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# Understanding Dietary Calories

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Is weight management truly all about energy balance? Is it possible for one to lose weight while consuming more Calories than one mobilize? Blogger Greg McLean presents a logical sequence consistent with the first law of thermodynamics to illustrate that there is better science to weight management.

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### Understanding Dietary Calories

1. 1. Understanding Dietary Calories Is weight management truly all about Calories?
2. 2. True or False Calories are a substance
3. 3. False • Calories are a measure of energy • A small calorie (little “c”) = the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water at room temperature by one degree Celsius • A large Calorie (capital “C”) or dietary calorie = 1000 calories or 1 kilocalorie • A convention (not always followed) is to refer to a dietary calorie as “Calorie” with a capital “C” • One Calorie = 4184 joules of energy
4. 4. Think of Calories as Stored Energy in Food • Measuring a Calorie in food – assign the following to each gram as follows: ***The numbers do not always add up. Consider alcohol. Alcohol is lighter than water. One gram of alcohol provides 7 Calories
5. 5. True or False Calories in = Calories out
6. 6. True • There is not denying the laws of physics • First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
7. 7. Energy cannot be created or destroyed -- It can only change form (following the principal of substitution)  Calories consumed (C)= Calories expended  Calories expended = stored energy (S)+ kinetic energy (k)  Calories consumed (C) = stored energy (S)+ kinetic energy (K) C=S+K
8. 8. The Calorie Enthusiast • To this point in the presentation, I am in factual agreement with those who claim that losing weight is all about Calories • Calorie enthusiast will proclaim: “If you eat it you better burn it else you will store it”
9. 9. True of False Body tissue is the only option for stored energy (S)?
10. 10. False • Consider what is in the toilet after a visit. Is there stored energy in our waste? Yes, of course. There are countless ways the body gets rid of stored energy : I will label all stored energy not stored in body tissue waste (w)
11. 11. Consider the Haircut • We store calories by growing hair and burn them by visiting a barber or stylist
12. 12. Consider the Dust Mite • We all shed approximately 1,000,000 skin cells a day. Dead skin cells have Calories, right? Dust mites feast on them. • Gross thought: Your ceiling fans are covered in dust mite feces.
13. 13. Stored Energy • I will label all stored energy not stored in body tissue waste (w) • Body fat (f) is not the only tissue where Calories are stored • Let’s label all other options (t) Stored energy = body fat stores (f) + other tissue storage (t) + waste (w) S=f+t+w
14. 14. Appending the Energy Balance Formula  Calories consumed (C) = stored energy (S) + kinetic energy (K) C=S+K  Stored Energy (S) = (fat stores (f) + other tissue stores (t) + waste (w))  C = (f + t + w) + K
15. 15. True or False Metabolic energy (chemical energy) is the only option for kinetic energy in Calories?
16. 16. False • Energy exists in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. • Heat is a big alternative, so I will label this one (h) • All other I will consider metabolic energy (m) • kinetic energy = heat energy (h) + metabolic energy (m) • K=h+m
17. 17. Consider A Glass of Cold Water • Goes in cold – comes out warm • We’re burning Calories drinking cold water, aren’t we?
18. 18. Consider Warm Breath • Usually the air we breathe is cooler the air we exhale • The cooler the air the more Calories we burn
19. 19. Consider Heat Released in Digestion • Proteins release about 30% of it’s kinetic energy as heat during digestion -- carbohydrates lose about 6% • While they both have 4 Calories per gram, carbohydrates have 24% more potential for metabolic energy than protein
20. 20. Appending the Energy Balance Formula • • • • C=S+K C = (f + t + w) + K K=h+m C = (f + t + w) + (h + m)
21. 21. Spelling it Out Calories in = Calories out = Calories consumed = stored energy + kinetic energy = (fat stores + other tissue stores + waste) + (heat energy + metabolic energy)
22. 22. Consider 30 grams of Table Sugar vs 30 grams of Insoluble Fiber • Both are pure carbohydrate – both contain 120 Calories • Different foods take different metabolic pathways
23. 23. 30 grams of Table Sugar • 6% is lost to heat energy in digestion; very little goes to waste; the rest of the Calories are absorbed quickly into the blood stream. • This leaves 94% of the Calories to be stored as fat, other tissue or used for metabolic energy
24. 24. 30 grams of Insoluble Fiber Our bodies do not have the enzymes to breakdown insoluble fiber. Nearly all will go to waist
25. 25. What is Our Caloric Need? Method used to estimate an individual's basal metabolic rate (BMR) and daily kilocalorie requirements. Men: BMR = 88.362 + (13.397 x weight in kg) + (4.799 x height in cm) - (5.677 x age in years) Women: BMR = 447.593 + (9.247 x weight in kg) + (3.098 x height in cm) - (4.330 x age in years) ** there are plenty of online BMR calculators that Google can help you find
26. 26. BMR = the SWAG method • SWAG : scientific wild backside guess • Too many other variables: How much sleep are you getting? What is your genetic predisposition? How much stress are you under? Are you fighting an infection? What is your overall physical condition? Are you in a growth sprit?
27. 27. True or False The body has an amazing ability to rev up or slow down its metabolism
28. 28. True • According to the BMR formula it is estimated that I need about 3800 Calories per day • If I cut my intake to 3000 Calories per day, who’s to say I will not begin to feel sluggish as my body slows its metabolic rate to match my Caloric intake?
29. 29. True or False There are 3500 calories in a pound of body fat
30. 30. True This is very measurable
31. 31. True or False A 3500 Calories surplus or deficit will lead to one pound gain or one pound loss of body fat
32. 32. False • Our amended energy balance equation demonstrates that burning or storing of body fat is NOT the only option for keeping energy in balance • It is difficult to measure calories in and impossible to actually measure Calories out. Animals don’t need to count calories to lose weight. Neither do we humans.
33. 33. Conclusion • There are too many variables in the energy balance equation for Calories to be effectively applied to weight loss or weight gain • The energy balance formula does not address causation or the overall health affects of our food choices
34. 34. Low Calorie Thinking is Dangerous and Ineffective • Food manufacturers make food low Calorie by making it low fat. In this way they get to a lower number by exchanging a 9 with a 4 • In doing this they cut cost and make a health claim taking out the healthy good fats and replace them with cheep bad carbs like high fructose corn syrup
35. 35. Low Calorie Thinking is Dangerous and Ineffective • Low Calorie thinking has us eating less real food, more processed foods, more wheat, and more lite beer. (less filling .. taste great) • Ironically, the medical community has come to understand that these foods are the very foods that are biochemically more likely to lead to fat storage, insulin resistance, lepton resistance, diabetes, heart disease and numerous other medical disorders.
36. 36. My Proclamations: • Biochemistry is too complex to be expressed in a simple number • Calorie thinking is too flawed to be included in any meaningful discussion about dieting. The focus needs to be based biochemistry not the same physics applied to internal combustion engines. -Calories don’t make us fat; hormones do.
37. 37. The Right Approach • With an open mind, throw out all preconceived notions about calories and saturated fat • Understand there are good carbs and bad carbs, good fats and bad fats, good proteins and bad proteins. Learn the differences and eliminate the bad • Include moderate exercise in your daily routine -- not to burn calories – rather, to improve your fat storing hormone health
38. 38. Resources for the Better Approach • www.eatingacademy.com • www.dietdoctor.com • www.authoritynutrition.com My blog page • www.fatandmclean.blogspot.com