The great war part two
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notes on how technology caused changes in the way WW1 was fought

notes on how technology caused changes in the way WW1 was fought

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The great war part two Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Great WarThe War to End All Wars T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 2. The WWI Timeline• Open War – Aug 1914• War of Attrition starts – Sept 1914• Total War – 1916• The Last Push – 1917• 1917 – May, Germans begin to lose ground• 1917 – Summer USA joins the war• Canada’s 100 Days (Aug 8 – Nov 11, 1918)• Nov 11, 1918 – Armistice• Jan 1919 – Treaty of Versailles T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 3. The Beginning of the War• Schlieffen Plan• Aug 1914 – 1,500,000 advance into Belgium• French – old mentality, bright, no helmets, rifles… 500,000 causalities!• Miracle of Marne – 2 million clash• Hitler’s lesson - blitzkrieg• Sept – repositioned – Tstalemate nationalism? o what extent should we embrace
  • 4. The War of Attrition• Western Front: – Race for the sea begins – Trench warfare begins• Eastern Front: – Russia mobilizes 5 million – 400 trains a day sent from Western Front – Russia quickly out of supplies• Southern Front – A-H and Serbia – mountains of Serbia – A-H loses ½ of their army should we embrace nationalism? T what extent o
  • 5. Old Strategies(Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 6. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 7. Old Strategies(Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 8. Marne http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wT what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 9. For more info on Trench Warfare, go to http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/3d/trench.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_vr_trench.shtml T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 23. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led To:Reconnaissance PlanesFighter Planes T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 25. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 26. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led ToReconnaissance Gas Planes WarfareFighter Planes T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 27. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 28. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led ToReconnaissance Gas Artillery Planes Warfare BarragesFighter Planes T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 29. They were enormous canons that could launch shells that weighed a ton 15 kilometers. There destructive power could penetrate two meters of earth, three meters of concrete in a meter thick wall.T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 30. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 31. Old Strategies (Infantry and Cavalry Charges) Met Machine Guns Led to Trench Warfare Led ToReconnaissance Gas Artillery Tanks Planes Warfare Mass Barrages AttacksFighter Planes T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 32. The first tank was named “Little Willie” andcould travel 3 miles per hour, (2 on roughterrain). This tank was restricted as itcould not cross trenches. Early on, tanksoften broke down and became ditched - i.e.stuck in a muddy trench - more often thananticipated. Tanks were deployed during the notorious, almost swampy, conditions of the Third Battle of Ypres (more commonly known as Passchendaele). They promptly sank in the mire and were entirely without benefit. By 1917 however, the tanks had improved so that they helped solve the problem of trench warfare, and were iincreasingly used during the Allied advance of summer 1918. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 38. 1916 – Total War• Diverting all resources and attention to the war effort• Food rations for civilians• Use of propaganda T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 39. Battle of Verdun Feb 21, 1916 Opening Barrage: French Defenders:1200 guns targeted 60 forts and strong French defenders caught in the openpoints. Over 80 000 shells hit per day. were blown apart. 98 % of units were lostA huge gaping hole was torn in the and men went insane from the explodingFrench defenses. shells Bravery – Hand to Hand Combat: Flame Throwers:More than 80 % of casualties were Both sides used flame throwers totaken in hand to hand combat. gain territory. British and Russian Help;The British launched an attack Final Casualties:along the Somme river, and the 978 000 casualties shared by bothRussians attacked the Austrians in sides.the east, hoping to draw some ofthe German forces away. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 40. German Withdrawal: Somme Offensive The German troops withdrew from June 24, 1916 the frontline trenches into the back trenches, knowing they could rearm their guns in 3 minutes. Opening Barrage: 1500 guns bombed German defenses for 5 days.British Advance – Machine Guns:The British felt that no one wouldsurvive the barrage, and they sent a 12 mile column of four rows ofmen (only 2 meters apart) towards the well armed German machine TOTAL CASUALITIES: guns.  1 088 907 20 000 died on the first day. (other estimates are as high as 1.5 million T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 41. The Somme“Somme. The whole history of the world cannot contain a more ghastly word.” Friedrich Steinbrecher T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 42. Who else was atThe Battle of The Somme? T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 44. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 45. 1917 – The Big Pushes• Feb - Russian Revolution – What effect does this have?• Germans push to conquer Europe before Americans arrive. 1.5 to 1.3 million• What happens when they break through?• Allies Come Back – Vimy – April – Canada’s 100 Days – American’s fill ranks T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 46. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 47. Arthur Currie T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 48. The Creeping Barrage T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 55. Other Canadian Contributions T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 58. Prime Ministers at War Two of Canada’s future Prime Ministers fought in WWI. Can you identify them? T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
