Working with data.open.ac.uk, the Linked Data Platform of the Open University

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Presentation of the Linked Data work realised at the Open University to the IT developer's forum - 10/05/2011

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  • Usual pitch: - data on the web = every piece of data is web addressable, so data across different places/stores/systems become linkable: the Web = 1 data space
  • Working with data.open.ac.uk, the Linked Data Platform of the Open University

    1. 1. Working with data.open.ac.uk, <br />the linked data platform of the OU<br />Mathieu d’Aquin and the LUCERO team <br />@mdaquin<br />Knowledge Media Institute, the Open University<br />LUCERO project <br />lucero-project.info – data.open.ac.uk<br />
    2. 2. Linked Data<br />As set of principles and technologies for a Web of Data<br />Putting the “raw” data online in a standard, web enabled representation (RDF)<br />Make the data Web addressable (URIs)<br />Link with other data <br />
    3. 3. Graph (up to date)<br />
    4. 4. So Linked Data for the OU?<br />RAE<br />DBPedia<br />Data from <br />Research <br />Outputs<br />OpenLearn<br />Content<br />ORO<br />Exposed as linked data, our data interlink with each other and the external world: become part of the “global data space” on the Web<br />Archive of <br />Course <br />Material<br />Library’s<br />Catalogue<br />Of Digital<br /> Content<br />geonames<br />data.gov.uk<br />Currently: OU public data sit in different systems – hard to discover, obtain, integrate by users.<br />A/V Material<br />Podcasts<br />iTunesU<br />BBC<br />DBLP<br />
    5. 5. Why is it important?<br />The OU has been the first University to expose its data as linked data: http://data.open.ac.uk<br />Now widely recognized as a critical step forward for the HE sector in the UK (and worldwide)<br />Favor transparency and reuse of data, both externally and internally<br />Reduces cost of dealing with our own public data: integration and reuse by design<br />Enable both new kinds of applications, and to make the ones that are already feasible more cost effective<br />At least 3 other UK universities have now followed our example: <br />http://data.online.lincoln.ac.uk/, http://data.ox.ac.uk/, http://data.southampton.ac.uk/<br />And others in other countries are setting up similar initiatives<br />
    6. 6. “if you are working in an IT department within a University you better read this report, as soon your department will need to be making these same decisions.” <br />David Flanders, <br />JISCExpoProgramme Manager,<br />http://code.google.com/p/jiscexpo/wiki/luceroproject#Site_Visit_Report <br />
    7. 7. The data.open.ac.uk Stack<br />Applications<br />Institutional repository data<br />Research Data (Arts)<br />Organizational infrastructure<br />Technical infrastructure<br />
    8. 8. data.open.ac.uk<br />
    9. 9. Technological principle: Everything has a URI<br />Example:<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/course/m366 – the course M366<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/21166 – an article in ORO<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/page/person/ext-911ee9dfa3db572830b00bd8a9983e39 – an Person, who authored the article above<br />http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person – the type person<br />http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator – the property that links an author to an article<br />
    10. 10. Technological principle: Content negotiation<br />Accept: text/html Accept: application/rdf+xml<br /><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><br /><rdf:RDFxmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><br /><rdf:Descriptionrdf:about="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/9719"><br /> <label xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers directed to MUC1</label><br /> <authorListxmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/9719#authors"/><br /> <title xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers directed to MUC1</title><br /> <abstract xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers against the glycosylated form of MUC1 are described, along with their use in treatment and diagnosis of conditions associated with elevated production of MUC1.</abstract><br /> <isPartOfxmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/repository"/><br /> <status xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/status/peerReviewed"/><br /> <status xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/status/published"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/ext-07bcb3718cb0de7883dc7b8fde7e283d"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/b7fc322e6386517c5ebef3c09d13bd9e"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/ext-7c8b5252e28115f91640559c2fe64ca3"/><br /> <date xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2007-11-15</date><br /> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Article"/><br /> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Patent"/><br /></rdf:Description></rdf:RDF><br />
