The French Revolution      Chapter 22, Lessons 1 & 2
Assessing Background Knowledge•   When did the French Revolution take place?•   What were the causes of the French Revolut...
Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Life in France Before the Revolution              These are images of life in eighteenth-              century France befo...
Life in France Before the Revolution              These are images of life in eighteenth-              century France befo...
Life in France Before the Revolution              These are images of life in eighteenth-              century France befo...
Life in France Before the Revolution              These are images of life in eighteenth-              century France befo...
What is a Revolution?Revolution: a fundamental change that has occurredrapidlyPolitical revolution: a fundamental and rapi...
Causes of the FrenchRevolutionGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the structure of social classes in Francelead to discontent? How d...
The Three Estates
The Three Estates     The robed figure     represents the clergy,     the First Estate.     Represented by the     Catholi...
The Three EstatesThe armored figurerepresents the nobility,the second Estate.Nobles had a great dealof political and milit...
The Three EstatesThe crouched figure atthe bottom of thecartoon represents thecommoners, the ThirdEstate. These people,the...
The Three Estates     The circular object with     the crown pushing down     on the middle figure     represents the     ...
The Three Estates     This French political     cartoon is from 1789.
The Three Estates
Enlightenment Ideas and the RevolutionWhat ideas did the philosophes contribute to the FrenchRevolution?     Philosophe   ...
Economic Conditions Increase Opposition to GovernmentHow did economic conditions increase opposition to thegovernment?•   ...
France’s Tax System•   Taxes were based on tradition and custom.•   Taxes were unfairly applied.•   3 important unfair tax...
The Three EstatesChoose from the characteristics below which ones apply to each column.Characteristics may apply to more t...
The Three EstatesChoose from the characteristics below which ones apply to each column.Characteristics may apply to more t...
The Three EstatesIdentify what group each label represents on the charts.           Bourgoeisie        Nobility       Cler...
The Three EstatesIdentify what group each label represents on the charts.                                                 ...
Bread Riots
Bread RiotsIn 1788, bad weatherreduced the amount ofgrain produced by nearly25 percent. Thefollowing year, breadprices nea...
Bread RiotsBread was a staple ofthe French diet, so thespike in price angeredpeople, and they took tothe streets to critic...
Bread Riots In the spring of 1789, increasingly desperate and hungry Parisians began rioting at bakeries and markets, atta...
Bread Riots This drawing represents the riot that occurred when Parisians discovered that François the Baker had been savi...
Bread Riots
What Is The Third Estate?“ Who then shall dare to say that          In January 1789 the French people                     ...
The National AssemblyGUIDING QUESTIONS Why did the Third Estate declare itself to be theNational Assembly? What were the F...
Meeting of the Estates-General•   In 1789, King Louis XVI convened a meeting of the    French Parliament, which was called...
Cahiers de Doléance•   When members of the three estates met to choose their    representatives in the Estates-General in ...
Cahiers de Doléance•   The First and Second Estates wanted to keep religion    prominent in society.•   The peasants mainl...
Meeting of the Estates-General•   A radical minority called the Patriots wanted     ➡ a written constitution     ➡ to limi...
The Tennis Court Oath
The Tennis Court OathOn June 17, 1789, members of the Third Estateattending the Estates-general assembly realizedthat the ...
The Tennis Court OathOn June 20, the members of the NationalAssembly found they were locked out oftheir meeting room, pres...
The Tennis Court OathOne week later, in light of the NationalAssembly’s solidarity and the support theywere gathering from...
The Tennis Court OathThe French artist Jacques-Louis David paintedthis scene, titled “Le Sermentde Jeu de Paume,”or “The T...
The Tennis Court Oath
The Siege of the Bastille
The Siege of the BastilleOn July 14, 1789, protesters demandedthat the ammunition and weaponry fromthe Bastille be given t...
The Siege of the BastilleThe Bastille, built originally as a medievalfort, was used for many years as a prisonwhere kings ...
The Siege of the Bastille      The protesters attacked and captured the      prison, releasing the prisoners and taking   ...
The Siege of the Bastille
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenWritten and adopted by the National Assembly in August 1789, the De...
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenArticle I: Men areborn free and remainfree and equal inrights. Soci...
