Interaction Design for the
                   4th Dimension




                        Maria Cordell
                    ...
Features
                       :: Request
        Find :: Assess                                                         ...
http://www.flickr.com/photos
                                    /doctorow/




IxD4D
usability




IxD4D       4
usability       utility




IxD4D               5
usability utility   usefulness




IxD4D                  6
?
        usability + utility = usefulness




IxD4D                   7
IxD4D   8
IxD4D   9
Itzhak Perlman


IxD4D   10        Portrait Source: Akira Kinoshita
usability          utility           usefulness
        - specific tasks   - requirements
        - speed / ease     - fea...
“…if designers focus only on the low-
        hanging fruit of functionalism or usability,
        the human experience wi...
Temporal Slices




                      temporal
                        slice


IxD4D                    13
Temporal Slices




             broader        temporal
              view            slice


IxD4D                  14
Time Domains




IxD4D              15   http://www.flickr.com/photos/schepers/258428249
Time...
        • is flexible, like rubber
        • is both familiar and mysterious
        • is both concrete and fluid
...
“Time is
   much weirder
   than we think
   it is.”




                           David Eagleman
                       ...
Perception
    Participants are told they’re to perform a “10-minute”
    task.

             Sigh.                       ...
Irreversibility




IxD4D                 19   Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevenduong/4081192022
Entropy




IxD4D         20   Image: John Grimsley, a.k.a. HamWithCam
Newton              Maxwell




                 Einstein
IxD4D
No limits                                 Speed of
        on speed                                  light is a
        fo...
Special Relativity in a Nutshell
    • The laws of physics are the same for any
      two observers
        - no matter ho...
As a Result...
    • Time dilates
        - moving clocks slow down
    • Lengths compress
        - in the direction of m...
Stationary train with “light beam” clock
        Clock measures time by means of a light pulse
        moving up and down ...
Train traveling at near the speed of light

                       I got x




                                           ...
Relativity of Events
                                                                  y'

                               ...
2D snapshots
        of Earth orbiting the sun




                                           diagrams from Professor John...
layered into a
           3D stack




                                            diagrams from Professor John Horton
IxD...
world line
             of the sun



                     The time axis
                       shows 4D
                 ...
Light Cone




IxD4D            31
Feynman Diagrams
            Spacetime diagrams for documenting
            elementary particle interactions.

           ...
Electron-Positron Annihilation




                   e+e‒ ⟶ 2ɣ

IxD4D                    33          Source: Wikipedia
Penguin Diagram




IxD4D                 34
Time-based Models
    • Fields                       • Applications
        - Applied mathematics       - Predictive model...
Rates of Change




            exponential growth   linear growth   cubic growth
            y = 2x               y = 50x...
Time Series




IxD4D             37
Time-based Waveforms



                                                                      E



                       ...
Temporal Experience of Place




IxD4D                   39     Mount Diablo, California. Source: Maria Cordell
“Landscape architects tend to
        think dynamically and in space-
        time relationships.

        They are sensit...
Designed Place




IxD4D                41   Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
Temporal Foundations of Landscapes
    • Scale
        - from geologic (geologic uplift) to recent change (stream
        ...
Landscape as Story
    • Sequential experience of landscape can be
      designed as story
        - each space is reveale...
Story Lines




            Casual        Formal
IxD4D                44   Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
Temporal Choreography


         “Landscape designers can manage
         materials and arrangements to create
         in...
Thinking Temporally
    • Experience is inherently temporal
    • Design decisions have long term effects
    • Design-to-...
Contextual Landscape




                      user

                       job




IxD4D                  47
Designed Place




IxD4D                48   Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
Long Term Dialog
   “The importance of understanding the long term
   dialog that occurs with a product focuses around
   ...
It’s about getting
                        beneath the surface of
                     functionality and behavior
        ...
New Ethnographer’s Toolkit
    • Developed by Chris Khalil, Australia-based user
      experience architect (www.chriskhal...
Khalil: Digital Fingerprints
    • Twitter
    • Facebook
    • Email
    • IM
    • Blogs
    • RSS
    • Mobile




IxD4...
Toward Long Term Understanding
    • Product fit over days, weeks, months

    • User needs over time

    • Relationships...
Temporally Aware Design
    • Design how the user         • Balance casual and formal
      uses time                   • ...
Thanks for listening.




   Maria Cordell
   mcordell@gmail.com
   @mcordell
   www.flickr.com/mcordell
   #ixd4d
IxD4D  ...
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Interaction Design for the 4th Dimension

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This Interaction 10 conference session explored time as an important ingredient in interaction design, reviewing temporal concepts from physics, mathematics, and even landscape design to seek insights that help us produce meaningfully enduring designs.

