Cognitive unconscious after Freud

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Talk to Oxford University Psychological Society at Wadham College on 3 December 2013

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  • Stekel intro thanatosFreud pinched from Spielrein in Beyond the Pleasure PrincipleBorn 1885 into a family of a Jewish doctors in Rostov, Russia, her mother was a dentist, her father a physician. One of her brothers, Isaac Spielrein, was a Soviet psychologist, a pioneer of labor psychology. Sabina was married to PavelScheftel, a physician of Russian Jewish descent. They had two daughters: Renate, born 1912, and Eva, born 1924.Before enrolling as a student of medicine in Zürich, Spielrein was admitted in August 1904 to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zürich, where Carl Gustav Jung worked at that time, and remained there until June 1905. While there, she established a deep emotional relationship with Jung who later was her medical dissertation advisor. The historian and psychoanalyst Peter Loewenberg argues that this was a sexual relationship, in breach of professional ethics, and that it "jeopardized his position at the Burghölzli and led to his rupture with Bleuler and his departure from the University of Zurich". Spielrein graduated in 1911, defending a dissertation about a case of schizophrenia, and was later elected a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. She continued working with Jung until 1912, and later saw Sigmund Freud in Vienna.In 1923, Spielrein returned to Soviet Russia and with Vera Schmidt established a kindergarten in Moscow, nicknamed "The White Nursery" by the children (all furniture and walls having been white). The institution was committed to bringing up children as free persons as early as possible. "The White Nursery" was closed down three years later by the authorities under false accusations of sexual perversion with the children. (In fact, Stalin actually enrolled his own son, Vasily, into the "White Nursery" under a false name.)Sabina's husband Pavel perished during Stalin's Great Terror, as did her brother Isaac. Sabina and her two children were killed by an SS Death Squad, Einsatzgruppe D in 1942 in ZmievskayaBalka.While Spielrein is not often given more than a footnote in the history of the development of psychoanalysis, her conception of the sexual drive as containing both an instinct of destruction and an instinct of transformation, presented to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1912, in fact anticipates both Freud's "death drive" and Jung's views on "transformation". She may thus have inspired both men.
  • Stekel intro thanatosFreud pinched from Spielrein in Beyond the Pleasure PrincipleBorn 1885 into a family of a Jewish doctors in Rostov, Russia, her mother was a dentist, her father a physician. One of her brothers, Isaac Spielrein, was a Soviet psychologist, a pioneer of labor psychology. Sabina was married to PavelScheftel, a physician of Russian Jewish descent. They had two daughters: Renate, born 1912, and Eva, born 1924.Before enrolling as a student of medicine in Zürich, Spielrein was admitted in August 1904 to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zürich, where Carl Gustav Jung worked at that time, and remained there until June 1905. While there, she established a deep emotional relationship with Jung who later was her medical dissertation advisor. The historian and psychoanalyst Peter Loewenberg argues that this was a sexual relationship, in breach of professional ethics, and that it "jeopardized his position at the Burghölzli and led to his rupture with Bleuler and his departure from the University of Zurich". Spielrein graduated in 1911, defending a dissertation about a case of schizophrenia, and was later elected a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. She continued working with Jung until 1912, and later saw Sigmund Freud in Vienna.In 1923, Spielrein returned to Soviet Russia and with Vera Schmidt established a kindergarten in Moscow, nicknamed "The White Nursery" by the children (all furniture and walls having been white). The institution was committed to bringing up children as free persons as early as possible. "The White Nursery" was closed down three years later by the authorities under false accusations of sexual perversion with the children. (In fact, Stalin actually enrolled his own son, Vasily, into the "White Nursery" under a false name.)Sabina's husband Pavel perished during Stalin's Great Terror, as did her brother Isaac. Sabina and her two children were killed by an SS Death Squad, Einsatzgruppe D in 1942 in ZmievskayaBalka.While Spielrein is not often given more than a footnote in the history of the development of psychoanalysis, her conception of the sexual drive as containing both an instinct of destruction and an instinct of transformation, presented to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1912, in fact anticipates both Freud's "death drive" and Jung's views on "transformation". She may thus have inspired both men.
