Isat review


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  • There is no unnecessary information. I didn’t describe the atom yet.
  • Good overall break down of visuals…
  • The arrows help to support the colors periods and groups.
  • Isat review

    1. 1. 11A
    2. 2. 11A Inquiry <ul><li>Example #2, Grade 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11.7.01 Understand how to follow procedures relating to scientific investigations including formulating hypotheses, controlling variables, collecting and recording and analyzing data, interpreting results, and reporting and displaying results. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Graphs </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Density = Mass/Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Density of water is 1 g/cm3 </li></ul><ul><li>An object in motion or at rest will… </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of inertia and gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Speed = Distance/Time </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>So if beginning speed is 2 m/sec and 3 seconds later the final speed is 5 m/sec what was the acceleration during those three seconds? </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Volume = Length x Width X Height </li></ul><ul><li>Area= Length x Width </li></ul><ul><li>Metric System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilometer, meter, centimeter, millimeter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilogram, gram, milligram </li></ul></ul>
    7. 12. <ul><li>11B </li></ul>
    8. 13. 11B Technological Design <ul><li>Classroom testing—Performance </li></ul><ul><li>State testing—Multiple choice </li></ul><ul><li>Example from Illinois Assessment Framework (IAF) Grade 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11.4.06 Assess given test results on a prototype (i.e., draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the design using given criteria). Analyze data and rebuild and retest prototype as necessary. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 14. Scientific Method
    10. 15. Steps in the Scientific Method <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Retest </li></ul>
    11. 16. Observations <ul><li>Gathered through your senses </li></ul><ul><li>A scientist notices something in their natural world </li></ul>
    12. 17. Observations <ul><li>An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails </li></ul>
    13. 18. Hypothesis <ul><li>A suggested solution to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be testable </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes written as If…Then… statements </li></ul><ul><li>Predicts an outcome </li></ul>
    14. 19. Hypothesis <ul><li>An example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live. </li></ul>
    15. 20. Experiment <ul><li>A procedure to test the hypothesis. </li></ul>
    16. 21. Experiment <ul><li>Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested </li></ul>
    17. 22. Experiment <ul><li>A good or “valid” experiment will only have ONE variable! </li></ul>
    18. 23. Controls and Variables
    19. 24. Scientific Experiments Follow Rules <ul><li>An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens. </li></ul>
    20. 25. The Control Variable <ul><li>The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Those factors are called control variables. </li></ul>
    21. 26. What is the Purpose of a Control? <ul><li>Controls are NOT being tested </li></ul><ul><li>Controls are used for COMPARISON </li></ul>
    22. 27. Other Variables <ul><li>The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable . </li></ul><ul><li>The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable . </li></ul>
    23. 28. Example of Controls & Variables <ul><li>For example , suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. </li></ul><ul><li>You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. </li></ul><ul><li>Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself. </li></ul>
    24. 29. What are the Variables in Your Experiment? <ul><li>Varying the route is the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>The time it takes is the dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. </li></ul>
    25. 30. One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
    26. 31. Valid Experiments
    27. 32. Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: <ul><li>Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups </li></ul><ul><li>There should be only one variable </li></ul>
    28. 33. Data <ul><li>Results of the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative </li></ul>
    29. 34. Data <ul><li>Must be organized </li></ul><ul><li>Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs </li></ul>
    30. 35. Conclusion <ul><li>The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment </li></ul>
    31. 36. Retest <ul><li>In order to verify the results , experiments must be retested. </li></ul>
    32. 37. Review
    33. 38. Solving a Problem <ul><li>1) Identify a Problem </li></ul><ul><li>2) State Observations about the problem </li></ul><ul><li>3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…) </li></ul><ul><li>4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>5) Collect Data </li></ul><ul><li>6) Form a Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>7) Retest </li></ul>
    34. 40. <ul><li>12A </li></ul>
    35. 41. 12A Living Things <ul><li>12.4.03 Identify the life cycle of familiar animals and compare their various states: birth, growth and development, reproduction, and death. Understand that metamorphosis occurs in some animals (e.g., butterflies, frogs). </li></ul>
    36. 42. 12A Living Things <ul><li>12.7.03 Identify the main differences between plant cells and animal cells, namely that plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls (which provide rigidity to the plant, since plants have no skeletons). Identify the basic cell organelles and their functions. </li></ul>
