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McNamara - learning objects
 

McNamara - learning objects

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overview of learning objects / OER

overview of learning objects / OER

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  • Facilitate – to make easier – to bring aboutMediate – agent – for causing or transferring – bring aboutFreely adapted – revise, remix
  • HALF WAY POINT
  • Access – adobe photoshop – hard to get, MS Word – even not everyone hasLevel of expertise – can I learn it? TechnologyMeaningfully edit – PDF, Scanned hand notesSelf-Sourced – can I get code? XML in AU LOs, flash action scriptLeast common denominator - LCD

McNamara - learning objects McNamara - learning objects Presentation Transcript

  • learning objects (LO)
  • outline• why? • details• brief history • standards• LO or OER • LOs today• what are LOs? • semantic web• barriers to LOs • future of LOs• beyond definition • PLE
  • why learning objects?• "Learning objects make it unnecessary to have thousands of iterations of the same teaching point.“ McGreal (2004)• "I loved the learning objects idea because the “write once, use anywhere” idea had a lot of economic appeal“ Wiley (2006) iTunes – Introduction to Open Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • brief history• 1960s – hypertext / xanadu / id – ted nelson• 1980s (+) – GNU, open source – richard stallman• 1990s – LEGO, OOP & LO – wayne hodgins• 2000s – atom, LO to OER – david wiley• 2002-2007 – transition – LO to OER• 2001 – creative commons• 2002 – UNESCO & MIT• 2007 (+) – open education movement• 2010 (+) – semantic web Wiley (2006). A Learning Objects Literature Review (Draft) http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/277
  • RIP learning objects• "The whole learning objects field of work turned into a giant software engineering exercise“• “learning objects’ inability to live up to the incredible hype and investment they received to the fact that the premise of the possibility of simple reuse was simply wrong." Wiley (2006). Blog. RIP-ping on Learning Objects http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/230
  • learning objects = OER openness = sharing
  • what are learning objects?evolving definition:• “any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning...“ IEEE (2002)• "knowledge object" Merrill (1998)• "instructional object.” Gibbons, Nelson, and Richards (2002)• "sharable content objects“ SCOrm ADL• “any digital resource that can be re-used to achieve a specific learning outcome” Ally (2004) iTunes – Introduction to Open Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • LOs at Athabasca
  • what are the barriers to using LO • definitional – what is a LO? • work involved and skill deficits - technical • structure of repositories • lack of learning objects in some disciplines • quality of learning objects in repositories • granularity • copyright and intellectual property • attitudinal barriers - sharing and openness Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects Moisey, Ally & Spencer (2006)
  • what are learning objects?• "any digital resource that can be reused to facilitate learning" Wiley (2000)• "any digital resource that can be reused to mediate learning" Wiley & Edwards (2003)• "any digital resource that can be freely adapted and be reused to mediate learning" Wiley (2007) iTunes – Introduction to Open Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • guidelines instead of definitions 4 R’s • Reuse – copy verbatim • Redistribute – share with others • Revise – derivatives (adapt and improve) • Remix - Combinations iTunes – Introduction to Openness in Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • ALMS analysis• Access to Editing Tools• Level of Expertise• Meaningful Editable• Self-Sourced iTunes – Introduction to Openness in Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • open licensing “some rights reserved”“some permissions granted”iTunes – Introduction to Open Educationhttp://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967images: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
  • detailsreusability granularity paradox •Big OERs – teach well/hard to reuse •Small OERs – Don’t teach well / easy to reuse •Ideal – big OER + revise + remix iTunes – Introduction to Openness in Education http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/introduction-to-open-education/id301635967
  • standards• interoperability• IEEE• SCORM – ADL (DoD) – “play well”• IMS global - CanCore, dublin core metadata• LOM – learning object metadata
  • where are LOs today?COL - The Re-use and Adaptation of Open Educational Resources (OER) - 2012
  • where are LOs today?• Kahn• CK-12• connexions - rice• MOOCs – Canadian (distributed, connectivism) – Coursera (POC-packaged online content) – Udacity – edX – mit, harvard, berkeley
  • web 3.0 – semantic web• metadata to data• Tin Can – next gen of SCORM – noun, verb, object – “I did this” – “I passed the test” “I read the book” – Learning outside LMS, mobile – LMS vs LRS (learning record store)• learning analytics• sentiment analysis• natural language data http://tincanapi.com/
  • LO example-semantic webClustering by Usage: Higher Order Co-occurrences of Learning Objects – “you shall know a word by the company it meets” – firth – “Our approach does not rely on the relations between users and objects but on the relations between the objects themselves” Niemann et. al (2012)
  • Recommendation of Learning Objects in anUbiquitous Learning Environment through anAgent-Based Approach• ubiquitous learning – context, mobile• agents – student, recommender, interface Da Silva et. al (2012)
  • LO example-semantic webLearning by creating and exchangingobjects: The SCY experience• ELO – emerging learning object – user-generated – shareable and reusable – versioning (process) – forking (collab., reuse)• pedagogical agents – continuous analysis – ELO, chat, actions De Jong et. al (2010)
  • future of LOspersonal learning environment (PLE)“one node in a web of content, connected to other nodes andcontent creation services used by other students. It becomes, notan institutional or corporate application, but a personal learningcenter, where content is reused and remixed according to thestudents own needs and interests. It becomes, indeed, not asingle application, but a collection of interoperating applications—an environment rather than a system“ (downes)• learning pathways• learner interests• remix• agent software• user-generated content Wikipedia (2012)
  • PLE – 2.0D’Arcy Norman http://darcynorman.net/2008/03/05/on-the-ple/
  • PLE – 3.0 ?McNamara (2012)
  • can we create and/or orderan interoperating environment? Wikipedia (2012)