Geologic structures

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  • 1. GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES • “Architecture of bedrock” • Structural Geology– shapes, – arrangement, – interrelationships of bedrock – units & forces that cause them
  • 2. Behavior of rocks to stress & strain • Elastic – Elastic limit • Plastic • Brittle Stress Strain
  • 3. Structures as a Record of the Geologic Past • Geologic maps and field methods – Observations of outcrops – Geologic map – Strike and dip • • • • • Original horizontality Strike Angle of dip Direction of dip Symbols – Geologic cross section
  • 4. Structures as a Record of the Geologic Past • Geologic maps and field methods – Observations of outcrops – Geologic map – Strike and dip • • • • • Original horizontality Strike Angle of dip Direction of dip Symbols – Geologic cross section
  • 5. Structures as a Record of the Geologic Past • Geologic maps and field methods – Observations of outcrops – Geologic map – Strike and dip • • • • • Original horizontality Strike Angle of dip Direction of dip Symbols – Geologic cross section
  • 6. FOLDS • Anticline vs. syncline – Hinge line (axis) – Limb – Axial plane • Plunging fold • Structural dome • Structural basin
  • 7. FOLDS • Anticline vs. syncline – Hinge line (axis) – Limb – Axial plane • Plunging fold • Structural dome • Structural basin
  • 8. FOLDS • Anticline vs. syncline – Hinge line (axis) – Limb – Axial plane • Plunging fold • Structural dome • Structural basin
  • 9. FOLDS • Interpreting folds – Open fold – Isoclinal fold – Overturned fold – Recumbent fold
  • 10. Fractures in rock • Joints – Columnar jointing – Sheet jointing – Joint set • Faults – Dip-slip faults- normal and reverse • Footwall vs. hanging wall – Normal fault • Graben; Rift • Horst ; fault-block mountain range
  • 11. Fractures in rock • Joints – Columnar jointing – Sheet jointing – Joint set • Faults – Dip-slip faults- normal and reverse • Footwall vs. hanging wall – Normal fault • Graben; Rift • Horst ; fault-block mountain range
  • 12. Fractures in rock • Faults – Reverse fault • Thrust fault- low angle reverse fault – Strike-Slip fault • Left-lateral vs. right-lateral
  • 13. Fractures in rock • Faults – Reverse fault • Thrust fault- low angle reverse fault – Strike-Slip fault • Left-lateral vs. right-lateral