    37. 54. Trisomy 21
    38. 57. <ul><li>12B </li></ul>
    39. 58. 12B Environment and Interaction of Living Things <ul><li>12.4.07 Understand the concept of food chains and food webs and the related classifications of plants or animals (e.g., producers, decomposers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores). </li></ul>
    40. 59. Illinois Assessment Framework Objective: 12.4.07
    41. 63. <ul><li>12C </li></ul>
    42. 64. 12C Matter and Energy <ul><li>12.4.14 Understand that matter is usually found in 3 states: liquid, solid, and gas and be able to identify the properties of each. Understand that water can be found in all three forms. </li></ul>
    43. 65. <ul><li>Electrical power is measured in watts . In an electrical system power ( P ) is equal to the voltage multiplied by the current. </li></ul><ul><li>P = VI </li></ul>
    44. 66. Illinois Assessment Framework Objectives: 11.4.02, 12.7.36
    45. 67. 12C Matter and Energy <ul><li>12.7.43 Identify the 3 subatomic building blocks and their properties. Know that the electron has a negative charge, the proton has a positive charge, and the neutron is electrically neutral. </li></ul>
    46. 68. <ul><li>Electromagnetic waves are formed when an electric field (which is shown in blue arrows) travels perpendicular to a magnetic field (which is shown in red arrows). </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Radiation </li></ul>Synonyms
    47. 69. Facts about the EMS <ul><li>Unlike mechanical waves, EM waves -can travel through a vacuum. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to these types of wave beyond x-ray are dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Has particle-like behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Photons are tiny, massless bundles of energy which cause this radiation to have momentum. </li></ul>
    48. 70. Some waves are longer than others <ul><li>Radio Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Micro Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Light Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet Waves </li></ul><ul><li>X Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma Rays </li></ul><ul><li>Listed in order of the longest wavelength to the shortest wavelength. </li></ul><ul><li>As the wavelength gets shorter, the wave gains more penetrating power. </li></ul>
    49. 72. Notice the decreasing wavelength
    50. 73. Radio Waves <ul><li>Radio waves are low energy waves that carry information over very long distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular phones </li></ul><ul><li>Radio broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Cordless phones </li></ul>
    51. 74. Microwaves <ul><ul><li>Microwaves are most often used to carry energy inside foods items. This energy causes the molecules to move very fast, thus heating the food. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micro waves are used to transmit </li></ul><ul><li>television signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves are used to send </li></ul><ul><li>radar signals. </li></ul>
    52. 75. Infrared Radiation The warmest areas are red. The cooler areas are blue.
    53. 76. Infrared Radiation is used… <ul><li>By restaurants to keep cooked food hot. </li></ul><ul><li>By police to track running suspects. </li></ul><ul><li>By hunters to see in the dark. </li></ul><ul><li>By insects to track prey. </li></ul><ul><li>For medical imaging. </li></ul>
    54. 77. Visible Light <ul><li>Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet </li></ul><ul><li>Visible light is the form of radiation we can see. </li></ul><ul><li>Red has the longest wavelength, while violet has the shortest. </li></ul>
    55. 78. Ultraviolet Radiation <ul><li>comes from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>is mostly blocked by the ozone layer </li></ul><ul><li>able to energy to penetrate the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>helps skin produce vitamin D, which is needed for healthy bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, ultraviolet (beyond violet) has more energy than infrared (under red) </li></ul>
    56. 79. UV Radiation is used for <ul><li>&quot;sun&quot; tanning </li></ul><ul><li>killing germs </li></ul><ul><li>the production of ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>disinfecting spa water </li></ul><ul><li>identification of counterfeit stamps and bills </li></ul><ul><li>invisible hand stamps for event </li></ul>
    57. 80. X-Rays <ul><li>High penetrating power, can penetrate the soft tissues of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for medical imaging </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    58. 81. Gamma Rays <ul><li>High energy, high penetrating power, very short wavelength. </li></ul><ul><li>Originate from the nucleus of an atom . </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure can kill cells </li></ul><ul><li>Used to kill cancer cells—radiation therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>High energy gamma rays are cosmic rays. </li></ul>
    59. 82. Parts of an atom Three parts of an atom: Proton = positive (+) charge Electron = negative ( - )charge Neutron = no charge ( )
    60. 83. Atomic number and atomic mass <ul><li>This atom is a helium atom </li></ul><ul><li># of protons = the atomic number (2) </li></ul><ul><li># of protons + # of neutrons = the atomic mass (2+ 2 = 4) </li></ul>
    61. 84. Parts of the periodic table Periods are like weeks on a calendar Groups are the columns
    62. 85. Organization of Elements
    63. 87. Uranium atom being split into Barium and Krypton by a neutron
    64. 102. Solution and Mixture
    65. 105. <ul><li>12D </li></ul>