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen                                     Article V II: No man          ...
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen                                    Article XI: The free           ...
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen                               This French painting, titled Declara...
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Parisian Women March to Versailles
Parisian Women March to Versailles    On October 5, 1789, a group of women (and some men)    marched 15 miles from Paris t...
Parisian Women March to VersaillesMany of the women carried weapons abandonedby the French Guard after soldiers decided to...
Parisian Women March to VersaillesUnlike the rest of the women pictured, this woman is notdressed as a Parisian woman of t...
Parisian Women March to Versailles             This line engraving depicts Parisian women             marching to Versaill...
Parisian Women March to Versailles
End of the Old RegimeGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the French Revolution enter a newphase after the storming of the Bastille?
Changes to the Catholic Church in FranceHow was the Catholic Church changed during the FrenchRevolution?•   The National A...
The Constitution of 1791What were the major changes brought about by theConstitution of 1791?•   Set up a limited monarchy...
The Arrest of Louis XVI at Varennes
The Arrest of Louis XVI at VarennesIn June 1791, Louis XVI still reigned in France as a constitutional monarch. However, o...
The Arrest of Louis XVI at Varennes
Collapse of the Old RegimeReview: What events led to the collapse of the Old Regime?•   The meeting of the Estates-General...
Reviewing the Causes of the Revolution               In the previous lesson you learned               about the causes of ...
The Move to RadicalismGUIDING QUESTIONS Why did the French Revolution become moreradical?
The Move to RadicalismWhy was there a move to radicalism after 1791?•   There were price increases and economic shortages....
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Ruling body of France that est...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Ruling body of France that est...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Ruling body of France that est...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Ruling body of France that est...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Ruling body of France that est...
Fashion before the French Revolution                                                 Wigs or hair were     According to   ...
Fashion After the French Revolution     Blue, white and red were                         Women of the Third       symbolic...
Political Groups of the French Revolution                                                                        GreatestG...
Political Groups of the French Revolution                                                                         Greatest...
Radical RevolutionWhy might the guillotine have come tosymbolize the French Revolution?   Beginning in 1791, the French   ...
The Reign of TerrorGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the new French government deal with crises?
Radicalization of the French RevolutionWhy did the French Revolution radicalize?•   Radicals gained power after Louis XVI ...
Committee of Public SafetyWhat did the Committee of Public Safety do?•   Adopted policies that became known as the Reign o...
The Execution of King Louis XVI
The Execution of King Louis XVIKing Louis XVI’s execution was held onJanuary 21, 1793, in Place de la Revolution,a public ...
The Execution of King Louis XVI             A priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth,             accompanied the king. Edgeworth w...
The Execution of King Louis XVIThe guillotine inflictedcapital punishment bydecapitation. It wasdeveloped to be a“humane” ...
The Execution of King Louis XVIA soldier held up the severedhead of the king to the crowd.
The Execution of King Louis XVI             The National Convention judged Louis XVI a             traitor and condemned h...
The Execution of King Louis XVI
Revolts against the Republic
Sans-Culottes Parade
Sans-Culottes ParadeMore about this image: The parade in Parisridicules Christianity and the Church, 1793.
Sans-Culottes Parade
A Nation in ArmsGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the new French government deal withcrises?
The Battle of Valmy
The Battle of ValmyThe French revolution had alarmed other monarchies in Europe, particularly those with ties toLouis XVI....
The Battle of Valmy
The Execution of Robespierre
The Execution of RobespierreThe guillotine was thefavored method of executionduring the FrenchRevolution. About 17,000peop...
The Execution of Robespierre                From September 1793                through July 1794,                Maximilie...
The Execution of Robespierre                Executions were held in                public. In Paris, a guillotine         ...
The Execution of Robespierre
The DirectoryGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the constant transition within theFrench government influence its effectiveness?
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial a...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description                                      Body given broad powers by the...
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Transcript of "The French Revolution"

  1. 1. The French Revolution Chapter 22, Lessons 1 & 2
  2. 2. Assessing Background Knowledge• When did the French Revolution take place?• What were the causes of the French Revolution?• Who were some important historical figures or leaders of the French Revolution?• When did the French Revolution end?• Was the French Revolution violent?• Why is Napoleon Bonaparte an important figure in French history?• What did he have to do with the French Revolution?• What books have your read or movies have you seen about the French Revolution?• How accurate do you think those accounts were?• What other things do you want to know about the French Revolution or Napoleon?
