Prevalence and Factors Associated with Smoking among Students and Staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia <ul><li>Rampal L, Num...
INTRODUCTION
THE GLOBAL  IMPACT OF SMOKING ON HEALTH <ul><li>Smoking is the  major preventable  cause of disease in the world. </li></u...
Every day , THOUSANDS of young people around the world are trying their first cigarette and 80,000 – 100,000 are becoming ...
 
Fig 13:“Youth should be inculcated in a  “ Calture without Tobacco”- Chairman ASH IQSW 2000
BY  THE YEAR  2020 <ul><li>WHO  estimated that if the current worldwide smoking patterns were to  persist then 10 million ...
World No Tobacco Day  Geneva, 30 May 2006  <ul><li>&quot;Tobacco:  deadly in any form or disguise,&quot;  focusing on the ...
Prevalence of Smoking among Malaysians   Estimated: ~ 3 million smokers in Malaysia (2006) 1996 2004 2006 NHMS2 UPM NHMS3 ...
OBJECTIVES
<ul><li>The objectives of this study are: </li></ul><ul><li>to determine the prevalence and factors associated with smokin...
MATERIALS  AND METHODS
MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Study Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This study was carried out in Universiti Putra Malaysia...
MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Consent and Ethics Approval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Medical Research Ethics Committee   </...
MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>-  5 th  July 2004 – 27 th  August 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul>...
DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Ever Smoker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who smoked 100 or more cigarettes in  his/her lifetime </li></ul></u...
RESULTS
Response Rate <ul><li>Total 2008 respondents responded out of 2364 </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Response Rate: 85% </li></ul>...
Demographic Background <ul><li>Age: Mean Age of 23.3 years  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[95% CI = 23.1– 23.6 years].   </li></ul...
Prevalence of Smoking
Overall Prevalence Current Smokers 9.9% Former Smokers 3.8% Never Smokers  86.3% Ever Smokers 13.7% 2008  Respondents Refe...
Fig. Smoking Prevalence Among Students Current Smokers 8.9% Former Smokers 3.2% Never Smokers  87.9% Ever Smokers 12.1% St...
Smoking Prevalence Among Staff Current Smokers 17.7% Former  Smokers 8.2% Never Smokers  74% Ever Smokers 26% Staff (231) ...
Overall Prevalence by Sex Never Smokers  86.3% Ever Smokers 13.7% 30% 2.8% Current Smokers Former Smokers 70% 97.2% Male 8...
Patterns of Smoking
Table 9: Current and Former Smokers by Age Group (Students and Staff’s ) Table 4.9: Students and Staff’s Current Smoking P...
Table 1: Respondents Smoking Prevalence by Ethnic Group   Table 10: Smoking Prevalence by Ethnic Group Smoking Status Tota...
Table 12: Prevalence of Ever, Current, Former and Never Smoker by Religion  Study’s smoking prevalence by Race was lower t...
Table 13: Respondents Smoking Prevalence by Occupations  Occupation of Respondent Smoking Status Total (%) Ever Smokers Cu...
Figure 5: Smoking Prevalence with Total Monthly Family Income χ2 = 17.55; df = 4 and p = 0.002
Table 14: Prevalence of Ever Smokers by Faculties  and Sex in UPM Name of the  Faculty Ever Smoker Total Male  Female  No ...
Table 15: Smoking Initiation Age Age (Yrs) 95% CI Over all 16.7 16.2 17.1 Male 16.4 16.0 16.9 Female 18.1 17.0 19.0 Studen...
Table 4.26: Reasons for Smoking amongst Ever Smokers Reasons for Smoking Count % of Responses % of  Cases To try for Fun 1...
Limitation of the Study <ul><li>Self report format – subjected to self-report bias </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>The overall prevalence of current smokers among students was 8.9% as compared to 17.7%  among staff </l...
Recommendations <ul><li>To strengthen existing anti-smoking programs to maintain low smoking prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>...
MAKE THE RIGHT CHOICE
Thank You  For  NOT SMOKING
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Prevalence And Factors Associated With Smoking Among Students And Staff In Upm

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  • Prevalence And Factors Associated With Smoking Among Students And Staff In Upm

    1. 1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Smoking among Students and Staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia <ul><li>Rampal L, Numan S, Sherina MS, Yunus MA, Azhar MZ </li></ul>
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION
    3. 3. THE GLOBAL IMPACT OF SMOKING ON HEALTH <ul><li>Smoking is the major preventable cause of disease in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>About 80 percent of these people live in low and middle-income countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 billion smokers (World Bank, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tobacco kills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million deaths per year (CDC, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Every day , THOUSANDS of young people around the world are trying their first cigarette and 80,000 – 100,000 are becoming regular smokers often precipitating a lifetime of addiction and untimely death.