    66. 106. 12D Force and Motion <ul><li>12.4.26 Identify the basic forces, such as friction, magnetism, and gravity. Identify which force is operative in a simple scenario. </li></ul>
    67. 107. 12 D Force and Motion <ul><li>12.7.68 Understand how to calculate average speeds, given the distance traveled and the time taken. </li></ul>
    68. 109. Energy and Work Amusement Park Style
    69. 110. Energy and Work Types of Energy Forms of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy Amusement Park Physics and Activities Work Renewable and Nonrenewable Sources
    70. 111. Renewable and Nonrenewable Sources Renewable Nonrenewable Main Menu
    71. 112. Types of Energy Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Main Menu
    72. 113. Forms of Energy Radiant Electrical Chemical Thermal Nuclear Magnetic Sound Mechanical Main Menu
    73. 114. Radiant Energy Radiant energy is also called electromagnetic energy. Radiant energy is the movement of photons. All life on earth is dependent on radiant energy from the sun. Examples of radiant energy include radio waves (AM, FM, TV), microwaves, X-rays, and plant growth. Active solar energy uses photovoltaic panels and light to turn radiant energy into chemical energy. Forms of Energy
    74. 115. Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. This a form of potential energy until the bonds are broken. Fossil fuels and biomass store chemical energy. Products that contain chemical energy include: TNT, baking soda, and a match. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. Forms of Energy
    75. 116. Electrical Energy Electrical energy is the movement of elections. Lightning and static electricity are examples of electrical energy that occur naturally. Science hasn't found a way to use natural forms of electrical energy, like lightning. Instead, we use different energy sources to create electrical energy by using generators and turbines. Forms of Energy
    76. 117. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy is unusual in that it can give off energy in the form of light or heat, but it is the change in the atom's makeup that produces the energy. Submarines, power plants, and smoke detectors all use nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants use uranium, a radioactive element, to create electricity. Forms of Energy
    77. 118. Thermal Energy Thermal energy is the internal energy in substances-the vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substance. Thermal energy is created in the movement of atoms. Boiling water, burning wood, and rubbing your hands together really fast are all examples of heat energy. Geothermal and passive solar are sources of heat energy, but biomass (a type of chemical energy) can be burned to produce heat energy. Forms of Energy
    78. 119. Sound Energy Sound energy is the movement molecules in the air that produces vibrations. Alarms, music, speech, ultrasound medical equipment all use sound energy. VCR tapes change sound energy into electrical energy. The electrical energy records the sound using magnetic tape. Speakers read the magnetic tape and change it back into sound. Forms of Energy
    79. 120. Mechanical Energy Mechanical energy is the movement of machine parts. Mechanical energy is also the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system. Wind-up toys, grandfather clocks, and pogo sticks are examples of mechanical energy. Wind power uses mechanical energy to help create electricity. Potential energy + Kinetic energy = Mechanical energy Next
    80. 121. Mechanical Energy Potential energy + Kinetic energy = Mechanical energy Forms of Energy Example of energy changes in a swing or pendulum.
    81. 122. Magnetic Energy Magnetic energy is the attraction of objects made of iron. Medical equipment, compass, refrigerator magnets are all examples of magnetic energy. Any type of energy source that uses a generator in the process to make electricity uses magnetic energy. Forms of Energy
    82. 123. Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about has kinetic energy.  The kinetic energy of an object in this case is given by the relation: KE = (1/2)mv 2 m=mass of the object V=velocity of the object The greater the mass or velocity of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. Kinetic Energy Lab Next
    83. 124. Kinetic Energy The greater the mass or velocity of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has. Kinetic Energy Lab Types of Energy
    84. 125. Potential Energy Potential energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth's gravitational field. The potential energy of an object in this case is given by the relation: PE = mgh   PE = Energy (in Joules) m = mass (in kilograms) g = gravitational acceleration of the earth (9.8 m/sec2) h = height above earth's surface (in meters) Potential Energy Lab Types of Energy
    85. 126. Law of Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy- Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy is always changing from one kind to another. The total energy of an object never changes. Potential energy + Kinetic energy = Total energy and Total energy – Kinetic energy = Potential energy and Total energy - Potential energy = Kinetic energy Main Menu Main Menu
    86. 127. Work Main Menu Next Work is the transfer of energy through motion. In order for work to take place, a force must be exerted through a distance. The amount of work done depends on two things: the amount of force exerted and the distance over which the force is applied. There are two factors to keep in mind when deciding when work is being done: something has to move and the motion must be in the direction of the applied force. Work can be calculated by using the following formula: Work=force x distance
    87. 128. Work Main Menu Main Menu Work is done on the books when they are being lifted, but no work is done on them when they are being held or carried horizontally.