  3. 3. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  4. 4. Life in France Before the Revolution These are images of life in eighteenth- century France before the French Revolution. As you view the images, think about how you would answer the questions below: 1. Describe the images of King Louis XVI and the images of the French peasants. 2. Compare the life of the monarchy with the life of the peasants. What differences do you see?
  5. 5. Life in France Before the Revolution These are images of life in eighteenth- century France before the French Revolution. As you view the images, think about how you would answer the questions below: 1. Describe the images of King Louis XVI and the images of the French peasants. 2. Compare the life of the monarchy with the life of the peasants. What differences do you see?
  6. 6. Life in France Before the Revolution These are images of life in eighteenth- century France before the French Revolution. As you view the images, think about how you would answer the questions below: 1. Describe the images of King Louis XVI and the images of the French peasants. 2. Compare the life of the monarchy with the life of the peasants. What differences do you see?
  7. 7. Life in France Before the Revolution These are images of life in eighteenth- century France before the French Revolution. As you view the images, think about how you would answer the questions below: 1. Describe the images of King Louis XVI and the images of the French peasants. 2. Compare the life of the monarchy with the life of the peasants. What differences do you see?
  8. 8. What is a Revolution?Revolution: a fundamental change that has occurredrapidlyPolitical revolution: a fundamental and rapid change ingovernmentEconomic revolution: a fundamental change in how aneconomy is structuredSocial revolution: a fundamental change in society andculture
  9. 9. Causes of the FrenchRevolutionGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the structure of social classes in Francelead to discontent? How did the economic crises lead to the meeting ofthe Estates-General?
  10. 10. The Three Estates
  11. 11. The Three Estates The robed figure represents the clergy, the First Estate. Represented by the Catholic Church, the clergy held a great deal of social and political influence despite being few in number compared to either population.
  12. 12. The Three EstatesThe armored figurerepresents the nobility,the second Estate.Nobles had a great dealof political and militaryinfluence in France butrepresented less thantwo percent of the totalpopulation.
  13. 13. The Three EstatesThe crouched figure atthe bottom of thecartoon represents thecommoners, the ThirdEstate. These people,the vast majority ofsociety, bore nearly allof economic and laborburdens in France.
  14. 14. The Three Estates The circular object with the crown pushing down on the middle figure represents the monarchy, which is burdening the people with taxes.
  15. 15. The Three Estates This French political cartoon is from 1789.
  16. 16. The Three Estates
  17. 17. Enlightenment Ideas and the RevolutionWhat ideas did the philosophes contribute to the FrenchRevolution? Philosophe Important Work Key Ideas The principle of separation of powers The Spirit of the Montesquieu helps a government operate properly Laws without oppressive power. Deism: the universe operates like a Treatise on mechanical clock set to motion. Voltaire Toleration Religious toleration: “All men are brothers under God.” The Social Society should be governed by the Rousseau Contract general will of all citizens.
  18. 18. Economic Conditions Increase Opposition to GovernmentHow did economic conditions increase opposition to thegovernment?• Food shortages, rising prices, and unemployment angered many of the people in France.• Citizens were unhappy with the monarchy’s heavy spending on wars and on personal luxuries.• Economic traditions - such as the tax system - favored the upper class, and the middle class wanted change and social justice.
