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University of Minnesota

University of Minnesota
Fall 2006

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School & Society PowerPoint - Sep 26 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Historical Benchmarks in the Origins and Evolution of American Public Education Thomas J. Delaney, Ed.S., M.A. School and Society University of Minnesota September 26, 2006
  • 2. Historical Foundations of Education in the United States of America
    • Public and Free Education
    • Prohibition of Religious Establishment
    • Inclusive Education
    • Public Education Accountability
    • Standards-Based Curricula
    • Public Funding of Schools
    • Compulsory Attendance
  • 3. The Classical Foundations (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.)
    • A clear sense of essential values and virtues .
    • Educational needs vary by class .
    • Education by and in the community —following the child’s stages of development .
    • For leaders: the Liberal Arts - learning that frees the mind.
  • 4. The Classical Foundations - Virtue (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.)
    • Essential values and virtues ( Greek and Roman ).
      • Values—fame, honor, competition, wealth.
      • Virtues—courage, justice, strength, physical beauty.
      • Power of Reason—to know the good, true, and beautiful.
      • Power of Learning—overcome ignorance, know oneself.
    • The Christian revision in values and virtues.
      • Values—eternal life, community, conversion, poverty.
      • Virtues—faith, hope, love, joy, peace, mercy, generosity.
  • 5. The Classical Foundations - Classism (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.)
    • Educational needs vary by class :
      • Society sorted by inner characteristics.
        • Ability and interest.
      • Inner character corresponds to social classes:
        • Workers, farmers, craftsmen.
        • Guardians, administrators, soldiers.
        • Philosophers, rulers, royal house.
  • 6. The Classical Foundations - Developmentalism (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.)
    • Education by and in the community—following the child’s stages of development . Schema from Plato’s Republic :
      • Childhood to age 17-18 : preliminary education—through play and instruction in grammar, calculations, etc.
      • Up to age 20 : physical training
      • Ages 20-30 : unified vision —bringing together earlier studies
      • Ages 30-35 : dialectic —testing who can depart from the senses and turn to the good (reality).
      • Ages 35-50 : practical experience—war, public office.
      • Age 50 and beyond : rule the city, and lift the minds of others to the light and the good (philosophy).
  • 7. The Classical Foundations – Organization of Learning (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.)
    • Pythagoras:
      • Number is the fundamental property of the mind and the universe, giving symmetrical order to the universe and regularity to planetary motions.
    • Classical liberal arts curriculum:
      • Trivium (from Humanity)
        • grammar, rhetoric, dialectic (logic)
      • Quadrivium (from the Divine)
        • arithmetic (algebra) number at rest
        • geometry spatial relations at rest
        • music number in motion
        • astronomy spatial relations in motion
  • 8. Public and Free Education
    • Forebear : Plato (427-347 BCE)
    • Artifact : Republic (circa 380 BCE)
    • Principle : Schooling should serve the common good, and therefore should be the responsibility of the public.
    • Later Outcome : Land Ordinance of 1785
    • Controversy : Social Class - Inequalities and divisions within the public education system that allow certain segments of the public greater opportunity and resources than other segments.
  • 9. Medieval Developments (6th - 13th cent. C.E.)
    • Christians: Preservation (e.g. Plato, Plotinus) and destruction (e.g. Aristotle) of literary sources .
    • Dispersion of the Roman aristocracy.
    • Monasteries
      • Benedict of Nursia (d. 547), Rule of St. Benedict.
      • Synthesis of Eastern and Western monasticism.
      • Model for monastic development thereafter.
    • Monastery and Cathedral Schools
      • Rabanus Maurus (German, d. 856), Education of the Clergy.
      • Founded schools within monasteries .
      • Continuing the curriculum of the seven liberal arts .
  • 10. Medieval Developments (6th - 13th cent. C.E.)
    • Independent Universities
      • Peter Abelard (Parisian, d. 1142), Sic et Non.
        • Scholastic Method : examine conflicting texts and observations to determine the truth.
      • Thomas Aquinas (Parisian, d. 1274), Summa Theologica, Summa contra Gentiles, etc.
        • Employed Aristotle’s method of investigation with theological inquiry.
        • Two forms of education :
          • Educatio  virtue and character
          • Disciplina  formal instruction.
  • 11. The Renaissance and Classical Restoration (14th - 15th cent. C.E.)
    • Wealth not tied to the land (nor nobility, code of chivalry, and church).
      • Merchants, trade guilds, explorers, artists.