  • Trying to remember who painted the murals at Orivieto (Signorelli) Freud could only think of Botticello or Boltrafio. He explained this by a previous conversation on the same railway journey. b) The forgetting of the name could not be explained until after I had recalled the theme discussed immediately before this conversation. This forgetting then made itself known as a [p. 6] disturbance of the newly emerging theme caused by the theme preceding it. In brief, before I asked my travelling companion if he had been in Orvieto we had been discussing the customs of the Turks living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I had related what I heard from a colleague who was practising medicine among them, namely, that they show full confidence in the physician and complete submission to fate. When one is compelled to inform them that there is no help for the patient, they answer: "Sir (Herr), what can I say? I know that if he could be saved you would save him." In these sentences alone we can find the words and names: Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Herr (sir), which may be inserted in an association series between Signorelli, Botticelli, and Boltraffio.(c) I assume that the stream of thoughts concerning the customs of the Turks in Bosnia, etc., was able to disturb the next thought, because I withdrew my attention from it before it came to an end. For I recalled that I wished to relate a second anecdote which was next to the first in my memory. These Turks value the sexual pleasure above all else, and at sexual disturbances merge into an utter despair which strangely contrasts with their resignation at the peril of losing their lives. One of my colleague's patients once told him: "For you know, sir (Herr), if that ceases, life no longer has any charm."
  • http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Intersubjectivity
  • This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4–8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of preschool and school children (N = 48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional Near- Infrared Spectroscopy.To control for the two types of empathy, children were presented blocks of stories eliciting either affective or cognitive empathy, or neutral scenes which relied on the understanding of physical causalities. By contrasting the activations of the younger and older children, we expected to observe developmental changes in brain activations when children process stories eliciting empathy in either stimulus modality toward a greater involvement of anterior frontal brain regions. Our results indicate that children’s processing of stories eliciting affective and cognitive empathy is associated with medial and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation. In contrast to what is known from studies using adult participants, no additional recruitment of posterior brain regions was observed, often associated with the processing of stories eliciting empathy. Developmental changes were found only for stories eliciting affective empathy with increased activation, in older children, in medial OFC, left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Activations for the two modalities differ only little, with non-verbal presentation of the stimuli having a greater impact on empathy processing in children, showing more similarities to adult processing than the verbal one.This mig
  • Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp
  • Eskine, K. J., et al. (2011). "A Bad Taste in the Mouth." Psychological Science 22(3): 295-299. Can sweet-tasting substances trigger kind, favorable judgments about other people? What about substances that are disgusting and bitter? Various studies have linked physical disgust to moral disgust, but despite the rich and sometimes striking findings these studies have yielded, no research has explored morality in conjunction with taste, which can vary greatly and may differentially affect cognition. The research reported here tested the effects of taste perception on moral judgments. After consuming a sweet beverage, a bitter beverage, or water, participants rated a variety of moral transgressions. Results showed that taste perception significantly affected moral judgments, such that physical disgust (induced via a bitter taste) elicited feelings of moral disgust. Further, this effect was more pronounced in participants with politically conservative views than in participants with politically liberal views. Taken together, these differential findings suggest that embodied gustatory experiences may affect moral processing more than previously thought.
