I. A CHRISTIAN HUMANISM To help students understand how Christian humanism combined classical learning with the goal of reforming Catholicism, lecture on the topic, and leave the "Renaissance Humanism and Christian Humanism" bellringer displayed for reference. Christian Humanism Northward spread of humanism: The spread of classical learning to northern Europe spurred the development of Christian humanism. Christian humanist beliefs: Christian humanists believed that human beings could improve themselves through the exercise of reason.
II. THE IDEAS OF ERASMUS To help students grasp Erasmus's emphasis on the inwardness of religious feeling, display the interactive portrait of Erasmus. INTERACTIVE IMAGE Display the interactive image "Portrait of Erasmus" [Visual/spatial] Desiderius Erasmus A Christian humanist: Erasmus wanted the Church to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis. Discussion Ask: Why do you think the artist chose to portray Erasmus in this particular pose? (Students may suggest that the pose emphasizes Erasmus's interests in books, writing, and scholarship.) Background for the TeacherErasmus strongly believed in the power of education, which he saw as a way to "draw out" (the meaning of the Latin educare) people's capabilities for good thought and behavior. He therefore recommended the reading only of works that would lead to such an education. He thought that classical literature had a beneficial effect on the mind, whereas fanciful stories, such as tales of King Arthur, were silly and likely to corrupt the mind.
III. A CHURCH IN NEED OF REFORM Lecture on the contemporary criticisms of the Church. Display the "Corruption in the Catholic Church" slide and have students complete the "Selling Indulgences" activity. LECTURE SLIDE Display the lecture slide "Corruption in the Catholic Church" [Verbal/linguistic] Problems in the Catholic Church Ineffective leadership Corruption in the Church led to discontent. Many people thought that Church officials were interested mainly in wealth. In addition, some parish priests did not seem interested in their spiritual duties.
Indulgences The Church sold indulgences—documents that released the purchasers from punishment for sin. Many people bought indulgences for family members who had died and were said to be in purgatory. WORKSHEET Have students complete the "Selling Indulgences" Economics of History Activity with partners. [Interpersonal] Discussion Ask: What is corruption? (Students may say that corruption is dishonest, fraudulent, or immoral behavior by those in power, often for financial gain.) Background for the TeacherAfter they confessed their sins and sought forgiveness from God through the Church, penitents were often given "penances"—earthly activities, such as prayer or good works, to perform as repayment for the sins. A penitent would still have to spend time in purgatory as punishment after death, however. Purgatory was a kind of "holding cell" where sinners paid for their sins before being allowed into heaven. An indulgence was thought to exempt one from this punishment for a certain length of time. One of the most corrupt practices during the 1500s was the selling of indulgences as a kind of insurance against unconfessed sins. Later, the Church decided that one could buy indulgences for people already dead and supposedly in purgatory. Secular governments also got into the act by allowing the sale of indulgences only in return for a substantial share of the yield, often as much as two-thirds. AL- Clarify for students that many Catholics were told that if they purchased indulgences their loved ones would be released from purgatory and allowed to enter heaven. Explain that in Catholic teachings of the time, purgatory was the place where the souls of dead people who were eligible for heaven waited to be purified. A dead person's loved ones would pray for the release of the soul into heaven. Buying indulgences could help in the purification process.
IV. LUTHER AND THE NINETY–FIVE THESES To help students understand Martin Luther's break with the Catholic Church, display the "Martin Luther Disagrees with the Church" slide and the "Martin Luther and the Ninety-five Theses" infographic. LECTURE SLIDE Display the lecture slide "Martin Luther Disagrees with the Church" as you lecture on the topic. [Verbal/linguistic] Martin Luther's Ideas Justification by faith alone: While the Catholic Church taught that doing good works was an important means for improving one's chances of entering heaven, Martin Luther believed that people are saved through their faith in God alone and not by good works. The Ninety-five Theses: On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther made public his Ninety-five Theses, an attack on the Church's handling of indulgences.
INFOGRAPHIC Display the "Martin Luther and the Ninety-five Theses" infographic. [Logical/mathematical] Discussion Ask: Why did Luther object to the selling of indulgences? (He felt that the selling of indulgences gave people false hope in material solutions to sin, instead of leading them to develop their own faith, which Luther believed was the only road to salvation.) V. THE GAP BETWEEN LUTHER AND THE CHURCH WIDENS To help students understand Luther's calls for increasingly radical reform, display the Visual Literacy Activity "Analyzing Visuals" about the views of early Protestants as depicted in a woodcut. WORKSHEET "Analyzing Visuals" Visual Literacy Activity [Visual/spatial] A Break with the Church Luther's movement toward a final break: In 1520, Luther challenged the system of sacraments and the celibacy of priests. He was excommunicated in 1521. The Edict of Worms: Holy Roman emperor Charles V issued the Edict of Worms, making Luther an outlaw within the empire. Discussion Ask: What did Charles V hope to accomplish at the Council of Worms? (He wanted to give Luther a fair hearing and thought he could get Luther to give up his new ideas about Christianity.)
