIC TIMES 4. BUSINESS STANDARD 5. BUSINESS LINE WEBSITES: www.bpl.bd.org www.clomedia.com www.training.expert.com www.astd.org www.hr.com www.icfaipress.org www.trainingcontent.com www.slideshare.net www.coopzone.coop/.../CoopZ www.sba.pdx.edu/.../TrainingD hrcouncil.ca/.../learning-implem www.un-bd.org/.../Voume%20 www.unfpa.org.np www.1.msh.org Annexure: Questionnaire Q1. In your company, induction training is given more importance now than in the past. Q2. The induction program is a well-planned exercise and is of sufficient duration. Q3. Senior managers spend time with the new recruits during induction training. Q4. There is a structured widely-shared training policy in your company based on the business needs. 51
  • 52. Q5. Your company’s training and development programs are evaluated and improved upon every year. Q6. Employees are helped to upgrade their technical knowledge and skills through training. Q7.Trainees are encouraged and rewarded for training to acquire higher qualifications. Q8. Human relations competencies are developed through training in human skills. Q9. Employees are sponsored for training programs on the basis of carefully identified needs. Q10. Employees participate in determining their training and know the skills they must acquire. Q11. Experimental action-oriented techniques, including games, are used in training programs. Q12. Impact evaluations are conducted and used for the revision of training programs. Q13. Various methods are used to help employees learn and implement creative ideas. Q14. A system of mentoring providing emotional support and guidance to young managers is followed. Q15. The company encourages and supports self-learning and education by its managers. Q16. Managers are provided with opportunities to perform different tasks and acquire competencies. 52