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A collaboration between MIT and the University of Southampton
Stated purpose is “to bridge and formalize the social and technical aspects of collaborative applications running on large-scale networks like the Web.”
“ Brings together academics, scientists, sociologists, entrepreneurs and decision makers from around the world. These people will create the first multidisciplinary research body to examine the Web and offer the practical solutions needed to help guide its future use and design.”
WebSci’09 – Athens, 3/18-20/2009
White, B. (2008, Novembre 9). The Emergence of Web Science.
Before We Ask “What is Web Science?” White, B. (2008, Novembre 9). The Emergence of Web Science.
“ What is ‘The Web?’” (1/2) ? White, B. (2008, Novembre 9). The Emergence of Web Science.
What are the fundamental theoretical properties of social machines , and what kinds of algorithms are needed to create them?
What are the underlying architectural principles to guide the design and efficient engineering of new Web infrastructure components for this social software?
How can we extend the current Web infrastructure to provide mechanisms that make the social properties of information sharing explicit and that guarantee that the uses of this information conforms to the relevant social policy expectations?
How do cultural differences effect the development and use of social mechanisms on the Web? As the Web is now truly "World Wide," the properties desired by one culture may be seen as counter-productive by another. Can Web infrastructure help in bridging cultural divides and/or increase cross-cultural understanding?
Hendler, J., Shadbolt, N., Hall, W., Berners-Lee, T., and Weitzner, D. 2008.
“ People keep asking what Web 3.0 is. I think maybe when you've got an overlay of scalable vector graphics […] on Web 2.0 and access to a semantic Web integrated across a huge space of data […]” Tim Berners-Lee, 2006
” The Web of Openness . A web that breaks the old siloes, links everyone everything everywhere, and makes the whole thing potentially smarter .” Greg Boutin, May 2009
“ The Web 3.0 term misleads organizations by implying that a new version of the web is upon us.” Anthony Bradley, Gartner, April 2009
Richard MacManus Web 3.0 or Not, There's Something Different About 2009
If Web 2.0 was about user generated content and social applications such as YouTube and Wikipedia, then Web 3.0 is about open and more structured data - which essentially makes the Web more 'intelligent'.
Web 3.0 is an amorphous term, and possibly one that people shouldn't even attempt to use. Nevertheless, it's clear to us that the time for structured data has come. We're beginning to see it in the current wave of Linked Data sets being released, and in the support that big companies, like Google and Yahoo, are showing for structured data. Who knows, maybe the Semantic Web is nearly upon us too.
Richard MacManus Understanding the New Web Era: Web 3.0, Linked Data, Semantic Web May 14 2009
Linked Data A vision within the Web Science and a bottom-up approach to Semantic Web
Linked Data offers a new medium to link structured data that is then more machine-readable ." However, he added that Linked Data "does not by itself add any semantic meaning to the information, but it better carries that semantic information once you have it.
So, while Linked Data is not semantic, creating links at the data level paves the way to a true Semantic Web ." (Greg Boutin, Tying Web 3.0, the Semantic Web and Linked Data Together - Part 2/3: Linked Data is a Medium)
More specifically, Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF ." (Chris Bizer, Tom Heath, Kingsley Idehen, Tim Berners-Lee WWW 2008: Linked Data on the Web)
Bridging the gap: Semantic Web – Web of Data Data Semantics Linking data entries using URIs powered by RDF and SPARQL helps to create Web applications and portals that use REST-based models, integrating data from multimple sources withouth need of preexisting schema Provide models that can be used to represent expressive semantic descriptions (OWL) of applications domains and provide inferencing power for Web and non-Web applications that need A knowledge base Scalability Linked Data Ontologies
Once the data sets are interconnected (i.e. link to each other like websites), a machine can traverse this independent web of noiseless, structured information to gather semantic knowledge of arbitrary entities and domains .
The result is a massive, freely accessible knowledge base forming the foundation of a new generation of applications and services.
The data sets currently can be accessed in heterogeneous ways; for example, through a semantic web browser or by being crawled by a semantic search engine .
publish existing open license datasets as Linked Data on the Web
interlink things between different data sources
Chris Bizer, Tom Heath, Kingsley Idehen, Tim Berners-Lee WWW 2008: Linked Data on the Web
The LOD Cloud Collectively, the data sets consist of over 4.5 billion RDF triples , which are interlinked by around 180 million RDF links (March 2009). Typically, a data set contains knowledge about a particular domain, like books, music, encyclopedic data, companies
the city of Berlin or the game Tetris on DBpedia ,
the book iPhone : The Missing Manual on O'Reilly Media .
InterDataNet (IDN) a Web-wide Collaboration-oriented Infrastructure for Scalable Linked Data Applications Pirri, F., Pettenati M.C., Innocenti, S., Chini D, Parlanti D. and Ciofi L. Proceedings of WebSci'09: Society On-Line, InterDataNet : an Infrastructural Approach for the Web of Data Athens, Greece 18th–20th March, 2009
1) in a highly dynamic and extremely rapidly growing environment the permanent search, analysis and alignment of new data, is mainly entirely performed by the Linked Data initiative itself, introducing a form of centralization which is not intended
2) reasoning over owl:sameAs relations in distributed ontologies is a computationally complex task
provide a scalable and open service to support a consistent reuse of entities identifiers, that is a global reference and addressing mechanism for locating and retrieving resources in a collaborative environment
provide basic collaboration-oriented functions, namely authorship control, versioning and replica management.