  • Cognitive unconscious after Freud

    1. 1. The cognitive unconscious • Digby Tantam • New School of Psychotherapy and Counselling
    2. 2. SEX
    3. 3. • we perceive that the censor in order to apply its activity with discernment must know what it is repressing. In fact if we abandon all the metaphors representing the repression as the impact of blind forces, we are compelled to admit that the censor must choose and in order to choose must be aware of so doing [my emphasis]. [… I]t is not sufficient that it discern the condemned drives; it must also apprehend them as to be repressed, which implies in it at the very least an awareness of its activity. • Being and Nothingness, pp 75-76
    4. 4. ELECTRICITY
    5. 5. Cognitive unconscious
    6. 6. Cognitive unconscious The psychopathology of everyday life
    7. 7. Cartesian Meditations • Lectures at Sorbonne, in 1929 • Remove everything that is alien by reduction • Still cannot account for the other, who exists as a subjectivity in their own right • Can only account by empathy • Perceptions of the other‟s body
    8. 8. On the problem of empathy Edith Stein St. Teresa Benedicta al Cruce
    9. 9. On the problem of empathy • Empathy is primordial • It is neither memory, imagination or expectation • We experience another‟s emotional experience directly, but not as our own although we experience the other person as a primordial being: Stein distinguishes between empathy and „contagion of feelings‟ • It is the basis of our understanding of God, and God‟s abiity to understand us completely • She agrees with Lipps that there is a „negative empathy‟ that blocks empathic sharing, and a reflexive empathy that augments or rehearses feeling: conscious control • She considers affective empathy and also motor empathy e.g. going through the actions of the acrobat in our mind
    10. 10. • Edith Stein on her fellow research fellow‟s work: • “The uninhibited investigation of this „solus ipse‟, however, again and again comes up against references testifying to the fact that it is itself not the ultimate: not ultimately fundamental and not the ultimate light.” extract from a translation of „Martin Heideggers Existentialphilosophie‟, in Edith Stein, Endliches und Ewiges Sein. Versuch eines Aufstiegs zum Sinn des Seins, Gesamtausgabe, bd. 11/12 (Freiburg: Herder, 2006), „Anhang‟, pp. 445–500
    11. 11. Alternative formulations • Jung‟s collective unconscious – Folk lore • „Memes‟: Dawkins and followers – Words e.g. „nerd‟, or images. Regularly used in social media • „Extended minds‟: Andy Clark and David Chambers – Books, the internet • Trevarthen – Signalling or „messaging‟ (similar to Daniel Stern) – Mirroring of mothers and infants (with Brazelton) – Mimesis • Learning theory – Looking glass self of Cooley – The „tell‟
    12. 12. The orbitofrontal cortex as cache? fNIRS evidence Brink, T. T., Urton, K., Held, D., Kirilina, E., Hofmann, M. J., Klann-Delius, G., et al. (2011). The role of orbitofrontal cortex in processing empathy stories in 4- to 8-year-old children. Front Psychol, 2, 80. Negative affective empathy Positive affective empathy Logical cognitive empathy Nonlogical cognitive empathy
    13. 13. Schurmann M, Hesse MD, Stephan KE, Saarela M, Zilles K, Hari R, et al. Yearning to yawn: the neural basis of contagious yawning. Neuroimage. [doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.10.022]. 2005;24(4):1260-4.
