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Cellular respiration ppt
 

Cellular respiration ppt

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    Cellular respiration ppt Cellular respiration ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale
    • Cellular Respiration
      • A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O).
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy
      copyright cmassengale glucose ATP
    • Question:
      • In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?
      copyright cmassengale
    • Plants and Animals
      • Plants - Autotrophs : self-producers.
      • Animals - Heterotrophs : consumers.
      copyright cmassengale
    • Mitochondria
      • Organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
      copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
    • Redox Reaction
      • Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another .
      • Two types:
      • 1. Oxidation
      • 2. Reduction
      copyright cmassengale
    • Oxidation Reaction
      • The loss of electrons from a substance .
      • Or the gain of oxygen .
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy
      copyright cmassengale glucose ATP Oxidation
    • Reduction Reaction
      • The gain of electrons to a substance .
      • Or the loss of oxygen .
      copyright cmassengale glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
    • Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
      • Four main parts (reactions).
      • 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
      • a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria.
      • 2. Grooming Phase
      • a. migration from cytosol to matrix.
      copyright cmassengale
    • Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
      • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
      • a. mitochondrial matrix
      • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and
      • Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • a. Also called Chemiosmosis
      • b. inner mitochondrial membrane.
      copyright cmassengale
    • 1. Glycolysis
      • Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria.
      • Two phases (10 steps):
      • A. Energy investment phase
      • a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps) .
      • B. Energy yielding phase
      • a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps) .
      copyright cmassengale
    • 1. Glycolysis
      • A. Energy Investment Phase:
      copyright cmassengale Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP + P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C
    • 1. Glycolysis
      • B. Energy Yielding Phase
      copyright cmassengale Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP + P C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)
    • 1. Glycolysis
      • Total Net Yield
      • 2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR)
      • 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation)
      • 2 - NADH
      copyright cmassengale
    • Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
      • ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP .
      Example: PEP to PYR copyright cmassengale Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P P P Adenosine ADP (PEP) P P P ATP O - C=O C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
    • Fermentation
      • Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic).
      • Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation .
      • Two Types:
      • 1. Alcohol Fermentation
      • 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
      copyright cmassengale
    • Alcohol Fermentation
      • Plants and Fungi  beer and wine
      copyright cmassengale glucose Glycolysis C C C C C C C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
    • Alcohol Fermentation
      • End Products: Alcohol fermentation
      • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 2 - CO 2
      • 2 - Ethanol’s
      copyright cmassengale
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
      • Animals (pain in muscle after a workout).
      copyright cmassengale 2 Lactic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + C C C Glucose Glycolysis C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C C C C C
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
      • End Products: Lactic acid fermentation
      • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 2 - Lactic Acids
      copyright cmassengale
    • 2. Grooming Phase
      • Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic).
      • 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules.
      copyright cmassengale Cytosol C C C 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
    • 2. Grooming Phase
      • End Products: grooming phase
      • 2 - NADH
      • 2 - CO 2
      • 2- Acetyl CoA (2C)
      copyright cmassengale
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
      • Location: mitochondrial matrix .
      • Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C) .
      • It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule.
      copyright cmassengale Mitochondrial Matrix
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP + P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP + P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
      • Total net yield ( 2 turns of krebs cycle)
      • 1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 2. 6 - NADH
      • 3. 2 - FADH 2
      • 4. 4 - CO 2
      copyright cmassengale
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
      • Location: inner mitochondrial membrane.
      • Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP .
      • ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane ( lowers pH in innermembrane space ).
      copyright cmassengale Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
      • The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP .
      • All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration .
      • Each NADH converts to 3 ATP .
      • Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH ).
      copyright cmassengale
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
    • 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) copyright cmassengale NADH + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C NAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
    • 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) copyright cmassengale FADH 2 + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C FAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
    • TOTAL ATP YIELD
      • 1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation
      • 2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation
      • 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD
      copyright cmassengale ATP
    • Eukaryotes (Have Membranes)
      • Total ATP Yield
      • 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis
      • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase
      • 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle
      • 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle
      • 36 ATP - TOTAL
      copyright cmassengale
    • Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) copyright cmassengale Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
    • Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes)
      • Total ATP Yield
      • 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis
      • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase
      • 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
      • 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle
      • 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle
      • 38 ATP - TOTAL
      copyright cmassengale
    • Question:
      • In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration?
      copyright cmassengale
    • Catabolism of Various Food Molecules
      • Other organic molecules used for fuel.
      • 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides
      • 2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids
      • 3. Proteins: amino acids
      copyright cmassengale
    • copyright cmassengale