Using the Semantic Web, and Contributing to it
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Using the Semantic Web, and Contributing to it

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  • First, quick presentation: Semantic web, ontologies, etc. (big vision, but we are mainly talking about making real things out of it…) Using the semantic web? (what is there to reuse… ???) Put need for a gateway… so Watson… applications Also, use it for … euh evaluating things:: agreement/disagreement (would be useful) This is passive… contributing change from watson to cupboard (image from ontolog) + them provide QUALITY semantic web stuff (metadata, reviews, etc.) But that is still quite some effort  trust in the watson plugin (and poweraqua?)
  • Ideally, an image of the stats of sindice or Swoogle
  • This is the first page of results from Flickr. These results are the most interesting as opposed to the most recent (which means that it is possible to have higher relevance to the query)
  • Querying Flickr with the words “dolphin” then “seal” … we get the results demonstrated above

Using the Semantic Web, and Contributing to it Using the Semantic Web, and Contributing to it Presentation Transcript

  • Using the Semantic Web, and Contributing to it Mathieu d’Aquin KMi, The Open University – m.daquin@open.ac.uk
  • Semantic Web A large scale, heterogenous collection of formal , machine processable, ontology-based statements (semantic metadata) about web resources and other entities in the world, expressed in a XML-based syntax <rdf:RDF> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=&quot;&quot;> <owl:imports rdf:resource=&quot;http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#&quot;/> </owl:Ontology> <j.1:Organization rdf:ID=&quot;KMi&quot;> <rdfs:comment rdf:datatype=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&quot; >The Knoledge Media Institute of the Open University, Milton Keynes UK</rdfs:comment> </j.1:Organization> <j.1:Document rdf:ID=&quot;KMiWebSite&quot;> … <rdf:RDF> <channel rdf:about=“http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/blog”> <title>Elementaries - The Watson Blog</title> <link>http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk:8080/blog/</link> <description> &quot;Oh dear! Where the Semantic Web is going to go now?&quot; -- imaginary user 23 </description> <language>en</language> <copyright>Watson team</copyright> <lastBuildDate>Thu, 01 Mar 2007 13:49:52 GMT</lastBuildDate> <generator>Pebble (http://pebble.sourceforge.net)</generator> <docs>http://backend.userland.com/rss</docs> …
  • Metadata UoD <rdf:RDF> <channel rdf:about=“http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk/blog”> <title>Elementaries - The Watson Blog</title> <link>http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk:8080/blog/</link> <description> &quot;Oh dear! Where the Semantic Web is going to go now?&quot; -- imaginary user 23 </description> <language>en</language> <copyright>Watson team</copyright> <lastBuildDate>Thu, 01 Mar 2007 13:49:52 GMT</lastBuildDate> <generator>Pebble (http://pebble.sourceforge.net)</generator> <docs>http://backend.userland.com/rss</docs> … <rdf:RDF> <foaf:Image rdf:about='http://static.flickr.com/132/400582453_e1e1f8602c.jpg'> <dc:title>Zen wisteria</dc:title> <dc:description></dc:description> <foaf:page rdf:resource='http://www.flickr.com/photos/xcv/400582453/'/> <foaf:topic rdf:resource='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/vittelgarden/'/> <foaf:topic rdf:resource='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/wisteria/'/> <dc:creator> <foaf:Person><foaf:name>Mathieu d'Aquin</foaf:name> … <rdf:RDF> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=&quot;&quot;> <owl:imports rdf:resource=&quot;http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#&quot;/> </owl:Ontology> <j.1:Organization rdf:ID=&quot;KMi&quot;> <rdfs:comment rdf:datatype=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string&quot; >The Knoledge Media Institute of the Open University, Milton Keynes UK</rdfs:comment> </j.1:Organization> <j.1:Document rdf:ID=&quot;KMiWebSite&quot;> … FOAF DC RSS TAP WORDNET NCI Galen Music … … … … …
  • OK, nice… but what’s the reality? 2007 2008 2009
  • So, Using the Semantic Web?
    • Many research and development efforts in
      • Supporting the design of ontologies (methodologies, toolkits, editors, etc.)
      • Supporting the annotation Web resources (natural language processing, information extraction, etc.)
      • Supporting the publication of semantic data and information online (linking open data, `semantification’ of legacy information systems
    • Resulting in an explosion of the amount of machine processable knowledge online.
    • Now the question is: What to do with it? How to exploit it? What are the missing infrastructure components necessary to develop Semantic Web application?
  • Next Generation Semantic Web Applications NG SW Application Semantic Web Smart Features
    • Able to e xploit the SW at large
      • Dynamically retrieving the relevant semantic resources
      • Combining several, heterogeneous Ontologies
  • Next Generation Semantic Web Applications Dynamically retrieving, exploiting and combining relevant semantic resources from the SW, at large Need for a Gateway to the Semantic Web
  • Watson: a Gateway to the Semantic Web
  • Architecture
  • Interface http://watson.kmi.open.ac.uk
  • But the important part is: the APIs
    • Provide Semantic Web application developers with the ability to efficiently:
      • Locate (find) Semantic Web documents online using advanced search functions
      • Explore the documents, automatically extracted metadata and content
      • Query the documents, to exploit online knowledge in an homogeneous way
    • In a set of lightweight APIs, and without having to download the data or use any other dedicated infrastructure.
  • Some Applications We Developed Ontology Reuse: The Watson Plugin Question Answering: PowerAqua Semantic Browsing: PowerMagpie Semantic Relation Discovery: Scarlet Folksonomy Enrichment And also: Word sense disambiguation Query Expansion Synonym Discovery…
  • Example: The Watson Plugin Chose an entity to search Get entities from online ontologies Integrate statements Into the edited ontology
