School & Society PowerPoint - Sep 26

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University of Minnesota
Fall 2006

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School & Society PowerPoint - Sep 26

  1. 1. Historical Benchmarks in the Origins and Evolution of American Public Education Thomas J. Delaney, Ed.S., M.A. School and Society University of Minnesota September 26, 2006
  2. 2. Historical Foundations of Education in the United States of America <ul><li>Public and Free Education </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition of Religious Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive Education </li></ul><ul><li>Public Education Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-Based Curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Public Funding of Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Attendance </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Classical Foundations (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>A clear sense of essential values and virtues . </li></ul><ul><li>Educational needs vary by class . </li></ul><ul><li>Education by and in the community —following the child’s stages of development . </li></ul><ul><li>For leaders: the Liberal Arts - learning that frees the mind. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Classical Foundations - Virtue (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Essential values and virtues ( Greek and Roman ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values—fame, honor, competition, wealth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues—courage, justice, strength, physical beauty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of Reason—to know the good, true, and beautiful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of Learning—overcome ignorance, know oneself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Christian revision in values and virtues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values—eternal life, community, conversion, poverty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues—faith, hope, love, joy, peace, mercy, generosity. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Classical Foundations - Classism (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Educational needs vary by class : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society sorted by inner characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability and interest. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner character corresponds to social classes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers, farmers, craftsmen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guardians, administrators, soldiers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophers, rulers, royal house. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Classical Foundations - Developmentalism (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Education by and in the community—following the child’s stages of development . Schema from Plato’s Republic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood to age 17-18 : preliminary education—through play and instruction in grammar, calculations, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to age 20 : physical training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 20-30 : unified vision —bringing together earlier studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 30-35 : dialectic —testing who can depart from the senses and turn to the good (reality). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 35-50 : practical experience—war, public office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 50 and beyond : rule the city, and lift the minds of others to the light and the good (philosophy). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Classical Foundations – Organization of Learning (4th cent. B.C.E. – 5th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Pythagoras: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number is the fundamental property of the mind and the universe, giving symmetrical order to the universe and regularity to planetary motions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical liberal arts curriculum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trivium (from Humanity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grammar, rhetoric, dialectic (logic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrivium (from the Divine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arithmetic (algebra) number at rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geometry spatial relations at rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>music number in motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>astronomy spatial relations in motion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Public and Free Education <ul><li>Forebear : Plato (427-347 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : Republic (circa 380 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : Schooling should serve the common good, and therefore should be the responsibility of the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcome : Land Ordinance of 1785 </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Social Class - Inequalities and divisions within the public education system that allow certain segments of the public greater opportunity and resources than other segments. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Medieval Developments (6th - 13th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Christians: Preservation (e.g. Plato, Plotinus) and destruction (e.g. Aristotle) of literary sources . </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersion of the Roman aristocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benedict of Nursia (d. 547), Rule of St. Benedict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of Eastern and Western monasticism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model for monastic development thereafter. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monastery and Cathedral Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabanus Maurus (German, d. 856), Education of the Clergy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded schools within monasteries . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing the curriculum of the seven liberal arts . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Medieval Developments (6th - 13th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Independent Universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard (Parisian, d. 1142), Sic et Non. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scholastic Method : examine conflicting texts and observations to determine the truth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas (Parisian, d. 1274), Summa Theologica, Summa contra Gentiles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employed Aristotle’s method of investigation with theological inquiry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two forms of education : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educatio  virtue and character </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplina  formal instruction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Renaissance and Classical Restoration (14th - 15th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Wealth not tied to the land (nor nobility, code of chivalry, and church). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, trade guilds, explorers, artists. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest in the humanist implications of Greek and Latin classics (newly available). </li></ul><ul><li>Education for women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christine de Pisan (French, d. 1425), A Medieval Woman’s Mirror of Honor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education in the practical virtues for women. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Renaissance and Classical Restoration (14th - 15th cent. C.E.) <ul><li>Classical Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vittorino da Feltre (Italian, d. 1446). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining Christian and classical education in the seven liberal arts . