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Photosy

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  • 1. Photosynthesis Energy & Life copyright cmassengale
  • 2. Overview of Photosynthesis copyright cmassengale
  • 3. Autotrophs
      • Plants and some other types of organisms that contain chlorophyll are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.
    copyright cmassengale
  • 4. Autotrophs
    • Autotrophs include organisms that make their own food
    • Autotrophs can use the sun’s energy directly
    Euglena copyright cmassengale
  • 5. Heterotrophs
    • Heterotrophs are organisms that can NOT make their own food
    • Heterotrophs can NOT directly use the sun’s energy
    copyright cmassengale
  • 6. Energy
    • Energy Takes Many Forms such as light, heat, electrical, chemical, mechanical
    • Energy can be changed from one form to another
    • Energy can be stored in chemical bonds & then released later
    Candles release energy as HEAT & LIGHT copyright cmassengale
  • 7. ATP – Cellular Energy
    • Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Contains two, high-energy phosphate bonds
    • Also contains the nitrogen base adenine & a ribose sugar
    copyright cmassengale
  • 8. ADP
      • Adenosine Diphosphate
      • ATP releases energy , a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATP
    One phosphate bond has been removed copyright cmassengale
  • 9. Sugar in ADP & ATP
    • Called ribose
    • Pentose sugar
    • Also found on RNA
    copyright cmassengale
  • 10. Importance of ATP
    • Principal Compound Used To Store Energy In Living Organisms
    copyright cmassengale
  • 11. Releasing Energy From ATP
    • ATP is constantly being used and remade by cells
    • ATP provides all of the energy for cell activities
    • The high energy phosphate bonds can be BROKEN to release energy
    • The process of releasing ATP’s energy & reforming the molecule is called phosphorylation
    copyright cmassengale
  • 12. Releasing Energy From ATP
    • Adding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATP
    • Removing A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADP
    Loose Gain copyright cmassengale
  • 13. Cells Using Biochemical Energy
    • Cells Use ATP For:
    • Active transport
    • Movement
    • Photosynthesis
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Cellular respiration
    • All other cellular reactions
    copyright cmassengale
  • 14. More on ATP
    • Cells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few Seconds
    • ATP must constantly be made
    • ATP Transfers Energy Very Well
    • ATP Is NOT Good At Energy Storage
    copyright cmassengale
  • 15. Glucose
    • Glucose is a monosaccharide
    • C 6 H 12 O 6
    • One Molecule of glucose Stores 90 Times More Chemical Energy Than One Molecule of ATP
    copyright cmassengale
  • 16. History of Photosynthesis & Plant Pigments copyright cmassengale
  • 17. Photosynthesis
    • Involves the Use Of light Energy to convert Water (H 2 0) and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) into Oxygen (O 2 ) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & Starches
    copyright cmassengale
  • 18. Investigating Photosynthesis
      • Many Scientists Have Contributed To Understanding Photosynthesis
      • Early Research Focused On The Overall Process
      • Later Researchers Investigated The Detailed Chemical Pathways
    copyright cmassengale
  • 19. Early Questions on Plants
    • Several Centuries Ago, The Question Was: Does the increase in mass of a plant come from the air? The soil? The Water?
    copyright cmassengale
  • 20. Van Helmont’s Experiment 1643
    • Planted a seed into A pre-measured amount of soil and watered for 5 years
    • Weighed Plant & Soil. Plant Was 75 kg, Soil The Same.
    • Concluded Mass Came From Water
    copyright cmassengale
  • 21. Priestley’s Experiment 1771
    • Burned Candle In Bell Jar Until It Went Out.
    • Placed Sprig Of Mint In Bell Jar For A Few Days.
    • Candle Could Be Relit And Burn.
    • Concluded Plants Released Substance (O 2 ) Necessary For burning.
    copyright cmassengale
  • 22. Ingenhousz’s Experiment 1779 Repeated Priestly experiment with & without sunlight copyright cmassengale
  • 23. Results of Ingenhousz’s Experiment
    • Showed That Priestley’s Results Only Occurred In The Presence Of Sunlight .