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  • 61. …Lice and anxiety came into my life about the same time. At stand-to one morning a flight of whizz-bangs skimmed the top of thetrench. The man next to me went down with a scream and half hisface gone. The sand-bag in front of me was ripped open and I wasblinded and half-choked with its contents.…At the end of the short trench I stumbled over something. A bankof cloud cleared for a moment from the moon, and I saw it was aheadless body.…I went back to my post, frightened beyond anything that should behumanly possible. Twice I was blown off my feet by the concussionof bursting shells. The whine of falling shrapnel filled the air. Iseemed to be all alone in a world tottering into ruin. If only thenoise would stop I felt I might keep my reason. I think I prayed fora direct hit to end it all. By a miracle, however, I was not eventouched.…One got used to many things, but I never overcame my horror ofthe rats. They abounded in some parts, great loathsome beastsgorged with flesh. I shall never forget.…I had one from a woman friend who had always seemed intelligentand understanding. Yet she asked this singular question: Is it as badas they say it is out there, or is it only the shortage of cigarettes thatmakes it seem so rotten?“ The irony of it coming at that time mademe giggle like a schoolgirl. The others wanted to know the joke so Iread it aloud. The comments were unprintable. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 62. A TOTAL WAR Effort Daddy, what did Smear Campaignyou do in the war? against the Enemy! T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 63. Russians Unite!An appeal to women! An effort beyond social class Wartime materials meant more than just weapons T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 64. What does this poster Lets Go Canada!reveal about Canada’s What is the irony in thiswar effort? poster? T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 65. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 66. This Monument Reads:“MONS WAS RECAPTURED BY THE CANADIANCORPS ONTHE 11th NOVEMBER 1918AFTER FIFTY MONTHS OF GERMANOCCUPATION FREEDOM WAS RESTORED TOTHE CITYHERE WAS FIRED THE LAST SHOT OF THEGREAT WAR” T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 67. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 68. November 11 - 1918 • ALLIES • CENTRAL POWERS – 5.2 Million Dead – 3.5 Million Dead – 12.8 Million – 8.8 Million Wounded Wounded TOTAL DEAD – 18.6 million TOTAL Military WOUNDED – 21.2 million T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 69. November 11 - 1918• Canada’s War Effort: (not including Nfld) • Total Population: 6.8 Million • Total Enlistees: 620 000 • Wounded: 173 000 • Killed: 67 000• Proportionally Equivalency • 3 200 000 Enlistees • 888 000 Injured • 320 000 Killed T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 70. Identify as many territorial differences as you can between the map of Europe in 1910 (pre- WWI), 1919 (post-WW1, and 2008.T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 71. The human face of the Great WarTHE GREAT TRAGEDY T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 72. Human Statistics“One death is a tragedy One million deaths is a statistic.” -Joseph Stalin T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 73. Our LAST WWI SoldierDuring the hype of the 2010 Winter Olympics...John Babcock (age 109) passed awayJuly 23, 1900 - Feb 18, 2010He was 15 when he enlistedCanada wanted to give him a state funeralHe had declined the idea before dying T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 74. What’s Your Story?• Most families from North America, Europe, Oceania, and parts of Asia and Africa were impacted by “The Great War”• Homework: – Major project – Discover your family’s connection to the war (if there is one). Examples: - Joey Shackleford’s great uncle - Mr. Fletcher’s great-grandpa embrace nationalism? T what extent should we o
  • 75. Joseph Fletcher•Motorcycle message courier•Chauffeur to Robert Service•Liberator of Lille, France•Married a Parisian•Came back to a soddie• in the prairies• Then built this “starter” home T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 76. Barney SearleCharles “Barney” Searle:Lied about his age to get in... Real age: 15 T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 77. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 78. Lieutenant John Bryson CascadenJohn graduated from Lethbridge High School (later called LCI) and studied engineering at theUniversity of Alberta. He was killed on the frontlines in Belgium on June 3, 1916. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 79. Sergeant Harold HamiltonWhen Harold went to war, he brought along his teaching certificate for good luck. Thecertificate was lost on the slopes of Vimy Ridge, and returned to his father in Lethbridgemonths later. Harold was killed on November 19, 1917. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 80. Gunner John Vincent James-DaviesJohn was just twenty years old when he enlisted with the 39th Battery Canadian Field Artillery.Just days before his unit was to ship out, he underwent an emergency appendectomy and dieddays later at the Galt Hospital (now the Galt Museum. He was laid to rest at Mountain ViewCemetery with full military honours. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 81. Sergeant Frederick Hugh MacBethFred graduated high school in Lethbridge, and went on to become a civil engineer. He waskilled in action near Heuvelland in Belgium on November 17, 1915. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 82. Sergeant William Emsley RaleyWilliam graduated from high school in Lethbridge and later received an engineering degreefrom the University of Toronto. On October 9, 1916, he received a severe shrapnel woundduring the Battle of the Somme. Two days later, William died of his wounds. He was justtwenty-three years old. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 83. Major Alvin RipleyAlvin was in command of the 20th Battery Canadian Field Artillery when he was killed inaction on May 2, 1917. He left to mourn a wife and three young children. Alvin was laid torest at La Targette British Cemetery in France. