Overview On these slides is an overview of what we did during the unit and the topics we’ve covered. I’ve also included a multiple choice question for each topic to help you see what kinds of question I may be asking about that topic on the test.
Topic #1: Federalism What we did in class: We talked about relationships that we have in our own lives-with friends, family, girlfriends/boyfriends, students, teachers- to understand the meaning of relationship. We then took this idea to talk about civics and the relationship that the national government has with state governments.
Topic #1: Federalism Activities in class: School House Rock Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLQg7G3hkGY Practice with which powers belong to the national govt, which belong to the state govts, or both
Topic #1: Federalism What you need to know: The U.S. Constitution created a federal system in which the national government is supreme or has the authority over state govts (with some limits) Powers that aren’t given to the national govt are given to state govts in the 10th Amendment in the U.S. Constitution National and state govts are not allowed to do certain things (national govt can’t violate your freedoms in the Bill of Rights; states cannot make treaties with other countries)
Topic #1: Federalism What you need to know, part deux: Primary responsibilities of each level of government •National: Conducts foreign policy, regulates commerce, and provides for the common defense •State: Promotes public health, safety, and welfare Sometimes the national govt, since it is supreme over state govts, can make states do things (called federal mandates). The relationship between state govts and national govt can get AWKWARD if the national govt doesn’t give the states enough money to do what it has asked of them. These are called unfunded mandates.
Topic #1: Federalism Sample multiple choice:The United States government is considered a federalsystem because:a. the people elect national officialsb. both national and state governments exist within thenationc. foreign policy is handled by state governmentsd. each state has equal representation in the UnitedStates Senate
Topic #1: Federalism The correct answer is B. Remember, the definition of federalism is that there’s a division of power between the national and state govts, so both of those govts exist in the system. A is true, but it doesn’t have anything to do with the question. C is false, foreign policy is handled by national govt. D is true, but it doesn’t have anything to do with the question either.
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers What we did in class: We took notes on what the legislative branch looks like by describing Congress. We also learned about the qualifications to be a Senator or a member in the House of Representatives. We played “Senator or Representative?!” with my beloved laminated cards. We also learned about the powers that Congress has.
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers Activities we did in class: Notes Senator or Representative?! In some classes, American Idol with congressional powers In some classes, illustrations of the powers of Congress
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers What you need to know:The legislative branch Consists of the Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives (435 members, based upon populations of the states) and the Senate (100 members— two per state) **KNOW THE QUALIFICATIONS TO BE IN THE SENATE OR HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES** Makes the laws of the nation Approves the annual budget Confirms presidential appointments Raises revenue through taxes and other levies Regulates interstate and foreign trade Declares war
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers What you need to know:Legislative powers Expressed: Specifically listed in the Constitution of the United States Implied: Not written in the Constitution; used to carry out expressed powers The formal powers of Congress are limited by the Constitution of the United States.
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers Multiple choice example:Congress does NOT have the powera. to declare laws unconstitutionalb. to regulate commerce with other countriesc. to raise money through taxesd. to declare war
Topic #2: Legislative Branch & Congressional Powers The answer is A. We know from our list of congressional powers that Congress CAN do b, c, and d. And of course, we know that it’s only the judicial branch that can declare laws to be unconstitutional.
Topic #3: Legislative Branch & Lawmaking What we did in class: We took notes on how a bill becomes a law and watched the School House Rock video clip of the process. The video clip is awesome, and I recommend watching it over and over again to understand how the process works. It can be found at this address: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mEJL2Uuv- oQ/
Topic #3: Legislative Branch & Lawmaking What you need to know:Steps in the lawmaking process in Congress: Introducing a bill by a Senator or Representative Working in committees Debating the bill on the floor of each house Voting on the bill in each house Sending the bill to the president to sign into lawElected officials in Congress write laws and take action in responseto problems or issues.Individuals (normal people) and interest groups (like the NationalRifle Association) help shape legislation.
