Aphasia Presentation


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Aphasia Presentation

  1. 1. Aphasia By: Jordan McNeely
  2. 2. <ul><li>Aphasia is defined as an acquired impairment in the use of language due to damage to certain parts of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>This damage could be caused by injury, stroke, or seizures </li></ul><ul><li>The language deficits include difficulties in language comprehension and execution </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Divisions of Aphasias <ul><li>All aphasias can be classified into two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Fluent aphasias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The inability to understand the language of others and the production of less meaningful speech then normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-fluent aphasias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty producing fluent, articulated, or self-initiated speech </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Fluent Aphasias <ul><li>Wernicke’s aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with this type of aphasia have difficulty or inability understanding others speech, and produce meaningless speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally do not realize their speech is meaningless and are surprised when others cannot understand them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may demonstrate paragrammatical speech, which means they use inappropriate morphemes. For instance a person my say to you instead of for you or substitute the word pork for fork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of aphasia is produced by damage to Wernicke’s area of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video of subject with Wernicke’s aphasia </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. More Types of Fluent Aphasia <ul><li>Conduction aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main symptom of this type of aphasia is difficulty repeating something someone has just said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with this condition have relatively good language comprehension and their conversational speech is only mildly impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of aphasia is produced by damage to the left temporoparietal region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It has been suggested that this type of aphasia could come about because of deficits in short term memory or phoneme selection </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. More Types of Fluent Aphasia <ul><li>Anomic aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This aphasia is characterized by difficulty finding names and difficulty substituting indefinite nouns and pronouns with substantive words. For instance, people with this affliction will use words like, thing , stuff , or it instead of automobiles , groceries , or furniture . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are very few cases of pure anomic aphasia and it is therefore difficult to find the area of the brain responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have suggested that it is a mild form of Wernicke’s aphasia </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. More Types of Fluent Aphasia <ul><li>Transcortical sensory aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of this type of aphasia are fluent speech with some anomia, poor language comprehension, and echolalia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echolalia is the tendency to repeat something someone has just said. For instance, if a person with this type of aphasia was asked, “What is your name?” they are predisposed to repeat the question over and over instead of answering it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This aphasia may be caused by damage surrounding and including Wernicke’s area </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Non-Fluent Aphasias <ul><li>Broca’s aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of aphasia manifests with difficulties initiating well-articulated conversational speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The language that is produced is slow, labored, and agrammatical, which means words like a , an , or the and verb tense is left out of their speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This aphasia is produced by damage to Broca’s area of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video of subject with Broca’s aphasia </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s <ul><li>Transcortical motor aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with this aphasia do not speak unless they are strongly encouraged to do so and when they do speak it is labored and non-fluent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interestingly enough when these people are verbally presented with long complicated sentences they are able to repeat them fluently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This aphasia is produced by damage to the premotor cortex anterior and superior to Broca’s area </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s <ul><li>Global aphasia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the name suggests, this type of aphasia is characterized by a severe depression of all language functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people with this affliction have poor language comprehension and speak in slow, labored jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This aphasia is caused by damage around and to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Other Interesting Facts About Aphasia <ul><li>The handwriting of a person with an aphasia reflects their speech impediment. </li></ul><ul><li>There was an experiment done where people with Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias were presented with a picture and then asked to write down a description of what they say in the picture. </li></ul>
  12. 12. This is the picture
  13. 13. A patient with Broca’s aphasia wrote this <ul><li>Notice the use of very few words, but the words do make some sense </li></ul>
  14. 14. A patient with Wernicke’s aphasia wrote this <ul><li>Notice here that there are many, less forced, words, but they don’t make much sense. Also because they’re not struggling to find their words, the handwriting is better. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Klein, Steve, and B.Michael Thorne. Biological Psychology . New York: Worth Publishers Inc.,U.S., 2007. </li></ul>