Leveling text

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This presentation is useful in conjunction with actually having some children's books you want to assign a reading level.

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Leveling text

  1. 1. Leveling Text Presentation created by Michelle Commeyras for use in teaching reading education courses at the University of Georgia
  2. 2.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  3. 3. Kindergarten <ul><li>Focus on a single idea or simple story line that children can relate to their personal experience </li></ul><ul><li>Text and pictures correspond </li></ul><ul><li>Language includes natural syntactic structures (similar to 5 year old’s oral language) </li></ul><ul><li>Books have one to four lines of text for each page. </li></ul><ul><li>Several high frequency words are often repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Text is regular, clear and easy to see with ample space between words so children can point and read. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grade One <ul><li>Rich in meaning with more elaborate episodes and themes </li></ul><ul><li>More sentences per page and more unusual vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Most words will be familiar to grade one but unfamiliar words are include that allow them to practice decoding </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to explore different perspectives and viewpoints. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Grade Two <ul><li>Several sentences on a page </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes short chapter books </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Low frequency vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gppsd.ab.ca/hillside/g2books1.html </li></ul>
  6. 6. Grade Three <ul><li>Longer chapter books often part of a series </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative have complex plot development and complex characters </li></ul><ul><li>Expository books thick with information and details about real scientific or historical content </li></ul>
  7. 7. Grade Four Books (Georgia Department of Education) <ul><li>Frindle by Clements </li></ul><ul><li>James and the Giant Peach by Dahl </li></ul><ul><li>Stone Fox by Gardiner </li></ul><ul><li>Charlotte’s Web by White </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer Girl: The Story of Laura Ingalls Wilder by Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring with Lewis and Clark by Slaughter </li></ul>
  8. 8. Grade Five Books (Georgia Department of Education) <ul><li>Sounder by Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>Tuck Everlasting by Babbit </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet the Spy by Fitzhugh </li></ul><ul><li>Holes by Sachar </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Frank by Epstein </li></ul><ul><li>The Titanic Sinks by Conklin </li></ul>
  9. 9. Readability Formulas for Leveling Texts <ul><li>Readability formulas (e.g. Fry, 1977) focus on sentence length, vocabulary frequency and syntactical structures, to designate gradients of text difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>These formulas ignore what the reader brings to the reading event. Texts are treated as objective entities. </li></ul><ul><li>Readability formulas do not focus on the relationship between the reader and the text that develops during the act of reading. </li></ul>
  10. 10. More Complex Text Leveling <ul><li>Clay (1991) and Fountas and Pinnell (1999), are being used to create more distinct levels based on design features and conceptual density, in addition to the criteria traditionally included in readability formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>As the levels become more specific there can be as many as ten levels associated with a particular grade level </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lexile Reading Levels http://www.lexile.com/ <ul><li>The Lexile measure indicates reading level in terms of vocabulary difficulty and sentence length. Based on the assumption that a book with less well-known words and longer sentences is more difficult to read. </li></ul><ul><li>The scale ranges from 200 to 1700 Lexiles </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lexile.com/pdf/lexilemap.pdf </li></ul>
  12. 12. Guided Reading Levels <ul><li>Each level is given a letter of the alphabet — A through Z. This system looks at the vocabulary and sentence length in books, but goes further by looking at aspects of text that make it more difficult to read. These include the layout of a book (books with diagrams, photos with captions, and other text features are more difficult than books with straight text) and the complexity of the ideas in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a text may be fairly easy to read, but the ideas covered in the story are quite sophisticated. This becomes important for our above-level readers. I know of many first graders who can read text on the fourth or fifth grade level. However, the ideas in the text are too sophisticated and require background knowledge that the child does not have. </li></ul><ul><li>This system is a bit more subjective that the Lexile Leveling system. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comparison Table Approximate Levels Wright—RR---Guided-Lexile http://www.readinga-z.com/guided/correlation.html   Wright Group® Level Reading Recovery® Level Guided Reading Lexile Framework Early Emergent Kindergarten/Early Grade 1 A 1 A 200s B 2 B C 3 C D 4 C Upper Emergent Grade 1 (early – late) E 5-6 D 300s F 7-8 E G 9-10 F H 11-12 G I 13-14 H J 15-17 I Early Fluency Grade 2 (early – late) K (2) 18 J 400s L (3) 19 J M (4) 20 K N (5) 20+ L-M 500s Fluency N, O, P Grade 3 Q (early grade 4) R (late grade 4) O (6) -- N 600s P (7) -- N Q (8) -- O R (9) -- P 700s S (10) -- Q T (11) -- R 800s
  14. 14. Frequency Level Checker <ul><li>http://language.tiu.ac.jp/flc/ </li></ul><ul><li>an on-line tool to help language teachers quickly check the number and percentages of words in a particular text that come from different word frequency levels of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Try it at: http://language.tiu.ac.jp/flc/tool.html </li></ul>
  15. 15. Finding the Level of Books: Helpful Websites <ul><li>Good for searching by title, author, etc: http://registration.beavton.k12.or.us/lbdb/default.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Leveled book lists by grade: http://home.comcast.net/~ngiansante/ </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Reading book lists: http://www.readinga-z.com/guided/leveled_list.html </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Recovery: http://www.geocities.com/teachingwithheart/levelbooks.html </li></ul><ul><li>Book Lists </li></ul><ul><li>A list of sites for leveled books: http://expage.com/page/kikiteachersleveledbooklinks </li></ul><ul><li>Scholastic: http://src.scholastic.com/ecatalog   </li></ul>
  16. 16. Finding Levels of Books: Helpful Books <ul><ul><ul><li>Leveled Books for Readers, Grades 3-6 A companion volume to Guiding Readers and Writers Irene C. Fountas , Lesley University,  Gay Su Pinnell , The Ohio State University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guided Reading by Fountas and Pinnell (see Appendix M) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding Readers and Writers Grades 3-6 by Fountas and Pinnell (see Appendix 61 beginning on pg. 591) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Suggest Procedure for Leveling a book <ul><li>Read or skim the book to notice A-Z criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate grade level based on your knowledge of other books. </li></ul><ul><li>Check lists of leveled books to find the book or books like the one under consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Use Frequency Level Checker at http://language.tiu.ac.jp/flc/ in combination with other criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on a level: Emergent; Early First Grade; Late First Grade; Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh or higher </li></ul>

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