    88. 129. Energy Activities Main Menu The links provided will take you to several interactive sites where you will be expected to answer questions about energy, build roller coasters to specifications, and play games that involve providing the correct information to questions. Your teacher will instruct you on what to complete at each site. Amusement Park Physics Build a Coaster Energy Quiz Change Coaster Properties
    89. 130. Properties of matter
    90. 131. General Properties of Matter <ul><li>Matter is anything that has mass and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is made of matter </li></ul>
    91. 132. What are properties? <ul><li>Characteristics used to describe an object </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul>
    92. 133. General Properties of matter <ul><li>Mass, weight, volume, and density </li></ul><ul><li>Properties are used to identify a substance </li></ul>
    93. 134. What is mass? <ul><li>Mass is the amount of matter in an object </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is constant </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is also the measure of inertia </li></ul>
    94. 135. What is inertia? <ul><li>Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion </li></ul><ul><li>The more mass the greater the inertia </li></ul>
    95. 136. Questions <ul><li>How is mass related to inertia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are properties of an object important? </li></ul>
    96. 137. Force and inertia <ul><li>When an object is at rest, a force is needed to overcome the inertia to make it move and to stop the object’s motion </li></ul>
    97. 138. Question <ul><li>Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why? </li></ul>
    98. 139. Question <ul><li>What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly? </li></ul>
    99. 140. Question <ul><li>Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt? </li></ul>
    100. 141. Question <ul><li>What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place? </li></ul>
    101. 142. Question <ul><li>What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle? </li></ul>
    102. 143. Weight <ul><li>The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Weight changes with gravity </li></ul><ul><li>The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N) </li></ul>
    103. 144. Weight formula <ul><li>1 kg = 2.2 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>W= m x g </li></ul><ul><li>What is your mass? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your weight in Newtons? </li></ul>
    104. 145. What is gravity? <ul><li>The force of attraction between objects is gravity </li></ul><ul><li>All objects exert a gravitational force on each other </li></ul>
    105. 146. Question <ul><li>Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth? </li></ul>
    106. 147. Gravitational pull <ul><li>The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force </li></ul>
    107. 148. Question <ul><li>Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive? </li></ul>
    108. 149. What affects gravity? <ul><li>The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases </li></ul><ul><li>gravity depends on mass and distance </li></ul>
    109. 150. Gravity <ul><li>The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh </li></ul>
    110. 151. Question <ul><li>Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest? </li></ul>
    111. 152. Question <ul><li>The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon? </li></ul>
    112. 153. Questions <ul><li>What are three properties of matter related to mass? </li></ul>
    113. 154. Question <ul><li>What is density and how is it calculated? </li></ul>
    114. 155. Density <ul><li>The density of water is 1.0 g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water </li></ul>
    115. 156. Density <ul><li>Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water </li></ul>
    116. 157. Ice <ul><li>Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water </li></ul><ul><li>Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed </li></ul>
    117. 158. Astronomy fact! <ul><li>The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float! </li></ul>
    118. 159. Calculations <ul><li>If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold? </li></ul>
    119. 160. Calculation <ul><li>If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm 3 , what is the density of aluminum? </li></ul>
    120. 161. Calculation <ul><li>If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm 3 , what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm 3 ? </li></ul>
    121. 162. What is specific gravity? <ul><li>A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity </li></ul>
    122. 163. Questions <ul><li>How is density different from specific gravity? </li></ul>
    123. 164. What is a physical property? <ul><li>Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance </li></ul>
    124. 165. Phases of matter (video) <ul><li>Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma </li></ul><ul><li>solids have a definite shape and volume </li></ul>
    125. 166. Solid particle arrangement <ul><li>Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous </li></ul>
    126. 167. Types of solids <ul><li>Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous solids can lose their shape </li></ul>
    127. 168. Examples of amorphous solids <ul><li>Tar, candle wax, glass </li></ul><ul><li>Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature) </li></ul>
    128. 169. Liquid particle arrangement <ul><li>Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move </li></ul>
    129. 170. Question <ul><li>Describe the shape of a liquid. </li></ul>
    130. 171. Describe a liquid <ul><li>Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume </li></ul>