Topic #3: Legislative Branch & Lawmaking Multiple choice example:Elected officials write laws for all of the followingreasons EXCEPTa. to revise the Bill of Rightsb. because of information from interest groupsc. in response to issuesd. as solutions to problems
Topic #3: Legislative Branch & Lawmaking The correct answer is A. First of all, the Bill of Rights declares our freedoms that the government can’t take away…so why would anyone want to write a bill about that? Secondly, the other 3 choices are ones that are on the “what-you-need-to-know” slide. Bills are written because solutions/responses are needed to problems and issues. Citizens and interest groups often propose bill ideas to their congressmen.
Topic #4: Executive Branch Overview What we did in class: Ms. Mitchem wasn’t here on this day, but Mr. Criscione gave you all your quiz on the legislative branch. He also started on the notes on the executive branch and your booklet assignment where you drew out the roles the president has.
Topic #4: Executive Branch Overview What you need to know:The executive branch Headed by the president of the United States, the chief executive officer of the nation Duties: Executes the laws of the land Prepares the annual budget for congressional action Appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges Administers the federal bureaucracy
Topic #4: Executive Branch Overview What you need to know:The roles of the president: chief of state: Ceremonial head of the government chief executive: Head of the executive branch of government chief legislator: Proposer of the legislative agenda commander-in-chief: Head of the nation’s armed forces chief diplomat: Architect of American foreign policy chief of party: Leader of the political party that controls the executive branch chief citizen: Representative of all of the people. Presidential power has grown in the years since the Constitution was ratified
Topic #4: Executive Branch Overview Multiple choice example:All of the following are part of the job of the Presidentof the United States EXCEPTa. vetoing bills passed by Congressb. commanding the armed forcesc. sentencing criminals to jaild. appointing Supreme Court justices
Topic #4: Executive Branch Overview The correct answer is C. All of the other choices are things the president can or does do. Review the “what-you-need-to-know” slides if that one was a bit tricky. Also, the judicial branch is sentencing criminals, not the executive branch.
Topic #5: Executive Branch & Influencing Lawmaking What we did in class: We watched the greatest video clip ever made by Ms. Mitchem that went through a very thorough overview of the executive branch. Please watch it again, it’s on the blog!! We watched another video from CBS’s 60 Minutes that talked about the poor leadership in the Middle East and how that has sparked a wave of revolutions. We also took some notes about the ways that the president in the executive branch influences the lawmaking process.
Topic #5: Executive Branch & Influencing Lawmaking What you need to know:Ways the executive branch influences policymaking Proposing legislation in an annual speech to Congress (State of the Union Address) Appealing directly to the people Approving or vetoing legislation Appointing officials who carry out the laws Cabinet departments, agencies, and regulatory groups interpret and execute the laws. Presidential power has grown in the years since the Constitution was ratified.
Topic #5: Executive Branch & Influencing Lawmaking Multiple choice example:One way the President influences the policymakingprocess is bya. introducing bills on the Senate floorb. declaring bills unconstitutionalc. removing federal judgesd. giving the State of the Union Address
Topic #5: Executive Branch & Influencing Lawmaking The correct answer is D. The State of the Union Address is a speech the president gives once a year to Congress that is televised so that the people can also watch it. In it, the president will discuss what laws he would like to see passed over the next year. A & B are not true, and C is true but has nothing to do with policy or lawmaking.
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch What we did in class: We started with a brief reading on the judicial branch and how it is independent from the other branches. In some classes, we met a special guest from the U.S. Supreme Court. Afterwards, we took notes on the structure of the court system (S-A-D) and played “quel (what) court.”
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch What you need to know: The organization of the judicial system in the U.S. includes 2 court systems, state and federal, that report to the U.S. Supreme Court The organization and jurisdiction come from the Constitution of the United States and federal laws. U.S. Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction U.S. Court of Appeals: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction U.S. District Court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch What you need to know:Courts in the FEDERAL SYSTEM: U.S. Supreme Court: Justices, no jury; appellate jurisdiction; limited original jurisdiction U.S. Court of Appeals: Judges, no jury; appellate jurisdiction U.S. District Court: Judge, with or without jury; original jurisdiction
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch What you need to know:The judicial branch Consists of the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land The federal courts try cases involving federal law and questions involving interpretation of the Constitution of the United States.