  19. 19. France’s Tax System• Taxes were based on tradition and custom.• Taxes were unfairly applied.• 3 important unfair taxes: taille, gabelle, and vingtième.Name of tax Type of tax Why it was important Taille property tax paid mostly by peasants paid only by some regions; varied by Gabelle salt tax region intended to collect 1/20th of a person’s Vingtième income tax income; paid mostly by poor and middle class
  20. 20. The Three EstatesChoose from the characteristics below which ones apply to each column.Characteristics may apply to more than one estate. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate • Many had little or no land • Peasants • Sought to expand their • Shopkeepers and skilled power craftspeople • Clergy • Held many leading • Exempt from the taille government positions • Bourgeoisie • Some aristocrats and nobles • Many had feudal obligations • Nobility
  21. 21. The Three EstatesChoose from the characteristics below which ones apply to each column.Characteristics may apply to more than one estate. First Estate Second Estate Third Estate • Clergy • Nobility • Peasants • Some aristocrats and • Held many leading • Shopkeepers and nobles government positions skilled craftspeople • Exempt from the • Sought to expand • Bourgeoisie taille their power • Many had little or no • Exempt from the land taille • Many had feudal obligations
  22. 22. The Three EstatesIdentify what group each label represents on the charts. Bourgoeisie Nobility Clergy Peasants
  23. 23. The Three EstatesIdentify what group each label represents on the charts. ie s ty s gy ty ie gy nt nt is ili is ili er er sa oe sa ob oe ob Cl Cl ea ea rg N rg N P ouP ou B B
  24. 24. Bread Riots
  25. 25. Bread RiotsIn 1788, bad weatherreduced the amount ofgrain produced by nearly25 percent. Thefollowing year, breadprices nearly doubled, asituation that was madeworse as some began tohoard grain in fear ofshortages.
  26. 26. Bread RiotsBread was a staple ofthe French diet, so thespike in price angeredpeople, and they took tothe streets to criticizethe government for notdoing anything to help.
  27. 27. Bread Riots In the spring of 1789, increasingly desperate and hungry Parisians began rioting at bakeries and markets, attacking bankers and milliners and simply taking the bread they wanted.
  28. 28. Bread Riots This drawing represents the riot that occurred when Parisians discovered that François the Baker had been saving bread for members of the National Assembly.
  29. 29. Bread Riots
  30. 30. What Is The Third Estate?“ Who then shall dare to say that In January 1789 the French people were choosing who woud representthe Third Estate has not within them at the meeting of the Estates-itself all that is necessary for the General, France’s parliament. Aformation of a complete nation? It member of the clergy, the Abbé Sieyès,is the strong and robust man who published a pamphlet called What Ishas one arm still shackled. If the the Third Estate? In the pamphlet,privileged order should be Sieyès argued that the Third Estate should have the power to draft aabolished, the nation would be constitution for France.nothing less, but something more.Therefore, what is the Third In this excerpt from the pamphlet,Estate? Everything; but an Sieyès refers to the First and Secondeverything shackled and Estates as “the privileged order.”oppressed. What would it bewithout the privileged order?Everything, but an everything freeand flourishing. Nothing can What is Sieyès saying that thesucceed without it, everything roles of the privileged order andwould be infinitely better without the Third Estates should be inthe others. ” governing France?
  31. 31. The National AssemblyGUIDING QUESTIONS Why did the Third Estate declare itself to be theNational Assembly? What were the French peasants reacting to in theirrebellions of 1789?
  32. 32. Meeting of the Estates-General• In 1789, King Louis XVI convened a meeting of the French Parliament, which was called the Estates-General.• The Estates-General, which had not met since 1614, consisted of representatives of France’s three estates.• The King had called the meeting because the government had run out of money and the king wanted to change the tax system to raise money.
  33. 33. Cahiers de Doléance• When members of the three estates met to choose their representatives in the Estates-General in 1789, they drew up lists of grievances called cahiers de doléance.• All three estates agreed that there needed to be major constitutional reform.• All three estates wanted a representative government that would change the absolute powers of the monarch but not eliminate social distinctions.• The First and Second Estates - the clergy and the nobility - seemed ready for equality of taxation and the abolition of censorship.
  34. 34. Cahiers de Doléance• The First and Second Estates wanted to keep religion prominent in society.• The peasants mainly had problems with the privileges of the nobility.• Urban inhabitants took issue with specific people evading taxes, wanted the abolition of certain tolls, and pushed for bridge repair.
  35. 35. Meeting of the Estates-General• A radical minority called the Patriots wanted ➡ a written constitution ➡ to limit the king’s power ➡ elimination of legal privilege ➡ a representative assembly• Members of the Third Estate demanded that the voting system be changed so that they had as many votes as the other two estates combined. The king disagreed.• The members of the Third Estate took an oath, declaring that they would continue to meet until there was a new constitution.
