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Aphasia Presentation Aphasia Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Aphasia By: Jordan McNeely
    • Aphasia is defined as an acquired impairment in the use of language due to damage to certain parts of the brain
    • This damage could be caused by injury, stroke, or seizures
    • The language deficits include difficulties in language comprehension and execution
  • Major Divisions of Aphasias
    • All aphasias can be classified into two groups
    • Fluent aphasias
      • The inability to understand the language of others and the production of less meaningful speech then normal
    • Non-fluent aphasias
      • Difficulty producing fluent, articulated, or self-initiated speech
  • Types of Fluent Aphasias
    • Wernicke’s aphasia
      • People with this type of aphasia have difficulty or inability understanding others speech, and produce meaningless speech
      • They generally do not realize their speech is meaningless and are surprised when others cannot understand them
      • They may demonstrate paragrammatical speech, which means they use inappropriate morphemes. For instance a person my say to you instead of for you or substitute the word pork for fork
      • This type of aphasia is produced by damage to Wernicke’s area of the brain
      • Video of subject with Wernicke’s aphasia
  • More Types of Fluent Aphasia
    • Conduction aphasia
      • The main symptom of this type of aphasia is difficulty repeating something someone has just said
      • People with this condition have relatively good language comprehension and their conversational speech is only mildly impaired
      • This type of aphasia is produced by damage to the left temporoparietal region
      • It has been suggested that this type of aphasia could come about because of deficits in short term memory or phoneme selection
  • More Types of Fluent Aphasia
    • Anomic aphasia
      • This aphasia is characterized by difficulty finding names and difficulty substituting indefinite nouns and pronouns with substantive words. For instance, people with this affliction will use words like, thing , stuff , or it instead of automobiles , groceries , or furniture .
      • There are very few cases of pure anomic aphasia and it is therefore difficult to find the area of the brain responsible
      • Some have suggested that it is a mild form of Wernicke’s aphasia
  • More Types of Fluent Aphasia
    • Transcortical sensory aphasia
      • Symptoms of this type of aphasia are fluent speech with some anomia, poor language comprehension, and echolalia.
      • Echolalia is the tendency to repeat something someone has just said. For instance, if a person with this type of aphasia was asked, “What is your name?” they are predisposed to repeat the question over and over instead of answering it.
      • This aphasia may be caused by damage surrounding and including Wernicke’s area
  • Non-Fluent Aphasias
    • Broca’s aphasia
      • This type of aphasia manifests with difficulties initiating well-articulated conversational speech
      • The language that is produced is slow, labored, and agrammatical, which means words like a , an , or the and verb tense is left out of their speech
      • This aphasia is produced by damage to Broca’s area of the brain
      • Video of subject with Broca’s aphasia
  • More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s
    • Transcortical motor aphasia
      • People with this aphasia do not speak unless they are strongly encouraged to do so and when they do speak it is labored and non-fluent
      • Interestingly enough when these people are verbally presented with long complicated sentences they are able to repeat them fluently
      • This aphasia is produced by damage to the premotor cortex anterior and superior to Broca’s area
  • More Types of Non-Fluent Aphasia’s
    • Global aphasia
      • As the name suggests, this type of aphasia is characterized by a severe depression of all language functioning
      • The people with this affliction have poor language comprehension and speak in slow, labored jargon
      • This aphasia is caused by damage around and to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas of the brain
  • Other Interesting Facts About Aphasia
    • The handwriting of a person with an aphasia reflects their speech impediment.
    • There was an experiment done where people with Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias were presented with a picture and then asked to write down a description of what they say in the picture.
  • This is the picture
  • A patient with Broca’s aphasia wrote this
    • Notice the use of very few words, but the words do make some sense
  • A patient with Wernicke’s aphasia wrote this
    • Notice here that there are many, less forced, words, but they don’t make much sense. Also because they’re not struggling to find their words, the handwriting is better.
  • References
    • Klein, Steve, and B.Michael Thorne. Biological Psychology . New York: Worth Publishers Inc.,U.S., 2007.