PREPARED BY: NAME MATRIX NUM. TATINORHAJAR BT MOHD JAKERE 2010485776 NOR AZZURA BT MOHD DARUS 2010420236 MUHAMMAD LUTHFI AZZAMUDDIN BIN MOHD MUNIM 2010414444 INTAN BAIRUHA BT ABDUL MALEK 2010423214 NUR FARAHAIN BT BINJAMIN 2010857976 KHAIRULDIN BIN MOHD IZZUDDIN 2010203192 BASHIRA BT KHUSAINI 2010482478
a ‘bow–tie’ structure (Broder, et al. , 2000 )( individual sites typically adopted an approximately hierarchical structure, with a front page leading to various subpages, augmented by cross–links and search functions)
content is centrally updated at somewhat predictable intervals.
More to real–world social networks (show somewhat different structures, due in part to implicit bi–directionality of links).
a lot of user generated content, it is not uncommon to have small incremental additions to the site.
2) Advanced structure
all links and pages can be treated essentially equally.
requires looking at different link types (friend links, navigation links, etc.) and page types (user pages, content pages, etc.) to understand.
3) Site mechanism & incentives
most sites have links to external sites and users may easily follow links to other sites.
many sites encourage users to spend as much time as possible on their site (There are strong incentives for increasing such stickiness : opportunities for higher advertising revenue)
VNRs can be view or download through online by journalists anytime that they want to use it.
VNR also may contains an interview with a person that was unavailable to a mass media event.
VNR includes video of the product which is edited to make it easy for TV news producers to air the video on newscasts and slates which are easy-to-read full-screen graphics that provide the details of the recall.
It provides users a detailed, interactive, and useful outlook of information.
It helps PR practitioner to find relevant scholarly research in a timely, cost-effective fashion in conducting research.(eg: Google scholar, CrossRef)
It minimized application data management: By leveraging third party data providers, you can ensure reduced costs related to maintaining and updating your own data repositories.
It reduced development effort: Involves taking advantage of business logic which has been thoroughly tested and designed to solve a particular domain problem, and is maintained by a specialized service provider.
Unlimited data sources based on standards: swapping between the growing number of data sources available on the web can create an exponential number of possibilities for all your developments.
As far as our concern, the world we are living now has evolved into tremendous form of new era. Technologies we have nowadays are far greater excellent from the past. We could possibly do anything on what we want at our fingertips.
Technologies we have right now bring impact on how we perceive our life and the way we conducting it. It also give impact to most area, including Public Relations (PR) field. PR has being affected from many aspects due to the new technologies created. The evolution is still going on today.
Berners-Lee, T. (1998), “The World Wide Web – a very short personal history”
Cormode, K. (2008, June 2). Volume 13 Number 6: Key Differences Between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. Retrieved September 2011, from First Monday: http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2125/1972
Evans, D. M. (2006, November 8). The Evolution of the Web- From Web 1.0 to Web 4.0. Retrieved September 30, 2011, from Centre for Security, Communications and Network Research: www.cscan.org/presentations/08-11-06-MikeEvans-Web.pdf
THE CONSEQUENCES OF TECHNOLOGY FAKHRIAH BINTIAHMAD RADZUAN KHAIRUL ANNUAR BIN MD YUSOF MOHD HAZIQ BIN SHUKRI NUR SYAFINAZ BINTI HASNAN
Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles , power , and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management
Organizational structure is also becoming virtual and the virtual is becoming real.
The study of such a virtual team is especially useful for extending our understanding of the adaptation process as virtual teams have more malleable structures than typical organizational units and controlled group experiments.
Firms benefit from virtual teams through:
(1) access to previously unavailable expertise
(2) enhanced cross-functional interaction
(3) improve the quality of the virtual team's work.
Taylor and Kent (2007) state that the use of the internet in crisis communications is a logical one in that websites are one controlled channel through which organisations can communicate directly with the media and the public.
Through website an organisation can tell its ‘side of the story, reduce the uncertainty of consumers, address multiple stakeholder needs, and work with government agencies that specialise in public safety.