    14. 14. 07/12/201 3 www.nspc.org.uk 24
    15. 15. The Wright brothers Synchrony Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities for example, marching, singing, and dancing that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other.….Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009, Psychological Science
    16. 16. Gaze following and the interbrain
    17. 17. Jan Swammerdam, Author of De Bybel der Natuure 22 May 09 ARC club and book launch
    18. 18. Location and overlap of brain lesions according to emotional versus cognitive empathy impairment-groups. Shamay-Tsoory S G et al. Brain 2009;132:617-627 © The Author (2008). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org
    19. 19. Tantam, D. (2003). The flavour of emotions. Psychology and Psychotherappy, 76, 23-45. Emotions in psychotherapy are considered in the light of contemporary emotion theory, of neuroimaging, of narratives about emotion, and in relation to emotional disorder. One difficulty in comparing these different theories is that the term "emotion" is itself used differently. According to some theories, emotions are discrete conscious experiences, but according to others, a person may have and be influenced by emotions of which they are not aware. "Unconscious" emotions are of particular interest to the psychotherapist. The wide range of happenings that are associated with them are considered, and a general term proposed for them-"emotor". The main point of the paper is to establish that emotors may have an emotional flavour which is capable of inducing an emotion in a person who experiences the emotor, and that this is not the same process as a person reacting emotionally to an emotor. Emotors may acquire their emotional flavour, and their capacity to induce emotions, independent of a subject experiencing the emotion. This, it is argued, is one reason why we may experience emotions not just as reactions, but as given to us by the world. It may also be an explanation for some aesthetic or religious feelings being experienced as both transcendent and real
    20. 20. Moral scenarios • second cousins engaging in consensual incest • a man eating his already-dead dog, • a congressman accepting • bribes • a lawyer prowling hospitals for victims • a person shoplifting, • a student stealing library books
    21. 21. Fig. 1. Mean moral judgments as a function of beverage taste. Eskine K J et al. Psychological Science 2011;22:295-299 Copyright © by Association for Psychological Science
    22. 22. • Herz, R. S., Eliassen, J., Beland, S., & Souza, T. (2004). Neuroimaging evidence for the emotional potency of odor-evoked memory. Neuropsychologia, 42(3), 371-378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.08.009 • Kadohisa, M. (2013). Effects of odor on emotion, with implications. Front Syst Neurosci, 7, 66. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00066 • Larsson, M., & Willander, J. (2009). Autobiographical odor memory. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1170, 318-323. doi: 10.1111/j.17496632.2009.03934.x • Matsunaga, M., Bai, Y., Yamakawa, K., Toyama, A., Kashiwagi, M., Fukuda, K., . . . Ohira, H. (2013). Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e72523. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072523 • Skarlicki, D. P., Hoegg, J., Aquino, K., & Nadisic, T. (2013). Does injustice affect your sense of taste and smell? The mediating role of moral disgust. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 852-859. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.011 • Willander, J., & Larsson, M. (2007). Olfaction and emotion: the case of autobiographical memory. Mem Cognit, 35(7), 1659-1663. Herz, R. S., Eliassen, J., Beland, S., & Souza, T. (2004). Neuroimaging evidence for the emotional potency of odor-evoked memory. Neuropsychologia, 42(3), 371-378. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.08.009 • Kadohisa, M. (2013). Effects of odor on emotion, with implications. Front Syst Neurosci, 7, 66. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00066 • Larsson, M., & Willander, J. (2009). Autobiographical odor memory. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1170, 318-323. doi: 10.1111/j.17496632.2009.03934.x • Matsunaga, M., Bai, Y., Yamakawa, K., Toyama, A., Kashiwagi, M., Fukuda, K., . . . Ohira, H. (2013). Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e72523. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072523 • Skarlicki, D. P., Hoegg, J., Aquino, K., & Nadisic, T. (2013). Does injustice affect your sense of taste and smell? The mediating role of moral disgust. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 852-859. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2013.03.011 • Willander, J., & Larsson, M. (2007). Olfaction and emotion: the case of autobiographical memory. Mem Cognit, 35(7), 1659-1663.
    23. 23. Skarlicki, D. P., Hoegg, J., Aquino, K., & Nadisic, T. (2013). Does injustice affect your sense of taste and smell? The mediating role of moral disgust. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(5), 852859.
    24. 24. Listen to the Muzak “…Over a two week period, French and German music was played on alternate days from an instore display of French and German wines. French music led to French wines outselling German ones, whereas German music led to the opposite effect on sales. Responses to a questionnaire suggested that customers were unaware of these effects of music on their product choices…” North, A., Hargreaves, D., & McKendrick, J. (1997). In-store music affects product choice. Nature, 390, 132. 10-11 April 2008, Pre-conference workshop
    25. 25. Thanks for listening • Slides on Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/md1dt/ • Information about NSPC at www.nspc.org.uk • Information about clinical service at www.dilemmas.org • Information about me on Wikipedia
    26. 26. • That‟s as far as we go, folks • So, thanks for listening

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