    • Interest in the humanist implications of Greek and Latin classics (newly available).
    • Education for women:
      • Christine de Pisan (French, d. 1425), A Medieval Woman’s Mirror of Honor.
      • Education in the practical virtues for women.
  • 12. The Renaissance and Classical Restoration (14th - 15th cent. C.E.)
    • Classical Schools
      • Vittorino da Feltre (Italian, d. 1446).
      • Combining Christian and classical education in the seven liberal arts .
      • Departing from recitation and scholasticism to encourage drafting of original compositions by students.
      • Following the child’s natural development , using incentives rather than punishment.
  • 13. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE)
    • Classical Schools (cont.)
      • Revolutions in Thought:
        • Scientific—solar system, geology, warfare.
        • Social—end of chivalry, English republic, rising middle class.
        • Religious—divided Christendom, bible reading widespread.
      • Classical Education:
        • Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch, d. 1536), Education of a Christian Prince.
        • Juan Luis Vives (Spanish, d. 1540), On the Instruction of a Christian Woman.
  • 14. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE)
    • Michel de Montaigne (French, d. 1592), Essays .
      • Rejected scholastic methods, focused on reading classics .
      • Advocating education for peace, civic duties, critical thinking.
      • Aiming to educate the whole person , not merely the mind.
    • John Amos Comenius (Moravian, d. 1670), Orbis sensualium pictus.
      • Instruction using pictures as well as texts.
      • Universal education for all—boys and girls—in joyful learning.
    • Francis Bacon (English, d. 1626), The Advancement of Learning .
      • Education built on observation of nature —challenging current beliefs.
  • 15. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE)
    • The Reformation
      • Martin Luther (German, d. 1546), An Appeal to the German Nobility.
        • Universal literacy for reading the bible
        • Vocational education for economic advancement and social peace.
          • (Note: Christian virtue in hard work and prosperity.)
        • Elementary schools in German, secondary schools using classical curriculum.
  • 16. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE)
    • The Reformation
      • Ignatius Loyola (Spanish, d. 1556), Spiritual Exercises .
        • Classical and humanistic education for the elite.
        • Detailed method for personal reform of life .
      • John Calvin (Swiss, d. 1564) Institutes of Christian Religion .
        • Education for righteous living— social reform .
  • 17. Prohibition of Religious Establishment
    • Forebear : Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) or Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    • Artifact : Education of a Christian Prince (1516) or Letter to the Councilmen of the Cities of Germany That They Establish and Maintain Christian Schools (1524)
    • Principle : Schooling should not serve the purpose of establishing a state religion or religious allegiance.
    • Later Outcome : Establishment clause of the United States Constitution.
    • Controversy : Religious establishment versus education in what are religious views of the world.
  • 18. Inclusive Education
    • Forebear : Bartolom é de Las Casas (1484-1566)
    • Artifact : De unico vocationis modo omnium gentium ad veram religionem (1537)
    • Principle : All members of a community are equally possessed of rights within that community.
    • Later Outcomes : The Civil Rights Act, Brown v. Board of Education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    • Controversy : Inclusion versus limitations on individual and community entitlement to support.
  • 19. Public Funding of Schools
    • Forebears : John Knox (1505-1572)
    • Artifact : Book of Discipline (1561)
    • Principle : For the sake of the common good, the public should fund education.
    • Later Outcomes : Land ordinance of 1785
    • Controversy : Determining appropriate levels of funding, and the extent to which funding is linked to educational results.
  • 20. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE)
    • Education is a local public responsibility , focused on the school—thus extending the European liberal arts curriculum.
    • Schools belong to the community —not to families.
      • Old Deluder Laws, 1642, 1647.
    • Schooling is decentralized—governed locally.
      • New England—Puritan, pervasive, intensive
      • Middle colonies—diverse, variable
      • Southern colonies—upper class only
  • 21. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE)
    • New England :
      • As little distance as possible between the individual and the bible ( Protestant ideals ).
      • John Cotton’s catechism—3,000,000 copies sold.
      • Cotton Mather—de-emphasize Greek and Latin classics, emphasize Christian morals and ideas .
      • New England Primer , 1727—much negative content, heavy moral emphasis —3,000,000 copies published.
  • 22. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE)
    • Middle Colonies
      • Ben Franklin’s Proposals Related to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania , 1749.
      • Private academies funded by fees and endowments .
      • Deist—divine laws known by reason , not revelation; imitate Jesus and Socrates.
      • Moralist—build individual character .