    5. 6. Fig 13:“Youth should be inculcated in a “ Calture without Tobacco”- Chairman ASH IQSW 2000
    6. 7. BY THE YEAR 2020 <ul><li>WHO estimated that if the current worldwide smoking patterns were to persist then 10 million deaths will occur per year from tobacco consumption by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco will become the leading cause of death and disability thus causing more deaths world-wide than HIV, TB, maternal mortality, MVA, suicide and homicide (WHO, 1999) </li></ul>
    7. 8. World No Tobacco Day Geneva, 30 May 2006 <ul><li>&quot;Tobacco: deadly in any form or disguise,&quot; focusing on the fact that all tobacco products are addictive, harmful and can cause death, regardless of the form, packaging, or name under which they are presented to the public”. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Prevalence of Smoking among Malaysians Estimated: ~ 3 million smokers in Malaysia (2006) 1996 2004 2006 NHMS2 UPM NHMS3 ( > 18 yrs) ( > 18 yrs) ( > 18 yrs) Overall 24.8% 23.2% 21.5% Male 49.2% 47.2 46.4% Female 3.5% 2.7% 1.6% Malay 27.9% 28.9 % 24% Chinese 19.2% 18.7% 16.2% Indian 16.2% 16.8% 13.7% Others 32.4% 22.5% 23.8%
    9. 10. OBJECTIVES
    10. 11. <ul><li>The objectives of this study are: </li></ul><ul><li>to determine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking among the students and staff of UPM . </li></ul>
    11. 12. MATERIALS AND METHODS
    12. 13. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Study Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This study was carried out in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cross-sectional study design was used in this study. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The entire list of students and staff of UPM served as sampling frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multistage stratified random sampling methods was used </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Consent and Ethics Approval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Medical Research Ethics Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval also obtained from the Dean’s office of the respective faculties and Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written consent was taken from respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre Testing of Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability test was done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient ranged from 0.6492 to 0.8562 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inclusion Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students: who were enrolled for study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff: who were appointed permanently or on contract basis </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. MATERIALS AND METHODS <ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 th July 2004 – 27 th August 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured pre tested questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data were analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 12.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chi-square test to study the relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t -test and ANOVA were used to compare means </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Ever Smoker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who smoked 100 or more cigarettes in his/her lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Smoker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who smoked 100 or more cigarettes in his/her lifetime and was still smoking at time of interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Smoker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who smoked 100 or more cigarettes in his/her lifetime but has stopped smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Never Smoker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who never smoked or smoked less than 100 cigarettes in his/her lifetime </li></ul></ul>WHO, 1997
    16. 17. RESULTS
    17. 18. Response Rate <ul><li>Total 2008 respondents responded out of 2364 </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Response Rate: 85% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students: 84.5% (1777 out of 2102) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff: 88.2% (231 out of 262) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Demographic Background <ul><li>Age: Mean Age of 23.3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[95% CI = 23.1– 23.6 years]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from 17 to 57 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex: Male : 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female : 60% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Race: Malay : 62.8% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese: 27.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion: Muslim: 67.2% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist: 23.5% </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Prevalence of Smoking
