Birth control


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Birth control

  1. 1. Chapter 18<br />Birth Control<br />
  2. 2. History<br />Before birth control methods were around, couples had to rely on withdrawal.<br />1838 The first rubber condoms and diaphragms.<br />1873 The Comstock act passes in the U.S. and prohibits any kind of information, advertizing, and distribution of birth control. <br />1916 First birth control clinic opened by Margaret Sanger, she is sentenced to 30 days in jail for maintaining a public nuisance, then re-opens her clinic upon her release. <br />1938 Ban on birth control is lifted as a result of a case involving Margaret Sanger and condoms and diaphragms become popular.<br />1950 Margaret Sanger helps raise funds to research and create first human birth control pill leading to Enovid, the first oral contraceptive. <br />1960s Intrauterine Devices first manufactured in U.S, feminists rally about the safety of the pill, leading to modifications. <br />1975, IUDs recalled and ALL IUDs are taken off the market due to Dalkon shield causing infertility in thousands of users.<br />1980s and 90s low dose pills are introduced as well as injectables and implants.<br />1992 EMERGENCY contraceptive more widely known.<br />There is still constant research on birth control methods and there are still some barriers preventing women from obtaining contraceptives.<br />
  3. 3. Male Condom<br />Prevent pregnancy by preventing sperm from reaching the cervix.<br />Effectiveness depends on how consistently and correctly they are used.<br />Condoms have fewer side effects in comparison to other birth control methods and can help prevent STIs.<br />Condoms are usually made of latex and come in a variety of sizes, colors, and textures. <br /> Fit over an erect penis and stop sperm from entering the uterus. <br />Only method that has been proven to protect against HIV.<br />polyurethane condoms are just as effective, however they have a higher chance of breaking. <br />If used correctly, condoms are 98% effective in preventing pregnancy.<br />
  4. 4. Female Condom<br />Thin polyurethane sheath that has a soft ring on each end, one ring covered in polyurethane is used to fit over the cervix and act as an “anchor.” the other ring stays outside of the vagina and covers the perineum and the labia.<br />Only one kind available, called FC.<br />Does not deteriorate with oil based lubricants.<br />Prevents against pregnancy and STIs and when used consistently and correctly it is 95% effective in preventing pregnancy.<br />Not as effective as male condom or hormonal birth control.<br />
  5. 5. Diaphragm<br />Shallow, dome shaped, soft rubber cup.<br />Fits in vagina to protect cervix.<br />A spermicide is placed in the cup facing the cervix to kill sperm and prevent them from entering uterus. <br />Helps prevent pregnancy and STIs including gonorrhea and Chlamydia.<br />Not as effective as the pill or IUD, it is however a safer method.<br />Some women find it inconvenient since it is messy and needs to be inserted prior to intercourse. <br />Can cause cramping, as well as bladder infections.<br />Needs to be fitted at a clinic.<br />
  6. 6. The Pill<br />The first 21 pills are made up of synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones , the last 7 have no hormones and are called spacer or sugar pills, that is when monthly bleeding will occur.<br />The pill stops ovulation, meaning the ovaries do not release eggs.<br />Cervical fluid thickens, making it harder for sperm to enter the uterus.<br />Very effective, but does not help prevent against STIs.<br />99% effective if it is taken correctly, meaning everyday!<br />May cause lighter or more regular period.<br />Reduces risks of ovarian cysts.<br />Protects against uterine and ovarian cancers<br />Can have unpleasant side effects, however birth control is the most researched medication in history.<br />
  7. 7. Mini Pill<br />The mini pill does the same thing as a combination pill only it only contains progestin and not estrogen. There are less side effects associated with it and it also may be helpful in dealing with PMS or PMDD, a downside to these pills are that they can cause hunger, which may lead to weight gain.<br />
  8. 8. The Patch<br />Very effective and reversible.<br />May be more effective then pill, due to the fact that it only needs to be applied once a week, not everyday. <br />99% effective in women under 198lbs.<br />Problems with effectiveness occur when the patch becomes loose for longer then 24 hours or is left on longer then a week.<br />Has the same advantages and disadvantages as the pill.<br />
  9. 9. Vaginal Ring<br /> A thin flexible ring that is inserted into the vagina. The ring gets left in the vagina for three weeks and then is taken out for one week. Estrogen and progestin are slowly released stopping ovulation and thickening cervical fluid. The ring does not protect against STIs and there is currently only one available ring, Nuvaring.<br />
  10. 10. Depo-Provera<br />An injection of progestin that lasts for three months and is usually injected in the arm or buttock. Many women like knowing that they are protected for three months, but some women have bad side effects and the drug stays in your system for six months after being discontinued! The shot is 99.7% effective in preventing pregnancy. Weight gain is a possible side effect for this method.<br />
  11. 11. Implants<br />Soft hormone filled capsules inserted under skin or arm.<br />Removal can be difficult.<br />In rare cases implants can cause sudden blindness. <br />99% effective.<br />Lasts 3-5 years depending on system.<br />A local anesthetic is needed to make an incision in the arm for insertion.<br />
  12. 12. IUD<br />Small plastic device that contains copper or progestin and fits inside the uterus.<br />Strings are attached and extend downward through the cervix and vagina so that one can make sure it is in place.<br />Not usually noticeable during sex.<br />Effective for ten years.<br />99% effective.<br />Two types of IUD available: ParaGaurd and Mirena. <br />Said to be one of the safest and most effective methods of birth control around.<br />Not advised for women who are not in monogamous relationships. <br />
  13. 13. Tubal Ligation<br />Known as “getting your tubes tied,” closes the fallopian tubes via surgical procedure. This stops the egg from traveling to the uterus and also prevents sperm from reaching the fallopian tubes. Surgery does not prevent against STIs or reproductive tract infections. During the procedure the tubes are cut, burned or blocked. The most common techniques used are mini-laparotomies and laparoscopy. After surgery one can return to having sex usually with in the week. <br />
  14. 14. Vasectomy<br />A sterilization technique for men where the vas deferens are cut in a minor surgery. The surgery causes sperm to longer mix with semen during ejaculation, meaning the sperm cannot fertilize an egg. This process is much more simple then tubal ligation, it takes under 15 minutes! Female sterilization is effective immediately, but a vasectomy can take up to two months to be effective.<br />
  15. 15. Abstinence<br />Complete Abstinence<br /><ul><li> Most effective form of birth control
  16. 16. No side effects
  17. 17. STI free
  18. 18. No chance of pregnancy
  19. 19. Free!
  20. 20. Can be hard to go without sex</li></ul>Lovemaking without intercourse<br /><ul><li>highly effective method of birth control
  21. 21. free
  22. 22. Allows you to experience sexual pleasure with a partner, without the risk of pregnancy
  23. 23. Risk of transmitting STIs
  24. 24. SLIGHT risk of pregnancy if semen comes in contact with vagina</li></li></ul><li>Withdrawal (pulling out)<br /> Removing the penis from the vagina just before ejaculation so that sperm is released outside of the vagina, pregnancy is still a possibility, often pre-ejaculate can spill on the vulva.<br />CONS<br /><ul><li> Some men cannot tell when they are about to ejaculate
  25. 25. Some men lack self control
  26. 26. Some men ejaculate too quickly
  27. 27. Some men say they will pull out, but do not
  28. 28. Women have a hard time enjoying themselves if they worry about their partner pulling out on time</li>