    131. 172. Question <ul><li>What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container? </li></ul>
    132. 173. Properties of liquids <ul><li>Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow </li></ul>
    133. 174. What is viscosity? <ul><li>The resistance of a liquid to flow </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily </li></ul><ul><li>Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity </li></ul>
    134. 175. Behavior of liquids <ul><li>Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles </li></ul>
    135. 176. Surface tension (video) <ul><li>Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion </li></ul>
    136. 177. Question <ul><li>Describe the viscosity of a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a liquid’s shape. </li></ul>
    137. 178. Questions <ul><li>How is adhesion different from cohesion? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain surface tension. </li></ul>
    138. 179. Properties of gases <ul><li>Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) </li></ul><ul><li>They fill all the available space in a container </li></ul>
    139. 180. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter <ul><li>Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion </li></ul>
    140. 181. Question <ul><li>How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another? </li></ul>
    141. 182. Gas laws <ul><li>Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume </li></ul>
    142. 183. Charles Law <ul><li>Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure) </li></ul>
    143. 184. Charles’ Law <ul><li>As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases </li></ul><ul><li>Heating air causes it to expand </li></ul>
    144. 185. Question <ul><li>How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space? </li></ul>
    145. 186. Pressure <ul><li>The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area </li></ul>
    146. 187. Boyle’s Law <ul><li>Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature) </li></ul>
    147. 188. Boyle’s law <ul><li>If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure </li></ul>
    148. 189. Plasma <ul><li>Plasma (phase) </li></ul><ul><li>most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars) </li></ul>
    149. 190. Question <ul><li>What are the four phases of matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the plasma phase of matter. </li></ul>
    150. 191. Phase changes (video) <ul><li>Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation </li></ul>
    151. 192. What is a physical change? <ul><li>Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Type of matter remains the same </li></ul>
    152. 193. Questions <ul><li>Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation). </li></ul>
    153. 194. Physical changes <ul><li>Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change </li></ul>
    154. 195. Melting video <ul><li>Phase change from a solid to a liquid </li></ul>
    155. 196. Melting point <ul><li>Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Physical property </li></ul>
    156. 197. Questions <ul><li>How is melting different from freezing? </li></ul>
    157. 198. Phase changes (video) <ul><li>Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant </li></ul><ul><li>Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes </li></ul>
    158. 199. Vaporization <ul><li>Phase change from a liquid to a gas </li></ul>
    159. 200. Boiling point (video) <ul><li>The temperature in which a liquid boils </li></ul><ul><li>Point at which a liquid changes to a gas </li></ul>
    160. 201. Freezing (video) <ul><li>Phase change of a liquid to a solid </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point </li></ul>
    161. 202. Condensation <ul><li>Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas </li></ul>
    162. 203. Question <ul><li>Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization. </li></ul>
    163. 204. Sublimation examples <ul><li>Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation </li></ul>
    164. 205. Chemical properties <ul><li>Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: flammability </li></ul>
    165. 206. Chemical changes <ul><li>The change of a substance into a new and different substance </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>video </li></ul>
    166. 207. Questions <ul><li>What is another name for a chemical change? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe sublimation. </li></ul><ul><li>How is a chemical change different from a physical change? </li></ul>
    167. 210. 12E, 12F, 13A, 13B Grade 4 and 7 <ul><li>Select Assessment Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify topic/unit of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest activities for the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop multiple choice question (s) </li></ul></ul>
    168. 211. <ul><li>12E </li></ul>
    169. 212. 12E Earth’s features and processes
    170. 223. <ul><li>Sedimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>constructive versus destructive force </li></ul>
    171. 231. <ul><li>12F </li></ul>
    172. 232. 12F Space
    173. 234. Solar eclipse
    174. 235. Lunar eclipse
    175. 237. <ul><li>13A </li></ul>
    176. 238. 13A Practices of Science
    177. 239. <ul><li>13B </li></ul>
    178. 240. 13B Science, Technology and Society
    179. 241. hypothesis <ul><li>An ice cube made with tap water will melt in less than 30 minutes in a room at sea level with a temperature of 20C or 68F. </li></ul><ul><li>If skin cancer is related to ultraviolet light , then people with a high exposure to uv light will have a higher frequency of skin cancer . </li></ul><ul><li>If leaf color change is related to temperature , then exposing plants to low temperatures will result in changes in leaf color. </li></ul>