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  • Image: CC-BY-NC http://www.flickr.com/photos/29998767@N07/2807176376/
  • As paper became more affordable, dictations became the common form in early universities, and students hand wrote their own copies of textsLaurentius de Voltolina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg)David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Printer_in_1568-ce.pngDavid Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • With the “lecture text” we get wide margins, so that faculty can now dictate their annotations to students. Though universities temporarily ban dictations, students demand them and they continue.Laurentius de Voltolina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg)David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • image: cc-by-nc  Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/deadhorse/367716072/
  • image: cc-by Some rights reserved by Herméshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hermes-/125161447/in/photostream/
  • image:  cc-by-nc Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mandj98/5098020700/
  • image:  cc-by-sa-nc  Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/abennett96/2425831211/
  • iterating toward openness pragmatism over zeal – David Wiley (2011)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2080
  • image:  http://silvana.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/elefantelo.jpgimage:   http://openedweb.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/oer-300x300.png
  • Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277
  • Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277(Nelson, 1982; Nelson, 19XX) – image: http://afflictor.com/tag/ted-nelson/
  • term by which most instructional designers and educational researchers know the concept todayWiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)Image: http://prodinpa-feditic.wikispaces.com/file/view/oda.gif/148240695/oda.gif
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Opensource.svg/220px-Opensource.svg.png
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967site: http://davidwiley.org/image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e7/BYU_Medallion_Logo.svg/200px-BYU_Medallion_Logo.svg.png
  • Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)
  • Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277image: http://www.beatmuseum.org/duchamp/images/fountain.jpg
  • McGreal, R. (2004)
  • Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • Wiley (2006). Blog. RIP-ping on Learning Objectshttp://opencontent.org/blog/archives/230Image: cc: by-ND-NC http://www.flickr.com/photos/linden_tea/2912003081/
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967site: http://davidwiley.org/
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • context – more elements juxtaposed – clearer meaningiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • A – practically available, affordable. HTML – YES. MS One Note – NO ($100)L – adapted with little or no training. MS Word – YES. Flash – NOM – can we change content? HTML – YES. PDF – NOS – file for editing. HTML – YES. Flash - NOiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • http://wikieducator.org/images/thumb/8/85/Reusability_paradox.svg/350px-Reusability_paradox.svg.png
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • http://mirrors.creativecommons.org/blimg/cc-tw-license-compatibility-wizard.pnghttp://creativecommons.org/
  • iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • Stephen Downes (2008) http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/open-educational-resources-presentation

openness openness Presentation Transcript

  • opennessImage: CC-BY-NC http://www.flickr.com/photos/29998767@N07/2807176376/
  • outlineintro to opennessopen educationlearning objects to OERhistorydefinitionmotivations for opennessmedia issueslicensingsustainabilityexamples
  • the lecture…the book
  • 14th centuryImage: Laurentius de Voltolina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg)David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • printing press – 15th centuryimage: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Printer_in_1568-ce.pngDavid Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • 15th centuryImage: Laurentius de Voltolina (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg)David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • If the Book Didn’t Change Education Can the internet? Can openness? David Wiley (2011) http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent/open-education-7608981
  • what does open mean?
  • openness is not binaryimage: cc-by-nc Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/deadhorse/367716072/
  • openness is a continuumimage: cc-by Some rights reserved by Herméshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/hermes-/125161447/in/photostream/
  • openimage: cc-by-nc Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/mandj98/5098020700/
  • openimage: cc-by-sa-nc Some rights reservedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/abennett96/2425831211/
  • what is open education?when did open education movement start?
  • open education is………. Open licensing Open source Open content OpenCourseWare (OCW) Open educational resources (OER) Open access Open data Open science Open teaching Open business models Open policy Open____????iterating toward openness pragmatism over zeal – David Wiley (2011)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2080
  • what is an open university?“Open to all: what we mean by open admissionsNearly all of our undergraduate courses have no formalentry requirements, either prior qualifications orexperience. We allow people who have missed out oneducation to fulfill their potential and achieve auniversity-level qualification.We believe that it is the qualifications with which ourstudents leave, rather than those with which theyenter, that count.”The Open University, UK (planning began 1965 – firststudents 1971) http://www.open.ac.uk/
  • what is an open university?Athabasca University, Canada’s Open University, isdedicated to the removal of barriers that restrictaccess to and success in university-level study and toincreasing equality of educational opportunity foradult learners worldwide……We are committed to ourmission of guaranteeing access to post-secondarylearning to all who have the ability and desire.Athabasca University (established 1970 – first students1972) http://www2.athabascau.ca/
  • learning objects to Open Educational Resources (OER) to the open education movementimage: http://silvana.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/elefantelo.jpgimage: http://openedweb.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/oer-300x300.png
  • history the idea of reusing digital educational resources is almost as old as the computer itselfWiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277
  • history Ted Nelson •beginning in the early 1960s •coined the term "hypertext“ •Xanadu - developed the conceptual foundations of learning objects and modern content reuse •more connected to instructional designWiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277(Nelson, 1982; Nelson, 19XX) – image: http://afflictor.com/tag/ted-nelson/
  • historyWayne Hodgins•emergence of the World Wide Web – 1990’s•coined the term "learning objects,"•from object-oriented programming (OOP)•computer science paradigm•LEGO analogy•closed objectsWiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)Image: http://prodinpa-feditic.wikispaces.com/file/view/oda.gif/148240695/oda.gif
  • historyRichard Stallman•free software•GNU project•GPL license•freedom•free (negative to business)•free to open source•OP/L licenseiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Opensource.svg/220px-Opensource.svg.png
  • historyDavid Wiley•learning objects•OER•Flat World Knowledge•Open High School of Utah•Open Education ConferenceiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967site: http://davidwiley.org/image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e7/BYU_Medallion_Logo.svg/200px-BYU_Medallion_Logo.svg.png
  • what is a learning object?