Video of the talk available here: http://www.ixda.org/resources/maria-cordell-interaction-design-fourth-dimension

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Interaction Design for the 4th Dimension

  1. Interaction Design for the 4th Dimension Maria Cordell @mcordell interaction10 feb 7, 2010 | savannah, ga #ixd4d IxD4D 1
  2. Features :: Request Find :: Assess Philip r A Advanced Search Creative Superviso B Best In Class Catherine D ger Marketing Mana email to Request Asset Form AdShare sends an C asset's Philip, the original Catherine's for owner, containing Email Notification Catherine searches D ple request. 1 assets using multi 5 criteria. C AdShare A Repository Request Form Advanced Search ut hendrerit Minim facilisi tation e vel consequat dolore vulputat dignissim in euismod velit quis ea y. Eu at, lobortis blandit, nonumm Request Matching search 2 results are presented. B that one of the Asset Name 4 Catherine notices been marked as assets listed has She selects the Results "Best In Class". Minim facilisi tation ut hendrerit d information. e vel consequat asset to view recor dolore vulputat dignissim in euismod velit quis ea y. Eu at, lobortis Asset Name blandit, nonumm After reading all the 3 associated inform ation, "Request" Catherine selects Asset Name copy of to request a hi-res Request the asset from the system Asset Name that created it. IxD4D
  3. http://www.flickr.com/photos /doctorow/ IxD4D
  4. usability IxD4D 4
  5. usability utility IxD4D 5
  6. usability utility usefulness IxD4D 6
  7. ? usability + utility = usefulness IxD4D 7
  8. IxD4D 8
  9. IxD4D 9
  10. Itzhak Perlman IxD4D 10 Portrait Source: Akira Kinoshita
  11. usability utility usefulness - specific tasks - requirements - speed / ease - feature lists - completion - limited scope - use cases - performance ? IxD4D 11
  12. “…if designers focus only on the low- hanging fruit of functionalism or usability, the human experience with designed objects is destined to a level of mundane banality.” -- Jon Kolko Thoughts on Interaction Design IxD4D 12
  13. Temporal Slices temporal slice IxD4D 13
  14. Temporal Slices broader temporal view slice IxD4D 14
  15. Time Domains IxD4D 15 http://www.flickr.com/photos/schepers/258428249
  16. Time... • is flexible, like rubber • is both familiar and mysterious • is both concrete and fluid • has directional flow • shapes understanding • has relative meaning • is an enigma IxD4D 16
  17. “Time is much weirder than we think it is.” David Eagleman Baylor College of Medicine IxD4D 17 Neuroscientist and author
  18. Perception Participants are told they’re to perform a “10-minute” task. Sigh. Time flies Is it time for when you’re lunch yet? having fun! For some, task length was For others, task was terminated actually 20 minutes after just 5 minutes All were told they’d spent 10 minutes on the task. Participants who thought the task had gone by “quickly” reported it as more enjoyable. IxD4D 18
  19. Irreversibility IxD4D 19 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevenduong/4081192022
  20. Entropy IxD4D 20 Image: John Grimsley, a.k.a. HamWithCam
  21. Newton Maxwell Einstein IxD4D
  22. No limits Speed of on speed light is a for constant anything Newton Maxwell What does this mean? Einstein IxD4D
  23. Special Relativity in a Nutshell • The laws of physics are the same for any two observers - no matter how fast they’re moving with respect to each other - as long as they’re moving at constant speed (not accelerating) • The speed of light is always the same - no matter your own speed - or the speed of the object that emits that light IxD4D 23
  24. As a Result... • Time dilates - moving clocks slow down • Lengths compress - in the direction of motion • Mass increases - (we’ll skip this bit) IxD4D 24
  25. Stationary train with “light beam” clock Clock measures time by means of a light pulse moving up and down between two mirrors. mirror I got x I got x, too light source & mirror When both the train and the observer are Observer stationary, the train passenger and an observer on the ground measure ticks of the clock and record same time interval during each cycle of the clock. IxD4D 25
  26. Train traveling at near the speed of light I got x I measured y The observer sees the light pulse trace out a diagonal Observer path. The speed of light is constant, so the observer measures a greater interval during each tick of the clock and concludes the clock is running slow. The passenger sees no change from the stationary case. IxD4D 26
  27. Relativity of Events y' event v y S' S' x' event y x event x S S If S = S', an event is identified as If S' is moving relative to S, an event is occurring in the same place and time, identified as occurring with different with the same spacetime coordinates: spacetime coordinates. For S: (x, y, z, t) (x, y, z, t). and for S': (x', y', z' t'). IxD4D 27
  28. 2D snapshots of Earth orbiting the sun diagrams from Professor John Horton IxD4D 28 http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/
  29. layered into a 3D stack diagrams from Professor John Horton IxD4D 29 http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/
  30. world line of the sun The time axis shows 4D spacetime! world line of the Earth diagrams from Professor John Horton IxD4D 30 http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/