Research has shown that PR practitioners who embrace new technologies such as blogging are perceived within organisations as having more power, in that they are willing to be leaders in the industry and use new tools to better reach target publics (Porter, Sweetser Trammell, Chung, & Kim, 2007).
Corporate culture can be described in the following way, "Culture is the sum total of values, virtues, accepted behaviors (both good and not so good), and the political environment of an organization" (Bliss, 1999).
The terms "virtual conference", "virtual group", and "online group” refer to many technologies.
They may be real-time activities, like video teleconferencing or audio conferencing, where people are in different places participating at the same time; or, they may enable participants to join in from different places at different times.
Expectation of demand : organizations may need to employ more people to handle the increase in business or new people who have skills that require using these new technologies.
Technical limitations : existing job, skills and machinery may be required to work alongside the new devices and technology.
From Fixed team membership All team members drawn from within the organization Team members are dedicated 100% to the team Team members are co-located organizationally and geographically Teams have a fixed starting and ending point Teams are managed by a style managers
To Shifting team membership Team members can include people from outside the organization Most people are members of multiple teams Team members are distributed organizationally and geographically Teams form and reform continuously Teams have multiple reporting relationships with different part of the organization at different times
Connecting ‘island of knowledge ’ into self-organizing , knowledge sharing networks of professional communities.
Fostering cross-functional and cross-divisional collaboration
Increasing ability to initiate and contribute to project across organizational boundaries.
From Face-to-face is the best environment for interaction and anything else is a compromise Collaboration is what happens when teams interact at a fixed time and space. Being people-oriented is incompatible with using technology. When the communication process break down, blame the technology. Learning to manage virtual teams is about learning how to use the technology
To Different kinds of medium can support high-quality interaction. Collaboration happens in an ongoing. Using technology in a people-oriented way is possible and desirable. When the communication process breaks down, evaluate our management and interaction strategies, not just the technical or physical devices. Learning to manage virtual teams is about understanding more about teams and the collaboration process.
Web page to provide members of the organization access to documents that can be searched, and that may include annual report, official announcement, financial report and organization’s performance data sheet.
Web conference to provide places for interactive discussion.
Email to connect with both internal and if desired, connected to the external public
Directories of people and office for better references.
Information A web-based sharing meeting calendar helps team members schedule meeting. An email list allows members of change project team to check facts quickly by seeking input from other team members so they can move on the next step in their project. A website which includes project update and organization-wide directories provides information about who is working on different aspects of the change initiative.
A video-teleconference to multiple sites allows top management to send an important message to everyone in the system. Email list for announcement Large ‘auditorium style’ of online meetings open to everyone and allow project teams to give opinion.
Relationships A set of web-based computer conferences serve as a virtual workspace for a change team over a period of weeks or month. An audio teleconference links members of a work team in real time so that they can come to an agreement around a tricky decision that needs to be made immediately. An organization-wide online bulletin board allows anyone to post a question about how changes are being implemented and hear from others about what’s from their point of view.
Facilitate ‘all hands’ meeting provides a way to for large number to join and to give input. A desktop video conference allows a team member to discuss alternative version of new organization charts with remote team members. Online suggestion box on a webpage provides a way for everyone to comment and provide idea anonymity.
IMPACT ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND THEIR PUBLICS ABDUL MANAP BIN JAINI 2010277524 AHMAD FIRDAUS BIN DAMANHURI 2010 684976 BRYAN ALDRIDGE SAMUEL 2010293636 FATHIAH BINTI KAMALUDIN 2010 86 1376 NIK KHAIRUNNISA BINTI AHMED LOKMAN 2010819944 NURUL AFIFAH BINTI BASIR 2010874525 NUR AQILAH BINTI ABDUL RASHID 2010849374 SYED AZRAAI BIN SYED HASHIM 2010449054
EXAMPLE OF NEW MEDIA USAGE BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND THEIR PUBLICS
EXAMPLE OF NEW MEDIA USAGE BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND THEIR PUBLICS
EXAMPLE OF NEW MEDIA USAGE BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND THEIR PUBLICS
Electronic forms of communication cannot transmit all the required information. (face-to-face communication is perceived as richer because the information being received reduces uncertainty)
Has limited capacity.