    20. 21. Overall Prevalence Current Smokers 9.9% Former Smokers 3.8% Never Smokers 86.3% Ever Smokers 13.7% 2008 Respondents Reference: Table 4.7
    21. 22. Fig. Smoking Prevalence Among Students Current Smokers 8.9% Former Smokers 3.2% Never Smokers 87.9% Ever Smokers 12.1% Students (1777)
    22. 23. Smoking Prevalence Among Staff Current Smokers 17.7% Former Smokers 8.2% Never Smokers 74% Ever Smokers 26% Staff (231) Reference: Table 4.7
    23. 24. Overall Prevalence by Sex Never Smokers 86.3% Ever Smokers 13.7% 30% 2.8% Current Smokers Former Smokers 70% 97.2% Male 804 Female 1204 21.8% 2% 8.2% 0.8%
    24. 25. Patterns of Smoking
    25. 26. Table 9: Current and Former Smokers by Age Group (Students and Staff’s ) Table 4.9: Students and Staff’s Current Smoking Prevalence of by Age Groups Age Group Smoking Status Total Current Never No % No % No % Students < 20 years 19 6.3 282 93.7 301 100.0 20 - 24 110 8.7 1153 91.3 1263 100.0 25 -30 17 13.2 112 86.8 129 100.0 > 30 years 12 14.3 72 85.7 84 100.0 Total 158 8.9 57 91.1 1777 100.0 Staff 20 - 24 13 21.0 49 79.0 62 100.0 25 - 30 16 25.8 46 74.2 62 100.0 31 - 40 6 15.4 33 84.6 39 100.0 41- 50 6 9.8 55 90.2 61 100.0 > 50 years 0 0.0 7 100.0 7 100.0 Total 41 17.7 190 82.3 231 100.0
    26. 27. Table 1: Respondents Smoking Prevalence by Ethnic Group Table 10: Smoking Prevalence by Ethnic Group Smoking Status Total Ever Smokers Current Smokers Never Smokers Ethnic Group No % No % No % No % Indian 12 19.0 8 12. 7 51 81.0 63 100.0 Malay 199 15.8 146 11.6 1063 84.2 1262 100.0 Chinese 35 6.3 23 4.2 519 93.7 554 100.0 Other Races 29 22.5 22 17.1 100 77.5 129 100.0 Total 275 13.7 199 9.9 1733 86.3 2008 100.0
    27. 28. Table 12: Prevalence of Ever, Current, Former and Never Smoker by Religion Study’s smoking prevalence by Race was lower than NHMS 2, 1996 100.0 2008 86.3 1733 3.8 76 9.9 199 13.7 275 Total 100.0 31 80.6 25 3.2 1 16.1 5 19.4 6 No-religion 100.0 54 85.2 46 1.9 1 13.0 7 14.8 8 Hindu 100.0 102 86.3 88 4.8 5 8.8 9 13.7 14 Christian 100.0 471 94.5 445 1.7 8 3.8 18 5.5 26 Buddhist 100.0 1350 83.6 1129 4.5 61 11.9 160 16.4 221 Islam % No % No % No % No % No Never Former Current Ever Total Smoking Status Religion
    28. 29. Table 13: Respondents Smoking Prevalence by Occupations Occupation of Respondent Smoking Status Total (%) Ever Smokers Current Smoker Never Smokers No % No % No % No % Supporting staff 17 38.6 12 27.3 27 61.4 44 100.0 Technician 8 36.4 7 31.8 14 63.6 22 100.0 Clerical 16 25.0 10 15.6 48 75.0 64 100.0 Administrative 14 23.7 9 15.3 45 76.3 59 100.0 Academics 5 11.9 3 7.1 37 88.1 42 100.0 Student 215 12.1 158 8.9 1562 87.9 1777 100.0 Total 275 13.7 199 9.9 1733 86.3 2008 100.0
    29. 30. Figure 5: Smoking Prevalence with Total Monthly Family Income χ2 = 17.55; df = 4 and p = 0.002
    30. 31. Table 14: Prevalence of Ever Smokers by Faculties and Sex in UPM Name of the Faculty Ever Smoker Total Male Female No % No % No % Faculty of Science 70 36.3 14 4.5 84 30.5 Faculty of Agriculture 30 36.1 1 0.6 31 11.3 Faculty of Economics 40 33.1 9 3.3 49 17.8 Graduate School of Management 10 32.3 1 2.5 11 4.0 Faculty of Medicine 20 25.0 3 3.0 23 8.4 Faculty of Engineering 57 24.6 1 0.8 58 21.1 Faculty of Human Ecology 14 21.9 5 2.6 19 6.9 Total 241 30.0 34 2.8 275 100.0
    31. 32. Table 15: Smoking Initiation Age Age (Yrs) 95% CI Over all 16.7 16.2 17.1 Male 16.4 16.0 16.9 Female 18.1 17.0 19.0 Students 16.4 16.0 16.9 Staff 17.5 16.3 18.2 Malays 16.3 15.8 16.8 Diploma 15.0 12.9 17.1
    32. 33. Table 4.26: Reasons for Smoking amongst Ever Smokers Reasons for Smoking Count % of Responses % of Cases To try for Fun 149 42. 8 54.2 To Release Tension 80 23. 0 29.1 Friends Influence 60 17. 2 21.8 It is stylish to Smoke 32 9. 2 11.6 Parents Smoke 22 6.3 8. 0 Others 5 1. 5 1. 8 Total 348 100.0 126.5
    33. 34. Limitation of the Study <ul><li>Self report format – subjected to self-report bias </li></ul>
    34. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>The overall prevalence of current smokers among students was 8.9% as compared to 17.7% among staff </li></ul><ul><li>Among students, there was significant association between smoking and sex, age, peer influence and family member smoking status. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Recommendations <ul><li>To strengthen existing anti-smoking programs to maintain low smoking prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>Universities can develop intensive and updated anti-smoking programs at the Web pages and also deliver messages through their radio stations </li></ul>
    36. 37. MAKE THE RIGHT CHOICE
    37. 38. Thank You For NOT SMOKING
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