    11. 11. RDF<br /><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><br /><rdf:RDFxmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"><br /><rdf:Descriptionrdf:about="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/9719"><br /> <label xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers directed to MUC1</label><br /> <authorListxmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/9719#authors"/><br /> <title xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers directed to MUC1</title><br /> <abstract xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">Aptamers against the glycosylated form of MUC1 are described, along with their use in treatment and diagnosis of conditions associated with elevated production of MUC1.</abstract><br /> <isPartOfxmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/oro/repository"/><br /> <status xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/status/peerReviewed"/><br /> <status xmlns="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" rdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/status/published"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/ext-07bcb3718cb0de7883dc7b8fde7e283d"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/b7fc322e6386517c5ebef3c09d13bd9e"/><br /> <creator xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" rdf:resource="http://data.open.ac.uk/person/ext-7c8b5252e28115f91640559c2fe64ca3"/><br /> <date xmlns="http://purl.org/dc/terms/">2007-11-15</date><br /> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Article"/><br /> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Patent"/><br /></rdf:Description></rdf:RDF><br />
    12. 12. By the way…<br />On Study at the OU:<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/course/m366 – if HTML requested, goes to http://www3.open.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/course/m366.htm<br />Try http://www3.open.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/course/m366.rdf<br />
    13. 13. Technological principle: link… also to external datasets<br />Using URIs makes pieces of data directly addressable and linkable on the Web, independently of where the data is:<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/course/m366 isAvailableInhttp://sws.geonames.org/458258/ (Republic of Latvia)<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/organization/the_open_universitysameAshttp://education.data.gov.uk/doc/school/133849<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/location/building/mbbn (Berrill Building North) postcode http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/postcodeunit/MK76AA<br />And others can link to our data…<br />
    14. 14. SPARQL<br />The “SQL” of RDF and linked data<br />Fits the graph data model of RDF<br />Select [variables: ?x ?name, etc.]<br />From [graph, or all graphs if nothing]<br />Where [triple patterns and filters]<br />Order by, limit, offset, etc.<br />SPARQL protocol: simply based on HTTP<br />A SPARQL endpoint is a URL that takes a “query” parameter<br />And return results in the SPARQL xml format<br />See http://data.open.ac.uk<br />
    15. 15. SPARQL: example queries<br />Courses available in Nigeria<br />select distinct ?course<br />where {?course<br /><http://data.open.ac.uk/saou/ontology#isAvailableIn><br /> <http://sws.geonames.org/2328926/>.<br /> ?course a <http://purl.org/vocab/aiiso/schema#Module>}<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/query?query=select%20distinct%20%3Fcourse%20where%20{%3Fcourse%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fsaou%2Fontology%23isAvailableIn%3E%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fsws.geonames.org%2F2328926%2F%3E.%20%3Fcourse%20a%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fvocab%2Faiiso%2Fschema%23Module%3E}<br />
