Topic 5.1 to 5.3
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  • 1. Christie, Reyna, Alexandra, Karina, Reyna, Pia Biology Topic 5 Outline5.1) Communities and Ecosystems: Species- a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring Population- a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time Community- a group of organisms living and interacting with each other in a specific area Ecosystem- a community and its abiotic environment Ecology- the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment Autotroph- an organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances Heterotrophy- an organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms Consumer- an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed Detritivore- an organism that ingests dead organic matter Saprotroph- an organism that liven on or in dead organing matter, secreting digestive enzymes into and absorbing the products of digestion Food chain- a sequence showing the feeding relationships and energy flow between species Food web- the feeding relationships between species including the possibility of one species having more than one trophic level Trophic level- the position on the food chain according to how many energy-transfer steps is required to reach that level Light- initial source of energy for almost all communities Energy flow- energy losses between trophic levels such as heatloss through cell respiration, bone marrow and material not assimilated Pyramid of energy- the shape shows the flow of energy from trophic level to trophic level in a community. Enters and leaves- energy does this in an ecosystem Is recycled- nutrients do this in an ecosystem Recycle nutrients- done by saprotrophic baceria and fungi5.2) The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect- warming of the Earth due to the insulating effect of gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (ch4) and water vapor Clean air act of 1970- A law that Set air-quality standards and tough emissions guidelines for car manufacturers Baghouse- a system of large filters that physically removes particulate matter from incinerator emissions Scrubbers- Equipment designed to extract or "scrub" sulfur gases before they escape into the atmosphere
  • 2. Catalytic converters- Causes the exhaust gases (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, & nitrogen oxides) to react and in doing so forming less harmful carbon dioxide and water Heavy smog incident- ollution trapped near the earths surface donoran PA, smog hits the town because the factory creates so much pullution it creates a thermal inversion Ozone Layer- a layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun Thermal inversion- The temperature inversion in which warm air traps cold air and pollutants near the earth Photochemical smog- a brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed when pollutants react with each other in the presence of sunlight. sun +no2+vocs= ozone (smog) Evidence of global climate change- temp. increased 4-7 degrees. ice (glaciers) is breaking apart Vocs- volatile organic compounds, produced by paint fumes, vehicles and burning fuels Reduction of global climate change- shorter showers, turn off lights when you leave the room, solar panels (sun energy), build turbines (wind energy), drive less Effects of global climate change- melting polar ice caps (polar bears dying), raising ocean levels (wipe out costal towns and islands), Carbon monoxide- an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon/fossil fuesl. effects: interfers with the blood stability, dangerously high concentration which causes death Nitrogen oxide- formed when combustion (burning) temps. exceed 538c and nitrogen and oxygen combine brownish haze to smog Sulfur oxide- the compound made by combining sulfur (S) with oxygen (O) to form SO₃burning coal Particulate matter- tiny particles of liquid or solid matter construction/ agriculture, fires, vehicles, and industrial process Lead- a toxic metal Tropospheric ozone- Man- made pollutant in the lower atmosphere, secondary air pollutant, component of photochemical smog Composition of air- 78%nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 9% argon, .04% carbon dioxide5.3) Populations Natality- The number of new membranes of the species due to reproduction Mortality- The number of deaths Immigration- Members arriving from other places Emigration- Members leaving the population Exponential Growth- Number of individuals increases at a faster and faster rate Transitional Phase- The growth rate slows down considerably, population is still increasing but at a slower and slower rate Plateau Phase- The number of individuals has stabilized