Blood is collected in standard blood bags containing citrate as the anticoagulant. Hemodilution kits are available, that contain 2 blood bags, a Y-type connector with a Luer lock adapter and a patient identification bracelet, which simplifies the ANH process. Vascular access for the collection of blood may be obtained from an artery,usually the radial, or a large vein. The blood should be gently and intermittently agitated to ensure adequate mixing with the anticoagulant. Approximately 7 - 10 minutes is required for the withdrawal of a unit of blood, and adequate time should be available to withdraw 3-4 units from anesthesia induction until major surgical blood loss occurs.
Hemopure causes the body’s circulatory system to oxygenate tissues more efficiently -- a huge help to circulation compromised by too few red blood cells. Hemopure’s mechanism is different from that of red blood cells. Hemopure sends oxygen swiftly to all parts of the body through the plasma. Talk about chart.
Bloodless Medicine Caring Effectively For Patients Who Decline Blood Transfusions
Bloodless Medicine – Caring Effectively for Patients Who Decline Blood Transfusions Michael J. Columbus Administrative Director, Center For Bloodless Medicine and Surgery at Pennsylvania Hospital HUP Nursing Cultural Competence Committee Presentation – September 10, 2009
What is Bloodless Medicine and Surgery? It is the safe and effective practice of medicine and surgery without the use of… Whole Blood Red Cells White Cells Platelets Plasma Allogeneic
Why Bloodless? <ul><li>Individuals refuse for religious reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jehovah’s Witnesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Better patient outcomes </li></ul>
A lesson learned from the history of blood’s use in medicine
History of Blood and Medicine <ul><li>2500 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians practiced bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not known why or what they thought it would accomplish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth and fifth centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Since all sickness results from an imbalance of humours, the cure involves restoring the equilibrium by…bleeding” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued the practice of bloodletting </li></ul></ul>
History of Blood and Medicine During medieval times, phlebotomy was by far the most expedient way to rid the body of excess humours which caused ill health.
History of Blood and Medicine December 14, 1799
History of Blood and Medicine December 14, 1799 Benjamin Rush
1900 - Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovers blood groups During World war II blood was mobilized and its constituent parts used in an industrial scale. History of Blood and Medicine
Comment: So, the first president of our country was the victim of the traditional medical paradigm of his time. His physicians got away with it, but had to go to court to defend their actions. It is absolutely amazing what a few hundred years will do for one’s perspective. I cannot help but think of how equally barbaric the next story will appear in the future to even traditional medical doctors. The New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 341:1845-1849 What does this brief examination of the history of blood and medicine teach us?
The History of Blood use in medicine compels us to further explore alternatives
Preoperative Autologous Donation (PAD) RBCs Change Shape During Storage Day 1 Day 21 Day 35
Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution (ANH) In the operating room blood is collected before the operation begins Blood volume is simultaneously restored using volume expanders The patient’s withdrawn blood is returned when major bleeding has ceased. In a closed circuit set up, all tubing remains connected at all times.
I direct that no blood transfusions (whole blood, red cells, white cells, platelets, or blood plasma) are to be given to me. Legal protection for PAH and the patient
I release Pennsylvania Hospital and all physicians involved in my care, and their respective employees, agents and representatives from liability for any damages that might be caused by my refusal of blood, despite their otherwise competent care.
Tissue Adhesives (Cryoprecipitates) Fibrinogen Organ transplants and donations Other surgical procedures, medical test or current therapy: Identify Platelet cell fractions: Identify White cell fractions: Identify Red cell fractions: Identify Hypervolemic Hemodilution (no blood storage) Intraoperative Hemodilution where extracorporeal circulation is a closed circuit without blood storage Intraoperative Blood Salvage (Cell-Saver) where extracorporeal circulation is a closed circuit without blood storage Heart –Lung Equipment (non-blood primed) Hemodialysis Equipment (non-blood primed) Hemophiliac Preparations (clotting factors) Immune Globulins (blood fraction, Rhogam Erythropoietin (contains albumin) Albumin (blood fraction) Refuse Accept Product / Treatment
Bloodless Medicine and Surgery is at its root an educational program, devised to educate and support physicians, staff and the patient. Coordinators are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to provide information regarding our program, to facilitate a transfer from another hospital, or to locate a participating physician to meet the patient’s medical needs. Currently we have more then 160 physicians, representing virtually every specialty, registered with our program. much more than “a promise not to give transfusions.”
PFC liquids first studied as biologic gas carriers in the 1960s <ul><ul><li>Mouse breathing when totally immersed in an oxygen saturated perfluorocarbon (FC-80, butyltetrahydrofuran) liquid (photograph courtesy Professor Leland Clark). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This pioneering experiment stimulated great interest in the development of fluorocarbons as respiratory gas carriers in biological systems. </li></ul></ul>
Room Temperature Stable Hemopure ® and Oxyglobin ® Approvals Hemopure and oxyglobin are registered trademarks of Biopure Corporation Hemopure (Human) Approved 2001 So. Africa Oxyglobin (Veterinary) Approved 1998 U.S.A. 1999 Europe
Mechanism of Action Normal blood flow Hemopure Anemic blood flow <ul><li>Biopure’s stabilized hemoglobin circulates in plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Greater distribution throughout the body than RBCs </li></ul>
1962 – Dr. Denton Cooley 1962 - Denton Cooley made history by performing the first "bloodless" heart surgery 1964 - Reported case He concluded that "the risk of surgery in patients of the Jehovah's Witness group has not been substantially higher that for others." (D A Ott, D A Cooley, "Cardiovascular surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses: Report of 542 operations without blood transfusion." Journal of the American Medical Association 238 (September 1977) 1256-1258) Thus emerged a new frontier of endless possibilities.
“Several methods are available to the surgeon who wishes to perform bloodless surgery… Alone, each of these techniques can successfully reduce the need for homologous [donor] blood transfusions by 50% to 70%. By combining these strategies, the surgeon can achieve the goal of performing bloodless surgery for most patients.” -Spence RK, et al. Transfusion and Surgery. Current Problems in Surgery, December 1993, pp. 1103-1180. 1993 – Dr. Richard K. Spence
Conclusion <ul><li>Blood supply and safety issues necessitate further exploration of nonblood alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Non-Blood Centers of Excellence will bring Bloodless Medicine and Surgery into the mainstream of medicine </li></ul>