      • Empiricist —emphasizing observation, experimentation, applied research.
      • Utilitarian and practical—economic advancement.
      • Optimistic —progress in human character through education.
  • 23. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE)
    • Middle Colonies (cont.)
      • Thomas Jefferson, Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 1779.
        • Schools within walking distance .
        • Publicly funded for boys and girls for 3 years.
        • Examinations to determine best boys in each class for further publicly funded schooling—through 4 years of college.
        • School mission to build society .
  • 24. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE)
    • Southern Colonies
      • Organized around household as much as community.
      • Family funded as much as publicly funded.
      • Highly variable place to place.
      • Explicit exclusion of education for Black Americans.
  • 25. Compulsory Attendance
    • Forebears : Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786).
    • Artifact : Landschulreglement (1763)
    • Principle : Attendance of youth at schools is necessary for a good society and is therefore a matter of law.
    • Later Outcome : Massachusetts Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852
    • Controversy : Autonomy and the appropriate age through which to require attendance at school.
  • 26. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE)
    • Modern scientific worldview: Optimistic, endless discovery, mastery of nature.
    • Secular nation-state government: Democratic, monarchic, fascist, communist, totalitarian.
  • 27. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE)
    • Rational Education (not limited by religion)
      • John Locke (English, d. 1704), Some Thoughts Concerning Education.
        • Companionship, good habits , teacher as model of virtue .
        • Vernacular more important than Latin.
  • 28. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE)
    • Rational Education (cont.)
      • August Herman Francke (German, d. 1727).
        • Benevolent education—opened hundreds of schools for low and middle class children .
      • Claude Helvetius (French, d. 1771), On the Mind.
        • Schools administered by the state rather than the church.
        • Include children of all cultures.
        • Instituted standards for teachers .
  • 29. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE)
    • Natural Education
      • Jean Jacques Rousseau (Swiss, d. 1778), Emile.
        • Humans are naturally good but corrupted by society .
        • Education should follow the natural interests of the child .
        • Educator models curiosity, observation, virtue.
        • Natural sequence of learning : physical sensation during infancy, bodily coordination during boyhood, self-directed thinking during pre-adolescence, social learning during adolescence.
  • 30. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE)
    • Natural Education (cont.)
      • Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (Swiss, d. 1827), How Gertrude Teaches Her Children .
        • Established a school for poor children on his farm.
        • Education for whole child : vocational, moral, intellectual.
        • School should resemble family , teacher resemble parents.
        • “General Method”: Develop the innate goodness of children through love and security.
        • “Special Method”: group instruction and object learning to develop children’s innate powers to perceive, think, and create.
  • 31. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE)
    • Schooling is a national responsibility and must reflect the national character —thus it is universal , compulsory , and Protestant .
    • Schools are publicly funded .
      • Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787.
      • Morrill Act, 1862.
  • 32. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE)
    • Schools belong to the public —not to churches.
      • Disestablishment clause, 1st Amendment, 1791
    • Schools are engines of assimilation .
      • Horace Mann, Twelve Annual Reports, 1837-1848
      • Common Schools movement, 1840s
  • 33. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE)
    • Mrs. Howland, The Infant School Manual, 1830s
      • Emotional value of music—harmony, pleasure, character -building (reminiscent of Plato).
      • Conservative Protestant vs. Enlightenment/Jeffersonian.
  • 34. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE)
    • Horace Mann and the Common School
      • Bring order and reform to haphazard schools already established.
      • Promote accessibility for all to education.
      • Supported by taxation , not fees.
      • Controlled by government .
      • Non-denominational Protestant—using the King James Bible.
      • Curriculum for general knowledge —reading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, political education, music, drawing (utilitarian).
      • Curriculum for national character —support individual conscience, avoid political controversies, reduce crime.
  • 35. Public Education Accountability
    • Forebear : John Stuart Mill
    • Artifact : On Liberty
    • Principle : Quantitative measures of educational results that are publicly reported.
    • Later Outcome : Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1994)
    • Controversy : Sanctions versus support for schools not accomplishing “adequate yearly progress.”
  • 36. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Schooling is a national priority —thus it is expanding, variable, succeeding and failing, and contested.
    • Preserving national character —The Committee of Ten report, 1893
    • Serving child development —Progressive Educational Association, 1901
  • 37. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Four commitments of Progressive education:
      • Broaden the curriculum to include heath, vocation, family, and community life.
      • Derive pedagogy from scientific evidence on psychology and sociology.