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 84. Gunner Millard Joseph RobisonMillard was just twenty years old when he was wounded on the muddy fields ofPasschendaele. He received gunshot wounds to the head and side and passed away onNovember 19, 1917. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 85. Second Lieutenant ClarenceEdward SherlockClarence received his education in Lethbridge and later became a school teacher. He was amember of the prestigious Royal Flying Corps and passed away in a plane crash on August 19,1918. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 86. Private Robert Hamilton SherlockRobert was born and raised in Lethbridge, and was trained as a mechanic. He served with theCanadian Army Service Corps. Robert became ill during the Spanish Influenza epidemic, andpassed away on October 15, 1918 in Halifax. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 87. Major Alexander Boswell StaffordAlexander was in command of the 39th Battery Canadian Field Artillery when he lost his life onJune 24, 1917. He had owned several businesses in Lethbridge, and had even tried his hand atthe Klondike Gold Rush. Alexander left to mourn a wife and two young daughters. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 88. The Christmas Truce• Christmas Eve 1914 (YPRES)• Stille Nachte• No Man’s Land Gift Exchange• Soccer Game• What did the Commanders think of this? T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 89. John Brown John Brown went off to war to fight on a foreign shore. His mama sure was proud of him! He stood straight and tall in his uniform and all. His mama’s face broke out all in a grin.“Oh son, you look so fine, I’m glad you’re a son of mine, You make me proud to know you hold a gun.Do what the captain says, lots of medals you will get,And we’ll put them on the wall when you come home.”As that old train pulled out, John’s ma began to shout, Tellin’ everyone in the neighbourhood: “That’s my son that’s about to go, he’s a soldier now, you know.” She made well sure her neighbours understood. She got a letter once in a while and her face broke into a smile As she showed them to the people from next door. And she bragged about her son with his uniform and T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 90. John BrownThen the letters ceased to come, for a long time they did not come. They ceased to come for about ten months or more.Then a letter finally came saying, “Go down and meet the train. Your son’s a-coming home from the war.”She smiled and went right down, she looked everywhere around But she could not see her soldier son in sight. But as all the people passed, she saw her son at last, When she did she could hardlyshould we embrace nationalism? T what extent believe her o
  • 91. John Brown “Oh tell me, my darling son, pray tell me what they done. How is it you come to be this way?” He tried his best to talk but his mouth could hardly move And the mother had to turn her face away. “Don’t you remember, Ma, when I went off to war You thought it was the best thing I could do? I was on the battleground, you were home . . . acting proud. You wasn’t there standing in my shoes.” “Oh, and I thought when I was there, Lord, what am I doing here? I’m a-tryin’ to kill somebody or die tryin’.But the thing that scared me most was when my enemy came close And I saw that his face looked just like mine.” “And I couldn’t help but think, through the thunder T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 92. John Brown As he turned away to go, his Ma was still acting slowAt seein’ the metal brace that helped him stand. But as he turned to leave, he called his mother closeAnd he dropped his medals down into her hand. T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 93. Christmas in the TrenchesMy name is Francis Tolliver, I come from Liverpool.Two years ago the war was waiting for me after school. To Belgium and to Flanders, to Germany to hereI fought for King and country I love dear. Twas Christmas in the trenches, where the frost so bitter hung, T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 94. Christmas in the Trenches I was lying with my messmate on the cold and rocky groundWhen across the lines of battle came a most peculiar sound Says I, ``Now listen up, me boys! each soldier strained to hearAs one young German voice sang out so clear.``Hes singing bloody well, you know! my partner says to me Soon, one by one, each German voice joined in harmony The cannons rested silent, the gas clouds rolledTo what extent should we embrace nationalism? no more
  • 95. Christmas in the Trenches The next they sang was ``Stille Nacht. ``Tis `Silent Night, says IAnd in two tongues one song filled up that sky ``Theres someone coming toward us! the front line sentry cried All sights were fixed on one long figure trudging from their sideHis truce flag, like a Christmas star, shown on that plain so bright As he, bravely, strode unarmed into the nightSoon one by one on either side walked into No Mans LandWith neither gun nor bayonet we met there hand to handextent should we embrace nationalism? T what o
  • 96. Christmas in the Trenches Soon daylight stole upon us and France was France once more With sad farewells we each prepared to settle back to war But the question haunted every heart that lived that wonderous night ``Whose family have I fixed within my sights? Twas Christmas in the trenches where the frost, so bitter hung The frozen fields of France were warmed as songs of peace were sungFor the walls theyd kept between us to exact the workwhat extent should we embrace nationalism? To of war
  • 97. Christmas in the Trenches My name is Francis Tolliver, in Liverpool I dwellEach Christmas come since World War I, Ive learned its lessons well That the ones who call the shots wont be among the dead and lame And on each end of the rifle were the same T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o
  • 98. Gallipoli• Backstory:• Australian forces on Southern front• Diversion: – To allow British naval forces to enter the Black sea• Australia’s Vimy Ridge• Prize winning runners T what extent should we embrace nationalism? o