DNA Sequencing  By: Amy, Taylor & Paige
What is dna sequencing? <ul><li>DNA sequencing is the process of determining the exact order of the 3 billion chemical bui...
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Decipher the 46 human chromosomes, used computer technology to read DNA sequences  </li></ul>...
Sanger Dideoxy Method (overview) <ul><li>Developed at Cambridge University in Great Britain in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Fred...
Sanger Dideoxy Method (process) <ul><li>The DNA template is treated so that it becomes single stranded  </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Applications of DNA Sequencing <ul><li>Forensics: to help identify individuals because each individual has a different gen...
Animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYpllbI0qF8
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Dna sequencing

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Dna sequencing

  1. 1. DNA Sequencing By: Amy, Taylor & Paige
  2. 2. What is dna sequencing? <ul><li>DNA sequencing is the process of determining the exact order of the 3 billion chemical building blocks (called bases and abbreviated A, T, C, and G) that make up the DNA of the 24 different human chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze gene structure and its relation to gene expression as well as protein conformation </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the sequence of base pairing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Decipher the 46 human chromosomes, used computer technology to read DNA sequences </li></ul><ul><li>DNA sequencing, the process of determining the exact order of the 3 billion chemical building blocks (called bases and abbreviated A, T, C, and G) that make up the DNA of the 24 different human chromosomes, was the greatest technical challenge in the Human Genome Project </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sanger Dideoxy Method (overview) <ul><li>Developed at Cambridge University in Great Britain in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Fredrick Sanger was the first to sequence an entire genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The genome was from bacteriophage and contained 5386 base pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most popular method </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes the process of DNA replication, which requires a single-stranded template, a primer, DNA polymerase and nucleoside triphosphates </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sanger Dideoxy Method (process) <ul><li>The DNA template is treated so that it becomes single stranded </li></ul><ul><li>A short, single-stranded primer which is radioactively labelled is added to the end of the DNA template </li></ul><ul><li>Identical copies of the primed DNA are then placed into 4 reaction tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Each tube contains DNA polymerase and a supply of free nucleotides and a different radioactively labelled analogue (a triphosphate in which the ribose sugar does not possess a hydroxyl on the 2’ and 3’ carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>The fragments of DNA are separated by electrophorosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses an electric current to separate different size molecules through a sponge-like matrix </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Applications of DNA Sequencing <ul><li>Forensics: to help identify individuals because each individual has a different genetic sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine: can be used to help detect the genes which are linked to various genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture: The mapping and sequencing of a genome of microorganisms has helped to make them useful for crops and food plants </li></ul>
  7. 8. Animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYpllbI0qF8
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