The IDN framework is defined through three entities:
IDN-IM ( IDN Information Model ): is the shared information model representing a generic document model
IDN-SA ( IDN Service Architecture ): is the architectural model handling IDN-IM documents. It exposes an IDN-APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) on top of which IDN-compliant Applications can be developed
IDN Compliant Applications
Three IDN views Information Model (IDN-IM) Service Architecture (IDN-SA) Overlay Network (IDN-ON)
Information Model (IDN-IM) Information Model (IDN-IM) Generic information modelled in IDN is formalized as an aggregation of elementary data units, named “primitive information units (P.I.U.s)” Primitive information units contain generic data and metadata NodeTypes embed the primitive information-unit schema defining the application-level properties contained in the node A primitive information unit is a node in a directed graph
Creation of an IC from linked data stores (structuring according to the responsibility principles)
tempo t 0 Carta Identità di Mario Rossi (COMUNE RESDENZA) tempo t 1 > t 0 Indirizzo di Mario Rossi (CATASTO) Residente Mario Rossi (COMUNE RESIDENZA) Anagrafica di Mario Rossi (COMUNE NASCITA) <via,”roma”> <numero,”89”> ... <nome,”mario”> <cognome,”rossi”> ... Dati Biometrici di Mario Rossi (SANITÀ) <impronta,”123....08”> <capelli,”neri”> <altezza,”175” >
Creation of an IC from linked data stores (structuring according to the responsibility principles)
<numero,”AF89889”> RIFERIMENTO A ATTO DI NASCITA Indirizzo di Mario Rossi (CATASTO) Residente Mario Rossi (COMUNE RESIDENZA) Anagrafica di Mario Rossi (COMUNE NASCITA) Carta Identità di Mario Rossi (COMUNE RESDENZA) <via,”roma”> <numero,”89”> ... <nome,”mario”> <cognome,”rossi”> ... tempo t 1 > t 0 tempo t 0 Dati Biometrici di Mario Rossi (SANITÀ) <impronta,”123....08”> <capelli,”neri”> <altezza,”175” >
White, B. (2008, Novembre 9). The Emergence of Web Science. Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Source: webcast.bibalex.org/Presentations/Bebo91108.ppt
Nicola Lonzi (2009)
Zhuge, Hai and Xiaoqing, Shi (2008) The Web ecology. pp. 27-34. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Understanding Web Evolution (WebEvolve2008), 22 Apr 2008, Beijing, China. ISBN 978 085432885 7. http://journal.webscience.org/31/1/WebEvolve2008Proc.PDF
Hendler, J., Shadbolt, N., Hall, W., Berners-Lee, T., and Weitzner, D. 2008. Web science: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the web. Commun. ACM 51, 7 (Jul. 2008)
Riera, Daniel (2009) Web science: a new computer-related curriculum. In: Proceedings of the WebSci'09: Society On-Line, 18-20 March 2009, Athens, Greece.
AA.VV. SOCIAL SCIENCE: Computational Social Science Science 6 February 2009: vol. 323. no. 5915, pp. 721 - 723
Chris Bizer, Tom Heath, Kingsley Idehen, Tim Berners-Lee Workshop Introduction WWW 2008 Workshop: Linked Data on the Web (LDOW2008) April 22, 2008 Beijing, China
Richard MacManus Web 3.0 or Not, There's Something Different About 2009, May 20, 2009 http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/something_new_in_2009.php
Richard MacManus Linked Data is Blooming; ReadWriteWeb, May 2009 http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/linked_data_is_blooming_why_you_should_care.php
Weaving the Web (Berners-Lee and Fischetti, 1999)
Jim Miller, "One More Take on Identity," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 99-101, Mar./Apr. 2009, doi:10.1109/MIC.2009.41
Shneiderman, B. 2007. Web science: a provocative invitation to computer science. Commun. ACM 50, 6 (Jun. 2007)
Richard MacManus Understanding the New Web Era: Web 3.0, Linked Data, Semantic Web, ReadWriteWeb, May 14, 2009
Chris Bizer, Tom Heath, Kingsley Idehen, Tim Berners-Lee WWW 2008: Linked Data on the Web Workshop Introduction April 22, 2008 Beijing, China
Tim Berners-Lee's talk at TED about the Web of Data. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_web.html
Alexander Korth The Web of Data: Creating Machine-Accessible Information, ReadWriteWeb, April 2009
Greg Boutin Tying Web 3.0, the Semantic Web and Linked Data Together - Part 2/3: Linked Data is a Medium http://www.semanticsincorporated.com/2009/05/tying-web-30-the-semantic-web-and-linked-data-together-part-23-linked-data-is-a-medium.html
Pirri, F., Pettenati M.C., Innocenti, S., Chini D, Parlanti D. and Ciofi L. Proceedings of WebSci'09: Society On-Line, InterDataNet: an Infrastructural Approach for the Web of Data Athens, Greece 18th–20th March, 2009