But… there is a bit of history…LOM! What was the plan, (but when you talk about it people say beeuurgh…) when it went wrong?Parallel story: MARC records…. ??And why to we need LRMI then?Why not used by OCW?What should have been the goal: reusability, recombination, repurposing, discoverability
Add images for each bullet point…
Semantic Web, Linked Data and Education: A Perfect Fit?
Semantic Web, Linked Dataand Education: A Perfect Fit? Mathieu d’Aquin Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, UK @mdaquin
The evolution of (higher) educationFrom Local to GlobalHow do we manage that?(at the technological level)
Metadata foreducation already But there are metadata standards forlearning resources, aren’t there? Yes, my dear, but I’m not sure this answers the question…
So this talk should finish here?• IEEE LOM – Standard for Learning Object Metadata – Reuse Dublin Core – XML-based – Final draft in 2002• SCORM – Sharable Content Object Reference Model – Started in 1996 / last edition 2009• MIT OCW Metadata – Open Courseware – Reuse IEEE LOM• LRMI – Learning Resource Metadata Initiative – Started in June 2011, Spec 1.0 (current) – Plan for integration with Schema.org – Does not reuse any of the other standards
Why it still does not work http://xkcd.com/927/Lack of flexibility, too much ambiguity, creatingnews silos… Maybe standards are not theanswer?
The Web…… is quite a great platformWhy don’t we…… use it to connect educational resourcesto each other?… use it to express the different ways inwhich these can be understood andreused?… use it to discover, combine and remixthings with different origins and purposes?
Linked Data Open University Person: Mathieu Website Publication: Pub1 author workFor Open University VLE Course: M366 offers M366 Course page Organisation: The Open University Mathieu’s Homepage availableIn setBook Mathieu’s List of Mathieu’sPublications Twitter Country: Belgium Book: Mechatronics The Web The Web of Linked Data
What is it good for? Accessibility and flexibility!Example: Application at the Open University
The Open University • The largest university in the UK: 250K students per year, 8000 associate lecturers, a big campus in Milton Keynes • Created in 1969 • Almost entirely open and distance learning • 13 regional centers, more national centers, courses available in a large number of countries
Applying linked data to the Open UNiversityExposed as linked DBPedia RAEdata, our data OpenLearn Data from ORO Researchinterlink with each Content Outputsother and the Archive ofexternal world: it Course Library’s Catalogue geonames Materialbecomes part of the Of Digital Content data.gov.uk“global data space”on the Web A/V Material Podcasts University public iTunesU data sit in different BBC systems – hard to DBLP discover, obtain, integrate by users.
data.open.ac.ukThe first linked data platform providing openinformation from a across a whole university
Linked Data at the Open UniversityCourse information: 580 modules/ description of the course, information about the levels and number of credits associated with it, topics, and conditions of enrolment.Research publications: 16,000 academic articles / information about authors, dates, abstract and venue of the publication.Podcasts: 2220 video podcasts and 1500 audio podcats / short description, topics, link to a representative image and to a transscript if available, information about the course the podcast might relate to and license information regarding the content of the podcast.Open Educational Resources: 640 OpenLearn Units / short description, topics, tags used to annotate the resource, its language, the course it might relate to, and the license that applies to the content.Youtube videos: 900 videos / short description of the video, tags that were used to annotate the video, collection it might be part of and link to the related course if relevant.University buildings: – 100 buildings / address, a picture of the building and the sub-divisions of the building into floors and spaces.Library catalogue: 12,000 books/ topics, authors, publisher and ISBN, as well as the course
Applications Social Resource Discovery Research ExplorationdAquin, M. (2012) Putting Linked Data to Use in a Large Higher-Education Organisation, Interacting withLinked Data at Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2012
Example: map of buildings Interactive map of Open University Buildings in the UK
Example: Study at the OU mobileapplication That’s where linked data is
The Semantic Web rNews Music Ontology Geo Ontology SIOC Media Ontology Dublin Core DBPedia FOAF Ontology DOAP FMA BIBO Ontology LODE Gene Ontology
What is it good for? Interoperability, reusability and open meaning! Examples: For libraries, for universities globally, for understanding student’s activities
Mapping Library Catalogues toStandard Web Vocabularies Marimba4lib.com
Used by theSpanishNationalLibrarySeehttp://datos.bne.es
Beyond library resources: A global university space mEducator The Open Data.gov.uk University education Research Orgs., Bu ouputs idings, Lo cations Learning resources University of OrganicEduNet Muenster, DE University University of of Bristol SouthamptondAquin, M. (2012) Linked Data for Open and Distance Learning, Common Wealth of Learning
Personal analytics based on log integration (see http://uciad.info) A generic personal analytics dashboard from web and application logs. Uses a web activity ontology for integration, and ontological reasoning to aggregate information from multiple systems and sitesdAquin, M., Elahi, S. and Motta, E. (2011) Semantic Technologies to Support the User-Centric Analysis ofActivity Data, Workshop: Social Data on the Web Workshop, SDoW 2011 at ISWC 2011
What more is it good for? Using Knowledge from the Web! Examples: For understanding research communities, for discovering new content for, for research, for analyzing student’s activities
Using links to enrich our own data Academics in “Arts and Humanities” Topics most commonly mentioned by most often involved with the media (in news outlets own by the BBC (in number of news items) number of news items)From dataset about From news From dbpedia.orgour researchers clipping data
Discovery of open educational resources(see http://discou.info)
Resources Similarity- Interface URIs + Based common topics Search BBC Programme or iPlayer Resource page descriptions Indexes Synopsi s Named Entity Semantic Semantic Recognition Entities Indexing (Dbpedia) Podcasts, OpenL Indexes earn Units and Articles data.open.ac.uk Semantic IndexdAquin, M., Allocca, C. and Collins, T. (2012) DiscOU: A Flexible Discovery Engine for Open Educational ResourcesUsing Semantic Indexing and Relationship Summaries, Demo at International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2012
What even more is it good for? Combining, interpreting and using sources of knowledge at run time! (but I’m running out of time ;-)dAquin, M. and Motta, E. (2011) Watson, more than a Semantic Web search engine, Semantic Web Journal, 2dAquin, M., Motta, E., Sabou, M., Angeletou, S., Gridinoc, L., Lopez, V. and Guidi, D. (2008) Towards a NewGeneration of Semantic Web Applications, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23, 3, pp. 20-28
Towards global education based onthe Web of DataThe LinkedUp support action (http://linkedup-project.eu): tackling thechallenge of large scale Web Data integration for concrete educationalscenarios
Conclusion – Final messageLinked data and semantic webtechnologies make thepromises of educationalmetadata truly reachableMore importantly, applyinglinked data and semantic webprinciples make the promisesof open, global educationfeasibleBut…
Facing again the same challenges… any use case but how do weLinked Data is about supportingdiscover resources in linked data if not described according towhat they can do?How do we represent metadata about educational purpose? LRMI just has “educationalAlignment” which can be anything Learning Outcome? Competence acquired? More complexpedagogical models?Contradicts the flexibility of Semantic Web / Linked Data what is the educational purpose of a painting in a museum?Generally: How do we interpret metadata about a resource thecontext of an education scenario?
Thank you!More info and contacts: @firstname.lastname@example.org http://mdaquin.net