    • Light Was Necessary For Plants To Produce The “Burning Gas” or oxygen
    copyright cmassengale
  • 24. Julius Robert Mayer 1845
    • Proposed That Plants can Convert Light Energy Into Chemical Energy
    copyright cmassengale
  • 25. Samuel Ruben & Martin Kamen 1941
    • Used Isotopes To Determine That The Oxygen Liberated In Photosynthesis Comes From Water
    KAMEN RUBIN copyright cmassengale
  • 26. Melvin Calvin 1948
    • First to trace the path that carbon (CO 2 ) takes in forming Glucose
    • Does NOT require sunlight
    • Called the Calvin Cycle or Light Independent Reaction
    • Also known as the Dark Reaction
    copyright cmassengale
  • 27. Rudolph Marcus 1992
    • Studied the Light Independent Reactions
    • First to describe the Electron transport Chain
    copyright cmassengale
  • 28. The Photosynthesis Equation copyright cmassengale
  • 29. Pigments
      • In addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires Pigments
      • Chlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophs
      • Chlorophyll is found inside chloroplasts
    copyright cmassengale
  • 30. Light and Pigments
    • Energy From The Sun Enters Earth’s Biosphere As Photons
    • Photon = Light Energy Unit
    • Light Contains A Mixture Of Wavelengths
    • Different Wavelengths Have Different Colors
    copyright cmassengale
  • 31. Light & Pigments
    • Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light
    • Photons of light “excite” electrons in the plant’s pigments
    • Excited electrons carry the absorbed energy
    • Excited electrons move to HIGHER energy levels
    copyright cmassengale
  • 32. Chlorophyll
    • There are 2 main types of chlorophyll molecules:
    • Chlorophyll a
    • Chlorophyll b
    • A third type, chlorophyll c , is found in dinoflagellates
    Magnesium atom at the center of chlorophyll copyright cmassengale
  • 33. Chlorophyll a and b copyright cmassengale
  • 34. Chlorophyll a
    • Found in all plants, algae, & cyanobacteria
    • Makes photosynthesis possible
    • Participates directly in the Light Reactions
    • Can accept energy from chlorophyll b
    copyright cmassengale
  • 35. Chlorophyll b
    • Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment
    • Chlorophyll b acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring the light it absorbs to chlorophyll a
    • Like chlorophyll a, it absorbs red & blue light and REFLECTS GREEN
    copyright cmassengale
  • 36. The Biochemical Reactions copyright cmassengale
  • 37. It Begins with Sunlight! copyright cmassengale
  • 38. Photoautotrophs Absorb Light Energy copyright cmassengale
  • 39. Inside A Chloroplast copyright cmassengale
  • 40. Structure of the Chloroplast
    • Double membrane organelle
    • Outer membrane smooth
    • Inner membrane forms stacks of connected sacs called thylakoids
    • Thylakoid stack is called the granun (grana-plural)
    • Gel-like material around grana called stroma
    copyright cmassengale
  • 41. Function of the Stroma
    • Light Independent reactions occur here
    • ATP used to make carbohydrates like glucose
    • Location of the Calvin Cycle
    copyright cmassengale
  • 42. copyright cmassengale
  • 43. Thylakoid membranes
    • Light Dependent reactions occur here
    • Photosystems are made up of clusters of chlorophyll molecules
    • Photosystems are embedded in the thylakoid membranes
    • The two photosystems are:
    • Photosytem I
    • Photosystem II
    copyright cmassengale
  • 44. Photosynthesis Overview copyright cmassengale
  • 45. Energy Carriers
    • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP + )
    • NADP + = Reduced Form
    • Picks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H + from the Light Reaction to form NADPH
    • NADPH carries energy to be passed on to another molecule
    copyright cmassengale
  • 46. NADPH copyright cmassengale
  • 47.
    • Occurs across the thylakoid membranes
    • Uses light energy
    • Produce Oxygen from water
    • Convert ADP to ATP
    • Also convert NADP + into the energy carrier NADPH
    Light Dependent Reactions copyright cmassengale
  • 48. Light Dependent Reaction copyright cmassengale
  • 49. Light Dependent Reaction copyright cmassengale
  • 50. Photosystem I
      • Discovered First
      • Active in the final stage of the Light Dependent Reaction
      • Made of 300 molecules of Chlorophyll
      • Almost completely chlorophyll a
    copyright cmassengale
  • 51. Photosystem II
      • Discovered Second
      • Active in the beginning stage Of the Light Dependent Reaction
      • Contains about equal amounts of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
    copyright cmassengale
  • 52. Photosynthesis Begins
      • Photosystem II absorbs light energy
      • Electrons are energized and passed to the Electron Transport Chain
      • Lost electrons are replaced from the splitting of water into 2H +, free electrons, and Oxygen
      • 2H + pumped across thylakoid membrane
    copyright cmassengale
  • 53. Photosystem I
    • High-energy electrons are moved to Photosystem I through the Electron Transport Chain
    • Energy is used to transport H + from stroma to inner thylakoid membrane
    • NADP+ converted to NADPH when it picks up 2 electrons & H+
    copyright cmassengale
  • 54. Phosphorylation
    • Enzyme in thylakoid membrane called ATP Synthase
    • As H+ ions passed through thylakoid membrane, enzyme binds them to ADP
    • Forms ATP for cellular
    copyright cmassengale
  • 55. copyright cmassengale
  • 56. Light Reaction Summary
    • Reactants:
    • H 2 O
    • Light Energy
    • Energy Products:
    • ATP
    • NADPH
    copyright cmassengale
  • 57. Light Independent Reaction
    • ATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energy
    • Atmospheric C0 2 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructose
    • Six-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin Cycle
    • Occurs in the stroma
    copyright cmassengale
  • 58. The Calvin Cycle copyright cmassengale
  • 59. The Calvin Cycle
    • Two turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucose
    • 3-CO 2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate compounds (PGA)
    • A 3-carbon molecule called Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) is used to regenerate the Calvin cycle
    copyright cmassengale
  • 60. copyright cmassengale
  • 61. Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis
    • Amount of available water
    • Temperature
    • Amount of available light energy
    copyright cmassengale
  • 62. copyright cmassengale

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