    16. 16. SPARQL: example queries<br />Courses available in Nigeria<br />select distinct ?course<br />where {?course<br /><http://data.open.ac.uk/saou/ontology#isAvailableIn><br /> <http://sws.geonames.org/2328926/>.<br /> ?course a <http://purl.org/vocab/aiiso/schema#Module>}<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/query?query=select%20distinct%20%3Fcourse%20where%20{%3Fcourse%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fsaou%2Fontology%23isAvailableIn%3E%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fsws.geonames.org%2F2328926%2F%3E.%20%3Fcourse%20a%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fvocab%2Faiiso%2Fschema%23Module%3E}<br />
    17. 17. SPARQL: example queries<br />Video podcasts related to postgraduate courses in computing<br />select ?x ?t where {<br />?c <http://purl.org/dc/terms/subject> <http://data.open.ac.uk/topic/computing>. ?c <http://data.open.ac.uk/saou/ontology#courseLevel> <http://data.open.ac.uk/saou/ontology#postgraduate>.<br />?x <http://data.open.ac.uk/podcast/ontology/relatesToCourse> ?c.<br />?x <http://purl.org/dc/terms/title> ?t.<br />?x <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://data.open.ac.uk/podcast/ontology/VideoPodcast>}<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/query?query=select%20%3Fx%20%3Ft%0Awhere%20{%0A%20%20%20%3Fc%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fdc%2Fterms%2Fsubject%3E%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Ftopic%2Fcomputing%3E.%0A%20%20%20%3Fc%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fsaou%2Fontology%23courseLevel%3E%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fsaou%2Fontology%23postgraduate%3E.%0A%20%20%20%3Fx%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fpodcast%2Fontology%2FrelatesToCourse%3E%20%3Fc.%0A%20%20%20%3Fx%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fdc%2Fterms%2Ftitle%3E%20%3Ft.%0A%20%20%20%3Fx%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F1999%2F02%2F22-rdf-syntax-ns%23type%3E%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fpodcast%2Fontology%2FVideoPodcast%3E%0A}&limit=0<br />
    18. 18. SPARQL: example queries<br />Things related to “earthquake”<br />select ?c ?desc where {<br />?c <http://purl.org/dc/terms/description> ?desc .<br />{ {?c <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://data.open.ac.uk/openlearn/ontology/OpenLearnUnit>}<br />UNION<br />{?c <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://data.open.ac.uk/podcast/ontology/VideoPodcast>} }<br />FILTER regex(str(?desc), "earthquake", "i" )}<br />http://data.open.ac.uk/query?query=select%20%3Fc%20%3Fdesc%20where%7B%0A%3Fc%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fpurl.org%2Fdc%2Fterms%2Fdescription%3E%20%3Fdesc%20.%0A%7B%7B%3Fc%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F1999%2F02%2F22-rdf-syntax-ns%23type%3E%0A%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fopenlearn%2Fontology%2FOpenLearnUnit%3E%7D%0AUNION%0A%7B%3Fc%20%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.w3.org%2F1999%2F02%2F22-rdf-syntax-ns%23type%3E%0A%3Chttp%3A%2F%2Fdata.open.ac.uk%2Fpodcast%2Fontology%2FVideoPodcast%3E%7D%7D%0AFILTER%20regex(str(%3Fdesc)%2C%20%22earthquake%22%2C%20%22i%22%20)%0A%7D&limit=0<br />
    19. 19. Expose<br />Store<br />Collect<br />Extract<br />Link<br />Ontologies<br />Scheduler<br />Cleaning rules<br />RDF file (add) RDF file (delete)<br />URL redirection rules<br />RSS Extractor<br />Delete (1)<br />Add (2)<br />RDF Cleaner<br />Web Server<br />ORO, podcast<br />RSS feed<br />RDF file (add) RDF file (delete)<br />Triple Store<br />RSS Updater<br />SPARQL<br />endpoint<br />RDF Extractor<br />New items<br />Obsolete items<br />Each datasets<br />Index<br />Entity Name System<br />Search<br />XML Updater<br />URI creation rules<br />Lib, courses, loc<br />Planning + Logging<br />Generic process<br />Dataset specific process<br />
    20. 20. Method for a exposing a dataset<br /><ul><li> Identify data
    21. 21. Get sample data
    22. 22. Identify Copyright Issues
    23. 23. Identify possible links
    24. 24. Identify users and usage</li></ul>Initial Meeting with Data Owner<br />Lucero Core Team<br />Data Owner<br />Data Modeling sessions<br />Lucero KMi Team<br /><ul><li> Find reusable ontologies
    25. 25. Map onto the data
    26. 26. Identify uncovered parts
    27. 27. Define URI Scheme</li></ul>Data Modeling Validation<br />Lucero Core Team<br />Lucero members<br />Data Owner<br />Development of Extractor<br />URI Creation Rules Definition<br />Deployment<br />Lucero KMi Team<br />