  • why learning objects? "Learning objects make it unnecessary to have thousands of iterations of the same teaching point.“ McGreal (2004) "I loved the learning objects idea because the “write once, use anywhere” idea had a lot of economic appeal" Wiley (2006)Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)
  • learning object - definition •dozens of definitions •confusing •broad to specific http://flosse.blogging.fi/2005/12 /12/urinal-as-a-learning-object/ “any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning...“ IEEE (2002)Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277image: http://www.beatmuseum.org/duchamp/images/fountain.jpg
  • definition“any reusable digitalresource that isencapsulated in alesson or assemblageof lessons grouped inunits, modules,courses, and evenprogrammes”McGreal (2004) McGreal (2004)
  • definition“things that contain digitally coded informationreadable by a computer“ (Sicilia et al., 2004)"knowledge object" Merrill (1998)"instructional object.” Gibbons, Nelson, and Richards (2002)“units of learning” Koper (2003)"sharable content objects“ ADL"resources“ Downes (2004)Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft)http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277McGreal, R. (2004)
  • definitionevolving definition:"any digital resource that can be reused tofacilitate learning" Wiley (2000)"any digital resource that can be reused tomediate learning" Wiley & Edwards (2003)"any digital resource that can be freely adaptedbe reused to mediate learning" Wiley (2007)iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • death of the learning object“no one can agree about what a learning objectis….and perhaps that very statement is all thatneeds to be made." "The whole learning objects field of work turned into a giant software engineering exercise" learning objects’ inability to live up to the incredible hype and investment they received to the fact that the premise of the possibility of simple reuse was simply wrong." Wiley (2006). Blog. RIP-ping on Learning Objects http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/230 Image: cc: by-ND-NC http://www.flickr.com/photos/linden_tea/2912003081/
  • openness is the only future for learning objects "any digital resource that can be freely adapted be reused to mediate learning" Wiley (2007)iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • what is anOpen Educational Resource (OER) ?
  • open learning objects = Open Educational Resources (OER)iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • “open education is a growth out of the learning objects movement”iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967site: http://davidwiley.org/
  • motivations for openness Increased pedagogical flexibility / effectiveness Make a difference / public good Decrease suffering and violence in the worldiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • motivations for openness MIT OCW “let’s give it all away” NGOs 72M school age children don’t attend school UN millennium development goals 2015-all children complete primary schooliTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • what is the “open” inOpen Educational Resource (OER) ?
  • what is openness in OERthe 4 R’s of opennessReuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with othersRevise – derivatives (adapt and improve)Remix - CombinationsiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • media issuesALMSAccess to Editing ToolsLevel of ExpertiseMeaningful EditableSelf-SourcediTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • what size should OER be? how can they be used?•Size = amount of context inside the OER•granularity•metadatareusability paradox•Big OERs – teach well/hard to reuse McGreal (2004)•Small OERs – Don’t teach well / easy to reuse•Ideal – big OER + revise + remixiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • reusability paradoxhttp://wikieducator.org/images/thumb/8/85/Reusability_paradox.svg/350px-Reusability_paradox.svg.png
  • what does this mean?
  • licensingAll 4 R’s are a matters of copyrightReuse – copy verbatimRedistribute – share with othersRevise – derivatives (adapt and improve)Remix - CombinationsiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • licensingOpen licensing = copyright (not reform)Open licensing = hack of copyrightOpen licensing = permissionsiTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • “some rights reserved” “some permissions granted”iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967images: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
  • licensing Copyleft – re-license as same (can’t change license) Three “layers” of Licenseshttp://mirrors.creativecommons.org/blimg/cc-tw-license-compatibility-wizard.pnghttp://creativecommons.org/
  • Sustainability “The ongoing ability to meet your needs” money & time – donated How do you earn when you are giving things away?iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • Sustainability models Endowment model Membership model – consortium (members $) Donation model – Wikipedia Conversion model – free to pay Contributor pay – flickr pro Sponsorship model – public television Institutional model – MIT Government funding model Advertising – Google, YouTubeStephen Downes (2008) http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/open-educational-resources-presentation
  • OER examples?