VI. THE FIRST PROTESTANT FAITH To help students understand the formation of the first Protestant faith, display the "Christianity in Northern Europe" time line and the "Support for Lutheranism" whiteboard activity. TIME LINE "Christianity in Northern Europe"[Kinesthetic] The Rise of Lutheranism Some German rulers embrace Protestantism: Motivated by politics and economics, some German rulers made Catholic churches into Lutheran churches. The Peasants' War: In June 1524, German peasants revolted against their lords. Luther sided with the lords, and the revolt was crushed in 1525.
INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD "Support for Lutheranism"[Kinesthetic] Discussion Ask: Why did Luther's ideas spread so quickly? (Luther gained the support of many rulers within the Holy Roman Empire who were looking to advance their own policies and their economic situation.) BL- Ask students to write several paragraphs in which they examine the reasons that caused Luther's religious movement to become a revolution.
Politics in the German Reformation GUIDING QUESTION Why was the Holy Roman Empire forced to seek peace with the Lutheran princes? VII. THE END OF RELIGIOUS WARFARE IN GERMANY To help students understand how the Peace of Augsburg ended religious warfare in Germany, display the "Peace of Augsburg" lecture slide. LECTURE SLIDE "Peace of Augsburg" [Verbal/linguistic] Politics and the Reformation Charles V and the Reformation: Charles V was unable to exert his military force in Germany before the rulers supporting Luther had organized their armies. He was distracted by wars with France and the Ottoman Empire. The Peace of Augsburg: Unable to defeat the Lutheran princes of Germany, Charles V agreed to the Peace of Augsburg, accepting the division between Catholicism and Lutheranism in Germany. German princes were allowed to choose which religion would be practiced in their states. Discussion Ask: What were some factors that helped Lutheranism survive? (Students should mention that Charles V could not afford to fight the supporters of Lutheranism because of many other demands on his army. In addition, because Germany was made up of many independent states with their own rulers, rather than a unified state with a single ruler, support was split between the Emperor and the Lutherans.) Background for the TeacherAfter the Edict of Worms, Luther and his followers were under constant threat of military action by Catholic forces. In 1546, Charles V felt that he had the backing to wage war against the major Lutheran territories and cities. However, Charles was also waging war against other groups and overextended himself. Without opposition, Lutheranism quickly spread into other countries. In 1555, Charles was forced to give formal recognition to Lutheran churches in the Holy Roman Empire. After the Peace of Augsburg, Lutherans gained legal recognition as the rulers of countries declared Lutheranism the official religion. This left the Lutheran churches in these principalities free to develop without political and military threats. AL- Have students locate maps of Europe before 1517 and after the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. Ask: What do the maps suggest about the effect of the Protestant Reformation on politics? (Not only did the Reformation change religious affiliations; it also led to the formation of new states and dissolved bonds of allegiance among others.)
Protestantism in Switzerland GUIDING QUESTION Why did Calvinism become an important form of Protestantism by the mid-sixteenth century? I. THE GROWTH OF CALVINISM To help students understand where Protestantism spread in Europe in the 1500s, display the "European Religions, 1600" map and the lecture slides "The Zwinglian Reformation," "John Calvin and Calvinism," and "John Calvin on Predestination" at appropriate points as you lecture. Then have students complete the "Spreading New Ideas in Religion" worksheet, and conclude by asking the discussion question. INTERACTIVE MAP "European Religions, 1600" [Visual/spatial] Zwingli and Calvin ◦Reformation in Zürich: Ulrich Zwingli tried to introduce religious reforms in Zürich, Switzerland, but he was killed in a war with Swiss Catholics. ◦John Calvin: John Calvin became a Protestant leader based on his writings about predestination.
Reformation in England GUIDING QUESTION What made the English Reformation different from the Reformation in the rest of Europe? II. HENRY VIII'S BREAK FROM ROME To help students understand how King Henry VIII established the Church of England for secular reasons, display the "Henry VIII and the Church of England" time line and the "Edward VI and Mary I" lecture slide while lecturing. Then have students respond to the discussion question. The Reformation in England ◦A royal divorce: England's King Henry VIII divorced his wife, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne Boleyn, which led to the king's excommunication. ◦The Church of England: In 1534, Henry defied the Catholic Church and had Parliament declare the Act of Supremacy, which created the Church of England. ◦The closing of monasteries: Henry closed Catholic monasteries in England and sold to the English nobility the lands and other possessions that had belonged to the monasteries. ◦Edward VI and "Bloody Mary": Edward VI became king in 1547 at the age of nine. The Church of England became more Protestant. Mary I became queen in 1553. She tried to restore England to Roman Catholicism, burning almost 300 Protestants as heretics.