    28. 28. Datasets<br />Already “officially” in place:<br />ORO: more than 18,000 publications from OU researchers<br />Podcasts: 2,500 audio and video tracks from podcast.open.ac.uk, linked to the relate courses<br />Study at the OU: more than 600 live module descriptions<br />OpenLearn: more than 550 Units of course material<br />KMi Staff and Planet newsletter<br />Currently being processed:<br />OU Buildings in MK and regional centers<br />Library Catalogue<br />YouTube channel<br />Old Courses<br />“Reading Experience Database” project <br />People Profiles<br />
    29. 29. Screenshot of the dataset page<br />
    30. 30. Building applications with Linked Data<br />Everything is based on HTTP/XML<br />In principle, just need a Web connection…<br />Libraries available in many languages to manipulate RDF data<br />Java: Jena (http://openjena.org/)<br />PHP: ARC2 (https://github.com/semsol/arc2)<br />Python:RDFLib (http://www.rdflib.net/)<br />…<br />
    31. 31. Example: Accessing data.open.ac.uk with PHP/Arc2<br />include_once("arc2/ARC2.php");<br />// declare the SPARQL endpoint<br />$config = array('remote_store_endpoint' => 'http://data.open.ac.uk/query’,);<br />$store = ARC2::getRemoteStore($config);<br />// Execute a SPARQL query<br />$postcodesq = 'select distinct ?p where {[] <http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ontology/postcode/postcode> ?p.}’;<br />$rows = $store->query($postcodesq, 'rows');<br />// Display the results<br />foreach($rows as $row) {<br /> echo $row[‘p’].”</br/>”;<br />}<br />
    32. 32. Applications<br />For education <br />Mobile podcast explorer, podcast explorer on TV <br />OU Building Map, OU location tracker (cf. foursquare)<br />OU Expert Search<br />Connecting courses/OpenLearn to relevant podcast<br />OU Course Profile Facebook app using list of courses, “Study Buddy” app connecting facebook users to relevant courses<br />For Research<br />Display connections in a research community<br />Research Data/Impact Analysis<br />Connection research datasets to external data <br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Example application: Link OpenLearn to relevant course/podcasts<br />
    35. 35. Example Application: keep track of location, meetings, tutorials, at the OU<br />
    36. 36. Example application:<br />Expert Search using publication information and connecting to contact information within the OU<br />
    37. 37. Example application: Explore Information about a person in the “Reading Experience Database” based on data provided by DBPedia (Linked Data version of Wikipedia)  New ways to look at humanities research data<br />
    38. 38. Example application: exploring research communities<br />
    39. 39. The future<br />More data… always more data<br />More links, especially to external entities <br />BBC<br />Government agencies<br />Other universities<br />More applications:<br />Integration into main OU websites (e.g., study at the OU)<br />Integration into common OU applications (people profile, Facebook course profile, etc.)<br />Support for common OU processes (REF audit, course recommendation, providing resources to AL and lecturers)<br />Connecting to other Universities<br />Many other universities in the UK and abroad are making the move to linked data (see linkeduniversities.org)<br />Linked data has the potential to create connections across institutions, a data-based network on higher education course providers<br />
    40. 40. Conclusion<br />Linked data is more than an emerging, academic trend. <br />data.open.ac.uk and linked data in general are fast becoming very valuable resources for developers, internally and externally <br />We are very proud to have been the first university to really deploy a linked data platform<br />Needs to sustain and evolve as a core service at the OU… <br />… and as a key component of the Web of University Linked Data<br />
    41. 41. Thank You<br />SalmanElahi<br />((Ex)-Dev)<br />Carlo Allocca<br />(Dev)<br />Jane Whild<br />(Admin)<br />FouadZablith<br />(Dev)<br />KMi<br />AndriyNikolov<br />(linking)<br />Enrico Motta<br />(SGP)<br />Mathieu d’Aquin<br />(PD)<br />Arts<br />Suzanne Duncanson-Hunter<br />John Wolfe<br />Paul Lawrence<br />Richard Nurse<br />((ex-)PM)<br />Owen Stephens<br />(PM)<br />Stuart Brown<br />Com./<br />Student<br />Comp.<br />Services<br />Data Owners<br />Non Scantlebury<br />Library <br />Specialists<br />Arts Specialists<br />OU Library<br />

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