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“Asexual and sexual”

5th class – Science in English, 2013-14
Reproduction

 What is reproduction?
In a nutshell, reproduction is the creation of a new
individual or individuals from...
Asexual Reproduction

 In asexual reproduction, one individual produces
offspring that are genetically identical to itse...
Budding

-In this form, an offspring grows out of the body of the parent.
-Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction.

Hyd...
Gemmules (Internal Buds)

-In this form, a parent releases

a specialized mass of cells
that can develop into an
offsprin...
Fragmentation



 -In this form, the body of the parent
breaks into distinct pieces, each of
which can produce an offspr...
Regeneration


-In this form, if a piece of a parent is detached, it can grow
and develop into a completely new individua...
Sexual Reproduction


 In sexual reproduction,
two individuals
produce offspring that
have genetic
characteristics from
...
Gametes



In animals, sexual reproduction
encompasses the fusion of two distinct
gametes to form a zygote. Gametes are
p...
Types of Fertilization

There are two mechanisms by which fertilization can
take place. The first is external (the eggs a...
External Fertilization


External fertilization occurs

mostly in wet environments and
requires both the male and the
fem...
Internal Fertilization



Animals that use internal
fertilization specialize in the
protection of the developing egg.
For...
Patterns and Cycles


Reproduction is not a continuous activity and is subject to
certain patterns and cycles. Oftentimes...
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Animal reproduction

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Transcript of "Animal reproduction"

  1. 1. “Asexual and sexual” 5th class – Science in English, 2013-14
  2. 2. Reproduction   What is reproduction? In a nutshell, reproduction is the creation of a new individual or individuals from previously existing individuals. In animals, this can occur in two primary ways: through asexual reproduction and through sexual reproduction. Let's look at asexual reproduction.
  3. 3. Asexual Reproduction   In asexual reproduction, one individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to itself. These offspring are produced by mitosis. There are many invertebrates, including sea stars and sea anemones for example, that produce by asexual reproduction. Common forms of asexual reproduction include:
  4. 4. Budding  -In this form, an offspring grows out of the body of the parent. -Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction. Hydra Budding Hydra with ovaries
  5. 5. Gemmules (Internal Buds)  -In this form, a parent releases a specialized mass of cells that can develop into an offspring. -Sponges exhibit this type of reproduction. Sponge Gemmules
  6. 6. Fragmentation   -In this form, the body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces, each of which can produce an offspring. -Planarians exhibit this type of reproduction. Planarian Anterior end of a planarian showing eyespots, auricles and digestive system.
  7. 7. Regeneration  -In this form, if a piece of a parent is detached, it can grow and develop into a completely new individual. -Echinoderms exhibit this type of reproduction. Oral surface of a star fish Water vascular system of a star fish injected with blue dye
  8. 8. Sexual Reproduction   In sexual reproduction, two individuals produce offspring that have genetic characteristics from both parents. Sexual reproduction introduces new gene combinations in a population.
  9. 9. Gametes  In animals, sexual reproduction encompasses the fusion of two distinct gametes to form a zygote. Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called meiosis. The gametes are haploid (containing only one set of chromosomes) while the zygote is diploid (containing two sets of chromosomes). In most cases, the male gamete, called the spermatozoan, is relatively motile and usually has a flagellum. On the other hand, the female gamete, called the ovum, is nonmotile and relatively large in comparison to the male gamete.
  10. 10. Types of Fertilization  There are two mechanisms by which fertilization can take place. The first is external (the eggs are fertilized outside of the body); the second is internal (the eggs are fertilized within the female reproductive tract).
  11. 11. External Fertilization  External fertilization occurs mostly in wet environments and requires both the male and the female to release their gametes into their surroundings (usually water). An advantage of external fertilization is that it results in the production of a large number of offspring. One disadvantage is that environmental hazards such as predators greatly reduce the chance of surviving into adulthood.
  12. 12. Internal Fertilization  Animals that use internal fertilization specialize in the protection of the developing egg. For example, reptiles and birds secrete eggs that are covered by a protective shell that is resistant to water loss and damage. Mammals, with the exception of monotremes, take this idea of protection a step further by allowing the embryo to develop within the mother. This extra protection increases the chances of survival because mom supplies everything that the embryo needs. In fact, most mammalian mothers continue to care for their young for several years after birth.
  13. 13. Patterns and Cycles  Reproduction is not a continuous activity and is subject to certain patterns and cycles. Oftentimes these patterns and cycles may be linked to environmental conditions which allow organisms to reproduce effectively. For example, many animals have estrous cycles that occur during certain parts of the year so that offspring can typically be born under favorable conditions. Likewise, these cycles and patterns can be controlled by hormonal cues as well as other seasonal cues like rainfall. All of these cycles and patterns allow organisms to manage the relative expenditure of energy for reproduction and maximize the chances of survival for the resulting offspring.
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