Anabaptists GUIDING QUESTION Why did both Catholics and Protestants consider Anabaptists dangerous radicals? III. THE BELIEFS OF THE ANABAPTISTS To help students understand Anabaptist beliefs, project the "Anabaptists" slide as you lecture about the topic. Then have student volunteers supply the information needed to complete the whiteboard activity "The Protestant Reformation," and ask the discussion question. Anabaptists ◦A community of believers: Modeling themselves after the early Christians, Anabaptists considered all believers to be equal. Any member was eligible to be a minister or spiritual leader. ◦Views on church and state: Anabaptists believed in the complete separation of church and state. They refused to hold political office or bear arms. ◦Persecution: Both Catholics and Protestants persecuted Anabaptists for their beliefs. In Münster, Germany, a center of the Anabaptist community, Anabaptist leaders were tortured and killed in 1535. LECTURE SLIDE "Anabaptists" [Verbal/linguistic] Discussion Ask: How did the Anabaptists differ from other Protestant groups? (Students may mention the Anabaptists' belief in separation of church and state, in adult baptism, and in ministers chosen by the local community.) Background for the Teacher The word Anabaptist literally means "rebaptizers." The Anabaptists believed that only adults who were capable of understanding what they were promising and capable of professing their personal faith should be baptized. Thus, it was necessary to "re-baptize" those who had been baptized as infants. Modern sects holding to the Anabaptist doctrine include Hutterites and Mennonites. BL- Have students research the Anabaptists and their notion of the separation of church and state. Encourage students to further explore this concept by tracing its application in society. AL- As students read through the material, encourage them to identify the main idea of each paragraph.
Reformation and Society GUIDING QUESTION How did the Reformation affect European society? IV. PROTESTANTISM'S SOCIAL IMPACT To help students understand the views of Protestants on family and society, lecture on the topic, and display the "Reformation and Society" and "The Printing Press and the Reformation" lecture slides. Conclude by using the discussion question to assess students' comprehension. LECTURE SLIDE "Reformation and Society"[Verbal/linguistic] Protestants' Effect on European Society ◦Distribution of Bibles: The invention of movable type in the mid-1400s led to the mass printing of Christian Bibles and other religious texts, which helped spread Protestantism across Europe during the 1500s. ◦Women and family: Protestant doctrine held the family to be the center of life. Protestant leaders taught that a woman's place in society should be confined to the home and that men and women were not equal. ◦Anti-Semitism: When Jews in Germany refused to convert to Lutheranism, Martin Luther urged that their places of worship be destroyed.
LECTURE SLIDE "The Printing Press and the Reformation" [Verbal/linguistic] Discussion Ask: How did Protestantism change the role of the family in the clergy? (Pastors and other clergy were allowed to marry and have families.)
atholic Reformation GUIDING QUESTION What prompted the Catholic Reformation during the sixteenth century? V. A REVITALIZED CATHOLIC CHURCH To help students understand three key elements of the Catholic Reformation, display the lecture slide "The Catholic Reformation" as you discuss the topic. Then have students respond to the discussion question. Catholicism's Counter-Reformation ◦The Jesuits: A Spanish noble, Ignatius of Loyola, created the order of the Jesuits, which used education to spread its message. ◦Reform of the papacy: Pope Paul III appointed a reform commission to examine corruption in the Catholic Church. ◦The Council of Trent: The Council of Trent reaffirmed traditional Catholic teaching and created a clear body of doctrine.
LECTURE SLIDE "The Catholic Reformation" [Verbal/linguistic] Discussion Ask: Why would it be helpful for the Catholic Church to have clearly defined doctrines? (Students may say that it would help the clergy understand what is acceptable and what is unacceptable.) ELL- Have students summarize the causes of the Reformation in a cause/effect graphic organizer. Encourage students to draw pictures representing the events leading to the Reformation. Background for the Teacher The Society of Jesus, founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola, differed from other religious orders in several ways. Jesuits took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, mainly to the pope. But because one of their main goals was to spread the faith, they eliminated many of the traditional practices, such as performing regular penance, wearing a "habit" or distinctive clothing, and reciting the "office"—a long religious rite required to be performed as a group in religious orders. The Jesuits opened humanist schools throughout the world. Although the group was not founded to oppose the Reformation, it became intensively involved in Germany and then with similar situations elsewhere by 1550.
1. The Reformation in
2. Prelude to Reformation
GUIDING QUESTIONS How did Christian humanism and Desiderius
Erasmus pave the way for the Protestant Reformation in Europe?
3. The Ideas of Erasmus
4. Martin Luther
GUIDING QUESTIONS What role did Martin Luther and his ideas play
in the Reformation?
5. Martin Luther and the 95 Theses
6. Protestantism in
GUIDING QUESTIONS Why did Calvinism become an important form
of Protestantism by the mid-sixteenth century?
7. Reformation in England
GUIDING QUESTIONS What made the English Reformation different
from the Reformation in the rest of Europe?
GUIDING QUESTIONS Why did both Catholics and Protestants
consider Anabaptists dangerous radicals?
9. Reformation and Society
GUIDING QUESTIONS How did the Reformation affect European
10. Catholic Reformation
GUIDING QUESTIONS What prompted the Catholic Reformation during
the sixteenth century?