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch Multiple choice example:Which federal court uses a jury to determine theoutcome of a case?a. United States Court of Appealsb. United States Maritime Courtc. United States Supreme Courtd. United States District Court
Topic #6: Organization of the Judicial Branch The correct answer is D. We’ve never talked about B, so you can cross that off immediately. C only has 9 Supreme Court justices that make the decisions, and A has 6-28 judges depending on the particular appeals court.
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases What we did in class: We did a short reading and a t- chart on the differences between civil and criminal cases. This was the class that we did a mad-lib to take a closer look at civil and criminal cases.
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases What you need to know: Both types of cases can go through the federal and state court systems. In a civil case, the key word is “suing” or “lawsuit.” In a criminal case, a CRIME (murder, robbery, other violence) has happened.
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases What you need to know:Criminal case:•In a criminal case, a court determines whether a person accused of breakingthe law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or a felony.Procedure for criminal cases:•A person accused of a crime may be arrested if the police have probablecause.•The accused may be committed to jail or released on bail.•The case proceeds to an arraignment where probable cause is reviewed, anattorney may be appointed for the defendant, and a plea is entered.•A court date is set, and a trial is conducted.•A guilty verdict may be appealed.
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases What you need to know:Civil case:•In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between twoparties to recover damages or receive compensation.Procedure for civil cases•The plaintiff files a complaint to recover damages or receivecompensation.•Cases can be heard by a judge or a jury.•Cases can be appealed.
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases Multiple choice example:Last summer, Maria Bennett was involved in an automobileaccident on the road near her home. A driver ran into hercar while she was stopped at a stop sign. She had onlyminor injuries, but there was a great deal of damage to hercar. She has not been able to get the driver to pay for thedamages and has decided to go to court to get her money.This is known as what type of case?a. criminalb. felonyc. civild. misdemeanor
Topic #7: Civil v. Criminal Cases Multiple choice example:The correct answer is C because Megan is suing theother person to get money to pay for her damaged car.We’ve never really talked about B or D, so you couldimmediately cross those off.
Topic #8: Judicial Review What we did in class: We learned about the court case of Marbury v. Madison with an activity involving Twitter (in some classes) and note-taking. Then we played “Sustained or Overruled!”
Topic #8: Judicial Review What you need to know:The U.S. Supreme Court determines the constitutionality oflaws and acts of the executive branch of government. Thismeans that the court can declare laws of Congress or thepresident’s actions unconstitutional. This power is called“judicial review.”•Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicialreview at the national level.•The Constitution of the United States of America is thesupreme law of the land.
Topic #8: Judicial Review Multiple choice example:The decision in Marbury v. Madison argues that thejudiciary should serve asa. a check on the power of the militaryb. a check on the power of Congressc. an independent lawmaking bodyd. an institution that enhances the power of thePresident
Topic #8: Judicial Review The correct answer is B. In the court case Marbury v. Madison, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that William Marbury was using a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that was unconstitutional. Thus, the justices were ruling that the act, which was a law passed by Congress, was unconstitutional. The tempting choice might be C. The judicial branch is independent from the other branches, but it does NOT make the laws.
Helpful Studying Resources How a Bill Becomes a Law (School House Rock): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mEJL2Uuv-oQ 3 Ring Circus-Branches of Govt (School House Rock): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLQg7G3hkGY&fea ture=related Executive Branch (A Ms. Mitchem Production): http://msmitchem.blogspot.com/2011/10/october-24- 2011.html Branches of Govt Rap (Smart Songs): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCB8EOY5d48 Welcome to Washington (Smart Songs): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOGE0FzBEbs&feat ure=related
Tuesday Test Good luck studying!! Please visit me before or after school Monday and Tuesday if you have questions!