  • 38. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Four commitments of Progressive education (cont.):
      • Tailor pedagogy to the child—learning styles, developmental stages.
      • Democratize schooling—equal education for all.
  • 39. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Francis W. Parker
      • Quincy system of child-centered education (1873).
    • James Huff Stout
      • “ Learning by Doing” center at Menomonie, Wisconsin (1889).
    • John Dewey
      • The Laboratory School at the University of Chicago (1896).
    • James Earl Russell
      • Teacher training at NY Teachers College (1897).
  • 40. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Charles Van Hise
      • Academic and practical higher education, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1904).
    • Marietta Johnson
      • Child-centered education guided by inner satisfaction, the Organic School in Fairhope, MS (1907).
    • William Wirt
      • The “platoon system” of classroom, auditorium, and tutorials in Gary, IN (1907).
  • 41. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Learner-Based Education
      • Sociological and psychological studies of learning.
      • Detailed observations of child behavior.
      • Lev Vygotsky (Russian, d.1934).
        • Mental development follows natural progression from thought to language to reasoning.
        • Teachers provide “scaffolding” to enable children to move to the next stage—their “ zone of proximal development .”
  • 42. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Learner-Based Education (cont.)
      • Maria Montessori (Italian, d. 1952), Spontaneous Activity in Education .
        • Developed methods based on observations of learning in schools for underprivileged and students with significant learning and cognitive difficulties .
        • Children select their own activities to develop skills and concentration, in a learning environment especially constructed to match their stage of development .
  • 43. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Learner-Based Education (cont.)
      • John Dewey (American, d. 1952), Democracy and Education.
        • School should be modeled on the community —no artificial divisions among disciplines, occupations, or age groups.
        • Students led by curiosity and inner purpose , in an environment intentionally structured to stimulate growth.
        • Teachers guide students by their interests to the riches of Western tradition , as called for by learning process.
        • Education as lever for social advancement—especially democracy .
  • 44. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Learner-Based Education (cont.)
      • Jean Piaget (French, d. 1980), The Moral Development of the Child .
        • Theory of psychological development of the child: stages of practice paralleled by stages of consciousness.
        • Interactive process of development with peers (vs. from authority).
  • 45. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present)
    • Serving democracy —Jane Addams, Democracy and Social Ethics, 1902; John Dewey, Democracy and Education, 1916.
    • Correcting (maintaining?) social inequities — Brown v. Board of Education, 1954; No Child Left Behind Act, 2001.
    • Schools are economic engines.
      • Building the national labor force—NEA Cardinal Principles, 1918
      • Mastering the global competition— A Nation at Risk , 1983; Goals 2000.
  • 46. U.S. Educational Standards
    • Forebears: National Commission on Excellence in Education (1981-1983)
    • Artifact: A Nation at Risk (1983)
    • Principle : Instruction should be aimed at student attainment of defined educational goals.
    • Later Outcome : Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1994)
    • Controversy : Cultural and political bias in definition of standards, pedagogical autonomy, and attainment by all students.
  • 47. Education = European Patriarchy?
    • Most of the “forebears” you have just seen are European males. Why? Is this a changing trend?
    • Possibilities:
      • Western history has tended to record the accomplishments of European males?
      • The American education system really is founded upon European patriarchy?
      • Female and non-European scholars also have had an influence and still offer a valuable and unique view?
  • 48. So, here we are…
    • In what historical and cultural tradition are you participating right now?
    • How did this happen?
      • Cultural History
      • Personal History
    • Why is this happening?
    • Ought this be happening?
    • How do you know?
  • 49. Consider for yourself…
    • Is teaching a form of history-making, or history-breaking?
    • Whose history is at stake?
    • When is there potential conflict in and between personal and collective histories?
    • How ought you respond to these historical conflicts?
  • 50. Conclusions
    • Teaching is a historical act.
    • The current state of education is the product of a long and often violent past , and the future is no less ominous.
    • Historical political upheavals are inevitably tied to positive, and negative, changes in educational systems.
    • Historical systems contain perpetuated societal priorities – e.g. commerce, technology, ideology – as well as allow systemic changes in education, for better or for worse.
  • 51. Acknowledgments
    • Bagley, A. (2006). The virtual museum of educational iconics. http://www.education.umn.edu/EdPA/iconics/Sponsor.html
    • Schweigert, F. (2006). Traditions of American education. School and Society lecture, University of Minnesota, July 11, 2006.
    • Schweigert, F. (2006). The Western European heritage of education and schooling. School and Society lecture, July 13, 2006.