Process Improvement at the IMM Grading                                  IM 56 “Managing International                     ...
AgendaProblem FormulationThe Analytical FrameworkOperations Management OverviewProcess Improvement and it’s Relevance     ...
Problem Formulation                 Q5: Is the grading process at CBS transparent and easy to                             ...
Applied Theoretical Framework-The DMAIC- Cycle                                         Define                             ...
General Model of Operations Management  -What can be analyzed in OPM?                                                     ...
Elements of Operations Improvement-Which Improvements to Focus on?                                                        ...
Why Process Improvement?-The Importance of Processes in Service Organizations             Design of the                   ...
The Grading Process and it’s ImprovementDefine grading criteria in Step 1.                       Under the condition that ...
The Five Performance Objectives                     Quality  Being right                      Speed  Being fast         ...
Polar Diagram of the 5 Performance Objectives- The Grading Process Before & After                                         ...
4 V’s Profile of the Process         Number of          papers            Low                   Volume                    ...
Issues to Face by CBS•   Feedback quality should definitely be enhanced!•   Realize that this issue is critical for teachi...
Proposal for Grading Form           Grading of IM 44 Marketing Research Paper for M.C. Schlichter     Final Grade: 10     ...
Appendix           14
Questionnaire         Q1: How important are the following criteria for you regarding the grading of exams                 ...
Questionnaire               Q2: What would you be looking for in a feedback from CBS regarding your exam?                 ...
Questionnaire       Q3: Would you mind if these feedbacks where to find on                Sitescape under your CPR number?...
Questionnaire       Q5: Is the grading process at CBS transparent and easy to                              understand?    ...
Questionnaire       Q7: Do you know the average grade of any of the 1st                     semester IMM exams?           ...
Questionnaire•   Would be great to know the average of the class, received the average only for IM48    would prefer to kn...
Questionnaire•   Papers which were handed in in order to be allowed to attend the final exam had the teachers notes in    ...
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CBS IM56 March 2011

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CBS IM56 March 2011

  1. 1. Process Improvement at the IMM Grading IM 56 “Managing International Operations” With Juliana Hsuan By M.C. Schlichter 22nd of May 2011
  2. 2. AgendaProblem FormulationThe Analytical FrameworkOperations Management OverviewProcess Improvement and it’s Relevance Process Improvement in an Operation Link of Process and Service Quality Process Map and Improvements The Five Performance Objectives The Four V’sAppendix 2
  3. 3. Problem Formulation Q5: Is the grading process at CBS transparent and easy to understand? 23,1% Yes No 76,9% Source: Own Data -The process of grading in the IMM program is neither understood nore appreciated by the students/customers. -It lacks transparency and feedback -What can be done to improve the process with regard to these shortfalls? -How can Operations Management theories help in addressing the issue? 3
  4. 4. Applied Theoretical Framework-The DMAIC- Cycle Define √ Control √ Measure Improve Analyze -Problem definition and measurement are covered by the questionnaire -Analyses and Improvement will be addressed by applying OPM theories -Control and a restart of the processes should be undertaken during test phase in one exam Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.598 4
  5. 5. General Model of Operations Management -What can be analyzed in OPM? The Operation’s Strategic Objectives The Operations Operation’sTransformed Operationsresources: Strategy Competitive StrategyMaterials Role &Information PositionCustomers Operations Design Management Improvement Input Output Client Planning &Transformingresources: ControlFacilitiesStaff Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.25 5
  6. 6. Elements of Operations Improvement-Which Improvements to Focus on? Operations Process Improvement - Makes processes better Total Quality Management - Organizes process improvement Failure Prevention & Recovery - Stop processes becoming worse Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.580 6
  7. 7. Why Process Improvement?-The Importance of Processes in Service Organizations Design of the Design of the Service Process In most service operations the overlap between service and process design is implicit in the nature of service Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.90 7
  8. 8. The Grading Process and it’s ImprovementDefine grading criteria in Step 1. Under the condition that Step 5 andUse these criteria in Step 5. Step 7 do not take longer (cost ofPublish the grade and sub categories professor and admin staff)following the criteria in Step 8.Eliminate Step 4 and less use of Step 9Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9Create Store To censor Meeting Grading To admin Into system Publish Appeal “Mass production”  70% of the papers “Shop production”  30% of the papers Source: Own Data 8
  9. 9. The Five Performance Objectives Quality  Being right Speed  Being fast Competitiveness Dependability  Being on time Flexibility  Being able to change Cost  Being productive - Quality is here defined through transparency - Dependability is the accuracy of the grading (fairness so to speak) 9 Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.39f
  10. 10. Polar Diagram of the 5 Performance Objectives- The Grading Process Before & After After Before Cost 10 5 10 Dependability Speed 5 10 8 5 5 5 8 10 10 Quality Flexibility - Approx 65% increase in Dependability and Quality in order to allow for max 10% customer dissatisfaction Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.54f 10
  11. 11. 4 V’s Profile of the Process Number of papers Low Volume High 0 5 10 Difference in grading of the High Variety Low same paper 10 5 0 Difference of High Variation Low throughput 10 5 0 Transparency High Visibility Low of grading 5.5 3 10 5 0 After Before -Approx 65% increase in Visibility in order to allow for max 10% customer dissatisfaction -Development to a quality “mass production” service operation Source: Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007, Operations Management, p.20 11