Unsatisfactory performance in supporting the group work, such as in collaborative research work. (collaboration between two firms requires frequent face-to-face communication among all involved parties)
Cultural factors between different groups and those within the same groups have also shown to play an important role in the pre-deposition and selection of electronic communications media . (US companies exploit the advantages of IT, such as electronic-mail while the Japanese firms do not.)
Many organizations flattened, eliminating many middle management positions.
New media has arise as important of change in organization indicate changing technology that enables an organization to gain a competitive advantage on a relationship between organization and their public.
Focusing o the issue in the aviation business, there are few as important as the airline industry for the smooth and efficient working of a modern society.
Air transport has come to play an irreplaceable role in service to commerce and to the travel needs of the millions of people who fly every day. It is a global, technologically advanced and dynamic growth industry ( Lazar, 2003).
PR practice is the discipline, which looks after reputation with the aims of earning understanding and support, and influence opinion and behavior.
Meaning, public relations activities is to build a reputation that earns the understanding, goodwill and support as well as influence opinion and behavior that benefits the company concerned.
This involves a planned and sustained effort with an integrated and dialogic communication plus an interactive approach to establish the desire effect without compromising public interest (Adnan, 2004).
Analyzing the case for this issue occurs when the company in focus: Malaysia Airlines (MAS), dealing with bankruptcy crisis in 2006 and had some issue with their public and media on the transparency of blueprint and information on the exact crisis that surfaced their company.
Often during this time, MAS’ customers were moving ahead to choose Air Asia as their option to travel instead of MAS since they were dealing with bankruptcy crisis.
Based from the PR perspectives, also in understanding both the importance of BTP 1 and BTP 2 during MAS’s financial crisis in year 2005 and 2006 and how these two plans manages MAS to overturned its losses into profits.
Besides the BTP 1 and BTP 2, this research also studied the MH campaign that was launch under BTP 2.
In detail, the researchers wanted to understand the significance of the MH campaign and how this single-well-planned campaign has been MAS’s answer to maintain its profitability.
Online Advertising and MAS PR Roles in Airlines Rebranding.
Advertising can be employed to perform at least four functions for an airline. It can be used to project the carrier’s preferred corporate image.
It can be used to sell specific products. It also can be used as a method of attempting to influence policymakers, and as a possible way of motivating staff (Stephen Shaw, 1985).
MAS PR practice has been on the public information model which the approach can be seen clearly on the dissemination on the information to introduce their MH Campaign in order to gain and overcome consumer trust on MAS product / services as basically as telling the truth through one-way and two-way communication.
Hence, MAS’ representing the Malaysian Government Company as it shows the important of Government media relations as well as the largest and longest mass media user and as well use wisely the reimbursements of new media to the fullest.
Publishing and advertise helped them build a winning coalition not only with the government but also with other stakeholders, like the unions, the staff, and the public.
Being upfront about the P&L and making it all transparent were very important to bringing the coalition together. Here when the effective PR approach through new media also reveal its works where explaining to people the conflict faces and all the dilemmas and the BTP 1 gain the customers trust.
MAS applied 4 method using advancement of new media
audience awareness of campaign
targeting messages at specific audience segments most receptive or susceptible to those messages
cultivating images and impressions of people, products, or services
All this four (4) methods is the observation that indicates to value MAS campaign on the success of MH campaign not only externally but also internally.
MAS motivate their staffs and cabin crews internally and the result were seen externally when people believe and trust MAS.
Now, MAS became strong and their reputation as it spreads its massive wings back into the sky.
MAS point to phenomenon such as the campaign and independently maintained presence on sites such as YouTube, and Facebook during the 2007-2008 primary on MH campaign as evidence of the social marketing possibilities inherent in unfettered interactive new communication technology.
Last August, the entire world especially Malaysian was shocked by a video downloaded in the Youtube that shown Malaysian Student in London, Muhd Asyraf that were robbed and assaulted during raid in London .
Due to this incident and Youtube , the world knows more about Malaysia and indirectly promotes Malaysia to the world.
A Malaysian-based low-cost airline. Air Asia is Asia's largest low-fare, no-frills airline and a pioneer of low-cost travel in Asia.