  36. 36. The Tennis Court Oath
  37. 37. The Tennis Court OathOn June 17, 1789, members of the Third Estateattending the Estates-general assembly realizedthat the traditional form of voting - in which theprivileged class’s (nobles and clergy) vote hadmore weight than the commoners’ vote - wouldleave them virtually powerless. To protect theirinterests, they declared themselves the NationalAssembly and threatened to act as France’sgoverning body on their own.
  38. 38. The Tennis Court OathOn June 20, the members of the NationalAssembly found they were locked out oftheir meeting room, presumably by LouisXVI, so they occupied one of the king’sindoor tennis courts. The assembly vowedto stay in the tennis court until a newconstitution was established in France.
  39. 39. The Tennis Court OathOne week later, in light of the NationalAssembly’s solidarity and the support theywere gathering from commoners, King LouisXVI ordered the nobles and the clergy to joinwith the Third Estate in constituting the NewNational Constituent Assembly. At the sametime, Louis XVI began to organize troops tobreak up the assembly.
  40. 40. The Tennis Court OathThe French artist Jacques-Louis David paintedthis scene, titled “Le Sermentde Jeu de Paume,”or “The Tennis Court Oath,” in 1791.
  41. 41. The Tennis Court Oath
  42. 42. The Siege of the Bastille
  43. 43. The Siege of the BastilleOn July 14, 1789, protesters demandedthat the ammunition and weaponry fromthe Bastille be given to them. Althoughthere were only seven prisoners in theBastille at the time, the guards refused toturn over the artillery to the mob.
  44. 44. The Siege of the BastilleThe Bastille, built originally as a medievalfort, was used for many years as a prisonwhere kings would house political prisoners.For the French, it became a symbol of thevicious rule of Bourbon monarchs.
  45. 45. The Siege of the Bastille The protesters attacked and captured the prison, releasing the prisoners and taking up the arms stored within. The attack on the Bastille is considered by many to be the start of the French Revolution.
  46. 46. The Siege of the Bastille
  47. 47. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  48. 48. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenWritten and adopted by the National Assembly in August 1789, the Declaration of the Rights of Manand of the Citizen was inspired by the French Enlightenment thinkers Montesquieu and Rousseau, aswell as by the English Bill of Rights and the United States’ Declaration of Independence andConstitution. The National Assembly set out 17 articles that asserted the freedom and rights of allmen, established a separation of powers and limited the powers of the monarch.
  49. 49. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenArticle I: Men areborn free and remainfree and equal inrights. Socialdistinctions may bebased only onconsiderations of thecommon good.
  50. 50. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Article V II: No man may be accused, arrested, or detained except in the cases determined by the Law, and following the procedure that it has prescribed.
  51. 51. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Article XI: The free communication of ideas and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man. Any citizen may therefore speak, write, and publish freely, except what is tantamount to the abuse of this liberty in the cases determined by Law.
  52. 52. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen This French painting, titled Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, was completed in 1789.
  53. 53. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
  54. 54. Parisian Women March to Versailles
  55. 55. Parisian Women March to Versailles On October 5, 1789, a group of women (and some men) marched 15 miles from Paris to Versailles, where King Louis XVI and the royal family were staying, to protest the monarchy’s inaction regarding bread and grain shortages.
  56. 56. Parisian Women March to VersaillesMany of the women carried weapons abandonedby the French Guard after soldiers decided to sidewith the rebels against the monarchy.
  57. 57. Parisian Women March to VersaillesUnlike the rest of the women pictured, this woman is notdressed as a Parisian woman of the Third Estate. Somenobles and clergy joined the rebels against the king.
  58. 58. Parisian Women March to Versailles This line engraving depicts Parisian women marching to Versailles on October 5, 1789.
  59. 59. Parisian Women March to Versailles
  60. 60. End of the Old RegimeGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the French Revolution enter a newphase after the storming of the Bastille?
  61. 61. Changes to the Catholic Church in FranceHow was the Catholic Church changed during the FrenchRevolution?• The National Assembly seized and sold off the Catholic Church’s lands.• The Catholic Church was brought under control of the state.• The hierarchical structure of the Catholic Church was abolished. ➡ Bishops and priests were to be elected by the people rather than appointed by the Church hierarchy. ➡ Bishops’ and priests’ salaries were to be paid by the state rather than by the Church.