  12. 12. Issues to Face by CBS• Feedback quality should definitely be enhanced!• Realize that this issue is critical for teaching quality and then address it! “Learning loop” is not supported by the recent methods• Problem: Students do not even know about the excising feedbacks Transparency!• The time/ capacity restriction: Should be time neutral -Savings from Step 4 (two hours per censor) -Teacher has to pt more work into definitions in the beginning (2 hours) -Administration needs to process more data (2 hours per person) -Less appeals results in time saving as well (2 hours per appeal approx 25% less appeals)• The legal issues regarding the publishing of the grades still need to be figured out• Process improvement, as presented, is the ideal solution but other steps might be undertaken right away to start improvements and raise awareness of the issue: – Send out e-mail notifications about uploaded feedback forms – Let students look at the graded papers with comments on it, if they want  Suggestion: Three sessions, to divide the students, where the papers and comments can be looked at in a classroom. One or two people (2 hours per session) need to be present so that no exams get stolen or manipulated. 12
  13. 13. Proposal for Grading Form Grading of IM 44 Marketing Research Paper for M.C. Schlichter Final Grade: 10 Class Average: 7.2 Participants: 143 Application of -3 7 12 Theories Line of -3 7 12 Argument Practical -3 7 12 Relevance Link of Theory -3 7 12 and Praxis Layout and -3 7 12 Language Data Set -3 7 12 Accuracy Research -3 7 12 Question 13
  14. 14. Appendix 14
  15. 15. Questionnaire Q1: How important are the following criteria for you regarding the grading of exams in the IMM program? Detailed feedback Fairness of grading Understanding of the grading criteria Transparency of the final grade Duration of the grading process Comparability of grades 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 Source: Own Data 15
  16. 16. Questionnaire Q2: What would you be looking for in a feedback from CBS regarding your exam? Median General class feedback Recommendation for "room to improve" Number count of grades (e.g. 10 times grade 4) Specific sub-grading criteria individually graded (e.g.… Quartile notations (best and worst 25%)Class average over a period of time (e.g. last two years) Class average Nothing but the final grade 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 Source: Own Data 16
  17. 17. Questionnaire Q3: Would you mind if these feedbacks where to find on Sitescape under your CPR number? Publishing Issue! Legal constrains are supported. 30,8% Yes Potential of time and No resource savings if this 69,2% number can be reduced.Source: Own Data Q4: Regarding the IMM exams: Have you appealed for a re-evaluation of one or more exams? 26,9% Yes 73,1% No Source: Own Data 17
  18. 18. Questionnaire Q5: Is the grading process at CBS transparent and easy to understand? The problem to face is clearly supported by empirical findings. 23,1% Majority of the students Yes sees themselves reflected in grading Fairness of No grades is OK. 76,9% Q6: Do you think that your personal grade reflects your study effort, attendance/activity in class and your generalSource: Own Data understanding of the subject? 42,3% Yes 57,7% No Source: Own Data 18
  19. 19. Questionnaire Q7: Do you know the average grade of any of the 1st semester IMM exams? Students do not know about the feedback sheets. Communication issue part 30,8% of the transparency problem! Yes 69,2% No Q9: Did you get a more specific feedback on exams duringSource: Own Data your Bachelor studies, ? If so please specify in question 9. It is possible to give enhanced feedback! If others can, why shouldn’t 50,0% 50,0% Yes CBS be able to do so??? No Source: Own Data 19
  20. 20. Questionnaire• Would be great to know the average of the class, received the average only for IM48 would prefer to know all the averages• I didnt receive much more feedback during my bachelor studies, however the degree of transparency was MUCH higher during my bachelor studies. I would actually have to say I am very disappointed and surprised at the very low level of administrative help and guidance that is available at CBS. I had much higher expectations as an international student.• One could go and look at the exams and comments where written on them by the censor. Also the teachers could be contacted and argued with in person, if needed, before actually going for the official appealing.• Personal coffee talks where we were told how we can improve and which spots we were missing!• Got more specified feedback, as I had many oral exams on by BA• Median, number count of grades, FAIR GRADES!!!!! At IMM: Some people get better grades even though the didnt finished their exam (especially International Management!!!). 4 hour case exam is the most in transparent exam ever! In every class the grading depended very much on the advisors! Some graded very hard others not so much. Very unfair, since it does not reflect the efforts. Then rather one professor should correct them all --> high fairness!!! Source: Own Data 20
  21. 21. Questionnaire• Papers which were handed in in order to be allowed to attend the final exam had the teachers notes in them. That helped a lot.• Feedback at SDU: a bar chart which shows the numbers of each grade + the average grade of the class• Did my bachelor in another university. Got class average and number of students with what grades.• Evaluation paper for written exams• We would always get our exams back with marks and some times comments about which questions/topics we gained or lost points for. It served as a very good tool for feedback on what you could have done differently to improve and also served as a justification and explanation for receiving the grade you did.• You get feedback after oral exams. But thats it.• I got more feedback during oral exams when one defended a written project. But is was feedback of 2 min on my oral presentation. Nothing on the 50 pages project. But the 2 min feedback is the most I have ever received in terms of feedback.• Professor holding the exam was obliged to hold a 2 hours office consultation where all the students taking the exam could have dropped by asking to go through the exam to understand the mistakes and which kind of improvement should be made in the future Source: Own Data 21
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