  31. Light Cone IxD4D 31
  32. Feynman Diagrams Spacetime diagrams for documenting elementary particle interactions. The basic diagram components. All electromagnetic interactions can be described with combinations of primitive diagrams like this one. Feynman diagram for like- charge repulsion. Richard Feynman IxD4D 32 Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/particles/expar.html#c2
  33. Electron-Positron Annihilation e+e‒ ⟶ 2ɣ IxD4D 33 Source: Wikipedia
  34. Penguin Diagram IxD4D 34
  35. Time-based Models • Fields • Applications - Applied mathematics - Predictive modeling - Biology - Forecasting - Electrical engineering - Trends analysis - Statistics - Historical mapping - Economics - Performance - Finance - Waveform analysis - Business - Signal processing - Geophysics - Monitoring - Landscape design - Audio Engineering IxD4D
  36. Rates of Change exponential growth linear growth cubic growth y = 2x y = 50x y = x3 IxD4D 36
  37. Time Series IxD4D 37
  38. Time-based Waveforms E t Oscilloscope: Voltage amplitude over time IxD4D Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/altemark/
  39. Temporal Experience of Place IxD4D 39 Mount Diablo, California. Source: Maria Cordell
  40. “Landscape architects tend to think dynamically and in space- time relationships. They are sensitive to the changing character of spaces from day to night, with seasons, and through succession. They speak not of ‘what the space is’ but of how it is experienced as one moves from place to place—the temporal experience of the place.” -- John Motloch Introduction to Landscape Design IxD4D 40
  41. Designed Place IxD4D 41 Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
  42. Temporal Foundations of Landscapes • Scale - from geologic (geologic uplift) to recent change (stream erosion or a fallen tree) • Sequence - natural change undergoes somewhat predictable change - cultural change is less predictable; based on differences in populations, attitudes, and perceptions • Rhythm - diurnal, seasonal, successional, weather, and climatic - nature’s purest statement of system and process - movement toward some future condition IxD4D 42
  43. Landscape as Story • Sequential experience of landscape can be designed as story - each space is revealed to advantage - through serial discovery - unwrapping a temporal experience • An evolving story line choreographs the viewer’s movement through a space, accounting for - mode of transportation - character of path - designed mood of place - user behavior IxD4D 43
  44. Story Lines Casual Formal IxD4D 44 Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
  45. Temporal Choreography “Landscape designers can manage materials and arrangements to create interesting spatial expressions and visual relationships in all seasons, and landscapes that change with season in a rich temporal choreography.” -- John Motloch Introduction to Landscape Design IxD4D 45 Mount Diablo, California. Source: Maria Cordell
  46. Thinking Temporally • Experience is inherently temporal • Design decisions have long term effects • Design-to-user dialog is ongoing • User characteristics change over time - perspective / perception - skill / responsibility - motivations - interest • Context, purpose, and meaning evolve • Time and space are inextricably linked IxD4D 46
  47. Contextual Landscape user job IxD4D 47
  48. Designed Place IxD4D 48 Source: Introduction to Landscape Design
  49. Long Term Dialog “The importance of understanding the long term dialog that occurs with a product focuses around the cultural methods of use and misuse that a person engages in with this object. Indeed, long term dialog may be exponentially more important than short term usability.” -- Jon Kolko Thoughts on Interaction Design IxD4D 49
  50. It’s about getting beneath the surface of functionality and behavior into the messy emotional, symbolic, mythical, habitual crap that constitutes three- quarters of normal people's existence. Stephen Taylor @anomalogue IxD4D
  51. New Ethnographer’s Toolkit • Developed by Chris Khalil, Australia-based user experience architect (www.chriskhalil.com) • Captures key points user’s online experience • Good for studying online behavior • Ensures a realistic, natural record of participant’s life online • Recording mechanism is in same medium and context as the target design • Enables mental modeling based on authentic goals, behaviors, and motivations IxD4D 51 Source: http://www.chriskhalil.com/
  52. Khalil: Digital Fingerprints • Twitter • Facebook • Email • IM • Blogs • RSS • Mobile IxD4D 52 Source: http://www.chriskhalil.com/
  53. Toward Long Term Understanding • Product fit over days, weeks, months • User needs over time • Relationships between tasks and larger objectives • Product fit into context layers • Role in overall work or life activities • Intended product lifetime • Effect on temporal perception IxD4D 53
  54. Temporally Aware Design • Design how the user • Balance casual and formal uses time • Set the tempo • Mold subjective time • Use locality • Use temporal scale • Think relativistically • Choreograph temporal • Capture layers and experience dimension IxD4D 54 Image: Maria Cordell
  55. Thanks for listening. Maria Cordell mcordell@gmail.com @mcordell www.flickr.com/mcordell #ixd4d IxD4D 55

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