  62. 62. The Constitution of 1791What were the major changes brought about by theConstitution of 1791?• Set up a limited monarchy: a Legislative Assembly as well as the king.• Made a distinction between active citizens, who could vote, and passive citizens, who could not. ➡ Active citizens were men over 25 who owned property. ➡ Passive citizens had equal rights except for the ability to vote.• Provided for election, rather than appointment, of clergy, government officials, and judges
  63. 63. The Arrest of Louis XVI at Varennes
  64. 64. The Arrest of Louis XVI at VarennesIn June 1791, Louis XVI still reigned in France as a constitutional monarch. However, on June21, 1791, he and his family attempted to flee Paris for the German border. The king and hisfamily fled in disguise, but were recognized before they escaped the country. Louis XVI wasarrested in Varennes, a town in northeast France, and brought back to Paris. The king had lostcredibility, pushing France further toward abolishing the monarchy.More about the image: Pierre Gabriel Berthault made this colored engraving, titled “The Arrestof Louis XVI at Varennes on June 22, 1791,” after a drawing by Prieur.
  65. 65. The Arrest of Louis XVI at Varennes
  66. 66. Collapse of the Old RegimeReview: What events led to the collapse of the Old Regime?• The meeting of the Estates-General.• The creation of the National Assembly and the taking of the Tennis Court Oath.• The Storming of the Bastille• The Great Fear
  67. 67. Reviewing the Causes of the Revolution In the previous lesson you learned about the causes of the French Revolution. Jot down as many of these causes as you can remember. In July 1989, a mob stormed the Bastille prison in Paris. This act signaled the start of the French Revolution.
  68. 68. The Move to RadicalismGUIDING QUESTIONS Why did the French Revolution become moreradical?
  69. 69. The Move to RadicalismWhy was there a move to radicalism after 1791?• There were price increases and economic shortages.• Radicals, such as the sans-culottes, wanted all men to be able to vote.• There were rumors of royalist conspiracies.• Louis XVI was opposed to the Constitution of 1791.• Parisians were afraid and panicky because of the political turmoil.
  70. 70. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Ruling body of France that established Estates-General the French republic in 1792. Governmental body established by the National Assembly Constitution of 1792 to make laws. Legislative Assembly Body established by the Third Estate in 1792 to draft a constitution. National Convention Formal body of deputies from the First, Second and Third Estates
  71. 71. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Ruling body of France that established Estates-General the French republic in 1792. Governmental body established by the National Assembly Constitution of 1792 to make laws. Legislative Assembly Body established by the Third Estate in 1792 to draft a constitution. National Convention Formal body of deputies from the First, Second and Third Estates
  72. 72. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Ruling body of France that established Estates-General the French republic in 1792. Governmental body established by the National Assembly Constitution of 1792 to make laws. Legislative Assembly Body established by the Third Estate in 1792 to draft a constitution. National Convention Formal body of deputies from the First, Second and Third Estates
  73. 73. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Ruling body of France that established Estates-General the French republic in 1792. Governmental body established by the National Assembly Constitution of 1792 to make laws. Legislative Assembly Body established by the Third Estate in 1792 to draft a constitution. National Convention Formal body of deputies from the First, Second and Third Estates
  74. 74. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Ruling body of France that established Estates-General the French republic in 1792. Governmental body established by the National Assembly Constitution of 1792 to make laws. Legislative Assembly Body established by the Third Estate in 1792 to draft a constitution. National Convention Formal body of deputies from the First, Second and Third Estates
  75. 75. Fashion before the French Revolution Wigs or hair were According to layered into sumptuary laws, only powdered curls. noblemen could carry Sometimes a hat with swords. feathers was pinned on top.Hats were worn on top of elaboratewigs or carried as accessories. Hoops, crumpled paper, or padding was used to enlarge and fluff the skirt.Noblemen wore knee- length, tight-fitting Only nobility could breeches. Both men wear satin, lace andand women wore silk fur according to stockings. sumptuary laws.