  • Example: Scarlet ka2.rdf Researcher AcademicStaff Semantic Web Researcher AcademicStaff ISWC SWRC Ham SeaFood Semantic Web Ham SeaFood Meat Meat SeaFood Agrovoc NALT pizza-to-go wine.owl NALT
  • Example: Scarlet
  • Example: PowerAqua Natural language question Answers from online semantic data
  • Example: FLOR Can the Semantic Web provide the structure needed to improve search and navigation of tagged spaces?
  • Search in Tag Spaces
    • Let’s find photos of “animals which live in the water”
    5/24 ≈ 21% relevant Query : Animal Water Dog Dog Dog Dog Bird Bird Bird Bird Bird Bird Bird Tiger Tiger Tiger Tiger Cat Land scape Land scape Land scape
  • Bring in the SW… Dolphin Seal Marine Mammal Mammal Sea livesIn Whale Body of Water Ocean Sea Elephant Fish livesIn Animal FreshwaterFish SaltwaterFish livesIn Animal Water <Animal livesIn Water> <Dolphin> or < Seal> or <“Sea Elephant”> or <Whale>
  • Results dolphin seal whale sea elephant 18/24 ≈ 75% relevant
  • Other Use of Watson/the Semantic Web: Understanding Knowledge Online Number of entities Domain covered Underlying description logic
  • Other Use of Watson/the Semantic Web: Understanding Knowledge Online
    • Looking at relationships between ontologies:
      • Inclusion, equivalence : can ontologies being syntactically different, or even represented in different languages represent the same formal model?
      • Similarity : How close are two ontologies? How to define similarity between ontologies in particular context?
      • Versioning : How to detect if an ontology is a different version from another one? Which on came first? Which is the latest? How to characterize the changes (at syntactic level, at model level)?
      • Agreement/Disagreement : How to measure that two ontologies contradict each other? Agree on certain points? Are logical inconsistency/incoherence enough?
    • A complete framework based on an ontology formalizing relations between ontologies to detect and reason upon relationships between ontologies in Watson
    • Looking at relationships between ontologies:
      • Inclusion, equivalence : can ontologies being syntactically different, or even represented in different languages represent the same formal model?
      • Similarity : How close are two ontologies? How to define similarity between ontologies in particular context?
      • Versioning : How to detect if an ontology is a different version from another one? Which on came first? Which is the latest? How to characterize the changes (at syntactic level, at model level)?
      • Agreement/Disagreement : How to measure that two ontologies contradict each other? Agree on certain points? Are logical inconsistency/incoherence enough?
    • A complete framework based on an ontology formalizing relations between ontologies to detect and reason upon relationships between ontologies in Watson
  • Other Use of Watson/the Semantic Web: Agreement/Disagreement in Ontologies
    • Ontologies are knowledge artifacts, they express opinions, beliefs
    • As such they can differ, contradict each others
    • Assessing (dis)agreement in ontologies is very useful to understand how to combine knowledge from different sources
    • A possible approach would be to check whether inconsistencies and incoherencies appear while combining the ontologies. However we believe that:
      • There are different levels of agreement/disagreement
      • Covering different domains is not agreeing
      • It is possible to agree and disagree at the same time
    • Based on these requirements we define a set of measures for assessing (dis)agreement between statements and ontologies.
  • Other Use of Watson/the Semantic Web: Agreement/Disagreement in Ontologies
    • Agreement(st, O)  [0..1] and Disagreement(st, O)  [0..1] where st is a statement < subject , predicate , object > and O is an ontology
    • Based on extracting the part of the ontology that express a relation between subject and object
    • (Dis)agreement between ontologies:
    • Global (dis)agreement in a repository
    • Consensus:
    • Controversy:
  • Other Use of Watson/the Semantic Web: Agreement/Disagreement in Ontologies
    • Experiment: assessing statements related to the class Seafood in Watson:
    • a: global agreement, d: global disagreement, cs: consensus, ct: controversy
    • More experiments on the Way!
  • Contributing to the Semantic Web
    • So, using the Semantic Web is all about exploiting what is made available online, as distributed, heterogeneous knowledge in ontologies
    • Our ability to do that therefore depends on the availability of ontologies, semantic information and machine processable data.
    • More precisely on the availability of quality knowledge on the Semantic Web
    • And incidentally on the availability of quality information about ontologies
  • From a Semantic Web search engine… Slide
  • … to Ontology Repositories? Slide Ontologies Ontology Metadata Versions of Alignments Comments and Reviews
  • Cupboard
  • Using the User?
    • How ontologies are used and reused in applications and other ontologies can also provide interesting information about these ontologies, i.e. contributions in the form of quality information
    • We develop a trust engine which can collect positive or negative evaluations for ontology statements, from various users and applications, to propagate this information for ranking ontology entities.
    • Application to the Watson plugin.
  • Automatic evaluation of statements through a trust engine Watson Trust Service Trust Propagation You Click Here This statement is good Ranking for statements/ entities
  • Example - Evaluation as a Side Effect
  • Example - Ranking According to Trust
  • Example - Propagation
  • Final message
    • I hope I convinced you that
    • Using the Semantic Web  Contributing to the Semantic Web
    • Through Watson, Cupboard and our applications, our aim is to build an open and efficient platform making the Semantic Web a `playground for research and development’
    • There is still a lot to do, and everybody is welcome to comment, help, contribute…
  • Thank You! Mathieu d’Aquin ( [email_address] , http://people.kmi.open.ac.uk/mathieu ) With contributions from many people in Kmi ( http://kmi.open.ac.uk ) and the NeOn project ( http://neon-project.org ) /* I would normally include a bibliography slide at the end, but all the relevant papers can be found on these 3 websites */