3 5 translation and transcription

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  • 1. Diego DianiWhat is the purpose of translation and transcription? Genes are the instructions for proteins or messages that the cell needs to take in order to carry it out. In transcription, the gene is converted into a mRNA messenger which is posted to the ribosomes. The ribosomes then translate the message into polypeptide.What is translation? Translation is the second half of protein synthesis. This process is called translation because you’re taking a sequence from RNA and you turning it into a sequence of amino acids. (It’s basically the process of going from nucleic acids sequence to protein sequence).How does it work? The process of translation is primarily done by ribosomes, which requires the mRNA, which is the guide for ribosomes, as well as other helper molecules such as tRNA and others.Steps of translation:Initiation- When you bring together the two halves of a ribosome, the large and the small sub-unit. Youbring together mRNA and tRNA with that small sub-unit. (AUG= start condon)Elongation- Is the addition of new amino acids into the protein.Termination- Is where you end the process. (UAA,UAG,UGA= stop codons)What is transcription? Is the first step of the process known as protein synthesis Transcription is how you copy a DNA gene into a form of mRNA so the ribosome can build and guide protein synthesis without damaging the nucleus in the cell
  • 2. Diego DianiHow does it work? The process of transcription begins with the concept known as codons, where DNA is written in bases as A, C, and G’s. But since amino acids are written in a different form and you can’t write a single base to represent each, you write them in a group of 3 bases.Promoter- Is the indicator who allows the genes to know where the process beginsSteps: First step is when the DNA helix is opened Then the RNA polymerase builds RNA to connect start the base paring role Ex. A G T C C A A T C G UCAGGUUAGC To conclude the steps the cells goes through some editing Intros get edited out because it is not used during the process therefore it’s removed, except for Exons which are used.