Air Asia group operates scheduled domestic and international flights to over 400 destinations spanning 25 countries. Its main hub is the Low-Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA).
AirAsia's Facebook fanpage has more than 1000 000 fans currently, and was the first airline with 1000 000 fans on Facebook.
The fanpage constantly updates on new promotions, discussions and notes shared by both employees and fans.
AirAsia also came up with a"travel wish list" Facebook application in 2008 build its Facebook presence by encouraging Facebook users to join and they were also given a chance to win free air tickets.
In the case of Foldees, designers get royalties and RM2500 in cash if they win the contest. Voters on the other hand are rewarded with a free card and commenter's get their comments featured so they get to be on the front page of the website.
b. Momentum matters - don't lose it
There was a point of time when Foldees held the second contest about 3 months after the first one. The return rate as a result was horrible because very few returned. However after realizing their mistake, Foldees began shortening the time between contests and consequently, the return rate improved greatly.
Tiger Beer is an example of how the blogosphere can build a brand. They not only used consumer insight to repackage its product but also generate excitement among influential endorsers in the online space.
The Malaysia beer market is crowded, with an array of seemingly generic brands jostling for attention and share. Tiger needed to remain relevant among its young target audience of 21- to 30-year-olds, strengthen brand positioning and increase loyalty, and ultimately increase share of the market.
Tiger set out to position itself as a unique, cool and contemporary beer that young people would want to associate with.
The target audience wanted to be associated with cool and trendy brands and products that offered them a ‘differentiator’ image. Focus groups showed that opinion leaders and social influencers demonstrating these traits served to reinforce the credibility of a brand.
Tiger needed to excite target consumers by injecting an element of surprise through its packaging and presentation.
Three different designer bottle sleeves were developed, based on music and artistic themes. The shrink-wrapped bottles featured Tiger’s branding in a stylized manner and stood out from the competition.
The initiative focused on the online social space, with endorsements from key opinion leaders and social influencers, alongside above-the-line advertising and PR. It was executed in four phases.
Online endorsements by key influencers served to promote Tiger to its critical audience. To generate interest around its brand and the repackaged product, Tiger made use of Malaysia’s top blog aggregator, with 55,000 blogs including work by the country’s best-known bloggers, and organized a ‘Stand out’ blogger party. The party was Malaysia’s first by an alcohol brand for bloggers.
Post-campaign publicity was amplified with content distributed across a range of social media platforms. Directly after the party, the media covered the event in the national dailies and ‘Stand out’ bloggers flooded the web with footage of the party on their blogs, Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts. Thousands of party pictures were posted on Flickr and Twitter, while videos were uploaded on YouTube.
According to Synovate (Malaysia Custom Market Research), perception of Tiger as ‘a beer for good times and fun' increased by 14 per cent; an additional 12 per cent of consumers described the beer as one 'my friends approved of'; and consumption among young adults increased by six per cent.
In conclusion, in pertaining organization’s good reputation has its own root which is to maintain good relationship with your publics. This is very crucial for any organization as the publics will determine their marketplace. As we have involved in this mass globalization, this developing technology growth will take us to a higher level in expending our organizations credibility in many ways.
As in more brief, the relationship between your organizations and your publics can be managed by getting involved in this latest technology advancement especially in the born of new media technology. It involves of internet, websites, blogs, social networking such Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr and so many more to be named.
By using these new media technologies, any organizations can reach their publics easier as the process is more credible, faster, reliable and useful to the publics. These new media strategies will always be helping the organizations in many ways such as company’s information, company’s product and many more without involved any communication such as one-to-one or face to face or two ways communications. The publics can always use the internet to get the information via websites, Facebook and many more. Through these strategies also help any organizations in obtaining the positive publicity to get attention or to enhance the reputations.
However, challenges might occur in this process because sometimes, in this digital world, privacy is the main threat to the information. It can be easily copied, changed, and tracked by the publics or competitors. This is when the some private and confidential information of the company is violated or the security level is very low.
These technology advancements will always benefit the organizations that make use in the right ways. To be known, to be well-published and to have great reputations are every organizations dream and by practicing the technologies, it can be achieved as the digital world is more to be explored as it grows every second and every bit.