  76. 76. Fashion After the French Revolution Blue, white and red were Women of the Third symbolic colors of the Estate wore a hat with a revolution. It was badge and their hair patriotic to wear the loose. bonnet rouge. Revolutionary women wore man-styled jackets over their dresses. Revolutionaries made a political statement by wearing longer trousers. These men became known as the sans- Practical fabrics and culottes (without plain styles replaced breeches). expensive fabrics and fussy styles. Both men and womenshunned high heels and wore more practical leather or wooden shoes.
  77. 77. Political Groups of the French Revolution GreatestGroup Philosophy and Support Leader Power •Moderates in the push for democratization. •Led early opposition to absolute Jacques-Pierre monarchy, but many opposed Brissot (opponentsGirondins execution of Louis XVI. 1789-1792 often called the •favored foreign war as a means of group “Brissotins”) uniting France. •Strong support from areas outside Paris. • Radicals who called for complete egalitarianism in government. • Used violence to control opposition during Reign of Terror. MaximilienJacobins • Advocated execution of the king. Robespierre 1793-1794 • Led the dechristianization movement. • Strong support from groups in Paris.
  78. 78. Political Groups of the French Revolution GreatestGroup Philosophy and Support Leader Power • Most radical group in the National Convention. • Allied with Jacobins and opposed Girondins. • Led the Committee for Public Safety, Jean-BaptisteMontagnards essentially ruling France in 1793-1794 1793-1794. Lindet • Called “Montagnards” (mountain men) because they sat on the highet benches in the assembly; strong support from sans-culottes. • Centrists in the National Convention, also the largest group. • Originally sided with Girondins, but voted with Jacobins/Montagnards for the execution of Louis XVI. Emmanuel-JosephThe Plain 1792-1795 • In 1794, helped overthrow Sieyès government of extreme Jacobins • Called “La Pleine” (The Plain) because they sat in the lower levels of the assembly.
  79. 79. Radical RevolutionWhy might the guillotine have come tosymbolize the French Revolution? Beginning in 1791, the French Revolution entered a more radical phase. No symbol is more closely associated with the growing turmoil in France than the guillotine. The device was named after a French doctor, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who helped push through a law requiring that all executions be carried out by the use of a machine. Beheading had previously been reserved for the nobility because it was quick and relatively painless. Using the machine ensured people who were not nobility would also be executed in a fast and less painful way.
  80. 80. The Reign of TerrorGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the new French government deal with crises?
  81. 81. Radicalization of the French RevolutionWhy did the French Revolution radicalize?• Radicals gained power after Louis XVI was executed. ➡ Jacobins club grew in numbers. ➡ Execution of Louis XVI outraged Europe.• France was faced with domestic uprisings and external threats. ➡ Committee of Public Safety was created to defend France.
  82. 82. Committee of Public SafetyWhat did the Committee of Public Safety do?• Adopted policies that became known as the Reign of Terror.• Set up revolutionary courts.• Prosecuted counterrevolutionaries.• Called on all citizens to defend France.• Tried to control and improve society through price controls, primary education for all, and abolition of slavery.
  83. 83. The Execution of King Louis XVI
  84. 84. The Execution of King Louis XVIKing Louis XVI’s execution was held onJanuary 21, 1793, in Place de la Revolution,a public square now known as Place de laConcorde.
  85. 85. The Execution of King Louis XVI A priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, accompanied the king. Edgeworth was an Englishman living in France.
  86. 86. The Execution of King Louis XVIThe guillotine inflictedcapital punishment bydecapitation. It wasdeveloped to be a“humane” form ofexecution. Introduced inFrance in 1792, it wasused extensively duringthe Reign of Terror.
  87. 87. The Execution of King Louis XVIA soldier held up the severedhead of the king to the crowd.
  88. 88. The Execution of King Louis XVI The National Convention judged Louis XVI a traitor and condemned him to death. The queen, Marie Antoinette, was guillotined nine months later.
  89. 89. The Execution of King Louis XVI
  90. 90. Revolts against the Republic
  91. 91. Sans-Culottes Parade
  92. 92. Sans-Culottes ParadeMore about this image: The parade in Parisridicules Christianity and the Church, 1793.
  93. 93. Sans-Culottes Parade
  94. 94. A Nation in ArmsGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the new French government deal withcrises?
  95. 95. The Battle of Valmy
  96. 96. The Battle of ValmyThe French revolution had alarmed other monarchies in Europe, particularly those with ties toLouis XVI. The experienced Austrian and Prussian armies expected to defeat the French andmarch on to Paris in hopes of restoring the monarchy. At the Battle of Valmy on September 20,1792, French forces turned back an invading Austrian-Prussian army, helping to secure theFrench Republic’s survival. The battle was decided by the superiority of the French artillery,which deterred a large-scale attack by the opposing forces. Horace Vernet painted this scenefrom the Battle of Valmy in oil on canvas in 1826. Vernet lived from 1789 to 1863 and specializedin painting large-scale military scenes.
  97. 97. The Battle of Valmy
  98. 98. The Execution of Robespierre
  99. 99. The Execution of RobespierreThe guillotine was thefavored method of executionduring the FrenchRevolution. About 17,000people were guillotinedduring the Reign of Terror.1,400 of these wereexecuted between June 10and July 26, 1794, duringthe Great Terror thatfollowed the enactment ofthe Laws 22 Paririal. Theselaws meant that the accusedcould be sentenced to deathwithout an opportunity forself-defense.
  100. 100. The Execution of Robespierre From September 1793 through July 1794, Maximilien Robespierre was the most powerful person in France, the chief architect of the Reign of Terror. But on July 27, 1794, the National Convention turned against its leader. Robespierre was arrested. The next day, without a trial, he was executed.
  101. 101. The Execution of Robespierre Executions were held in public. In Paris, a guillotine was set up in the Place de la Revolution, a public square in Paris. A depicted in this illustration, Robespierre was executed here, just as Louis XVI had been executed 18 months earlier.
  102. 102. The Execution of Robespierre
  103. 103. The DirectoryGUIDING QUESTIONS How did the constant transition within theFrench government influence its effectiveness?
  104. 104. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating the right of public trial. In the next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are executed.
  105. 105. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against the Republic.
  106. 106. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against JulyRepublic. the 27, 1794 The Convention turns against Robespierre and orders his arrest.
  107. 107. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against JulyRepublic. the 27, 1794 The Convention turns against Robespierre and orders his arrest. July 28, 1794 Robespierre and several of his followers are executed without trial, putting an end to the Reign of Terror.
  108. 108. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against JulyRepublic. the 27, 1794 The Convention turns against Robespierre and orders his arrest. July 28, 1794 Robespierre and several of his followers are executed without trial, putting an end to the Reign of Terror. August 1794 The Law of 22 Prairial is repealed.
  109. 109. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against JulyRepublic. the 27, 1794 The Convention turns against Robespierre and orders his arrest. July 28, 1794 Robespierre and several of his followers are executed without trial, putting an end to the Reign of Terror. August 1794 The Law of 22 Prairial is repealed. August 1795 The National Convention approves a new constitution.
  110. 110. The End of TerrorThe end of the Reign of Terror came swiftly. In the two months betweenpassage of the Law of 22 Prairial and its repeal, the Terror reached its heightand its bloody conclusion. June 10, 1794The Law of 22 Prairial is instituted by the Committee ofPublic Safety, eliminating July 26, of public trial. In the the right 1794 next six weeks, about 1,400 suspects are the National Robespierre delivers a speech to executed. Convention, denouncing supposed terrorist plots against JulyRepublic. the 27, 1794 The Convention turns against Robespierre and orders his arrest. July 28, 1794 Robespierre and several of his followers are executed without trial, putting an end to the Reign of Terror. August 1794 The Law of 22 Prairial is repealed. August 1795 The National Convention approves a new constitution. November 1795 Under the new constitution, the Directory assumes power.
  111. 111. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.
  112. 112. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.
  113. 113. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.
  114. 114. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.
  115. 115. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.
  116. 116. Governmental GroupsMatch each group to its description Body given broad powers by the National Convention; initiated theCommittee of Public Safety Reign of Terror.Directory Radical, popularly run local city government in Paris.Paris Commune Five-member executive branch created by the Constitution of 1795.Council of 500 Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to approve laws.Council of Elders Legislative house created by the Constitution of 1975 to draft laws.

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