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departing from recitation and scholasticism to encourage drafting of original compositions by students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the child’s natural development , using incentives rather than punishment. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE) <ul><li>Classical Schools (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutions in Thought: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific—solar system, geology, warfare. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social—end of chivalry, English republic, rising middle class. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious—divided Christendom, bible reading widespread. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Education: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desiderius Erasmus (Dutch, d. 1536), Education of a Christian Prince. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juan Luis Vives (Spanish, d. 1540), On the Instruction of a Christian Woman. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE) <ul><li>Michel de Montaigne (French, d. 1592), Essays . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected scholastic methods, focused on reading classics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocating education for peace, civic duties, critical thinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aiming to educate the whole person , not merely the mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Amos Comenius (Moravian, d. 1670), Orbis sensualium pictus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction using pictures as well as texts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal education for all—boys and girls—in joyful learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon (English, d. 1626), The Advancement of Learning . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education built on observation of nature —challenging current beliefs. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE) <ul><li>The Reformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther (German, d. 1546), An Appeal to the German Nobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal literacy for reading the bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational education for economic advancement and social peace. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Note: Christian virtue in hard work and prosperity.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary schools in German, secondary schools using classical curriculum. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Discovery and Reformation (16th - 17th cent. CE) <ul><li>The Reformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignatius Loyola (Spanish, d. 1556), Spiritual Exercises . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical and humanistic education for the elite. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed method for personal reform of life . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Calvin (Swiss, d. 1564) Institutes of Christian Religion . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education for righteous living— social reform . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Prohibition of Religious Establishment <ul><li>Forebear : Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) or Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : Education of a Christian Prince (1516) or Letter to the Councilmen of the Cities of Germany That They Establish and Maintain Christian Schools (1524) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : Schooling should not serve the purpose of establishing a state religion or religious allegiance. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcome : Establishment clause of the United States Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Religious establishment versus education in what are religious views of the world. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Inclusive Education <ul><li>Forebear : Bartolom é de Las Casas (1484-1566) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : De unico vocationis modo omnium gentium ad veram religionem (1537) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : All members of a community are equally possessed of rights within that community. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcomes : The Civil Rights Act, Brown v. Board of Education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Inclusion versus limitations on individual and community entitlement to support. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Public Funding of Schools <ul><li>Forebears : John Knox (1505-1572) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : Book of Discipline (1561) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : For the sake of the common good, the public should fund education. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcomes : Land ordinance of 1785 </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Determining appropriate levels of funding, and the extent to which funding is linked to educational results. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE) <ul><li>Education is a local public responsibility , focused on the school—thus extending the European liberal arts curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools belong to the community —not to families. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Deluder Laws, 1642, 1647. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schooling is decentralized—governed locally. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New England—Puritan, pervasive, intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle colonies—diverse, variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern colonies—upper class only </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE) <ul><li>New England : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As little distance as possible between the individual and the bible ( Protestant ideals ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Cotton’s catechism—3,000,000 copies sold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton Mather—de-emphasize Greek and Latin classics, emphasize Christian morals and ideas . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New England Primer , 1727—much negative content, heavy moral emphasis —3,000,000 copies published. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE) <ul><li>Middle Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin’s Proposals Related to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania , 1749. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private academies funded by fees and endowments . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deist—divine laws known by reason , not revelation; imitate Jesus and Socrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moralist—build individual character . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricist —emphasizing observation, experimentation, applied research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarian and practical—economic advancement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimistic —progress in human character through education. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE) <ul><li>Middle Colonies (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson, Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, 1779. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools within walking distance . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly funded for boys and girls for 3 years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examinations to determine best boys in each class for further publicly funded schooling—through 4 years of college. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School mission to build society . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The American Colonial Experience (1607-1783 CE) <ul><li>Southern Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized around household as much as community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family funded as much as publicly funded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable place to place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit exclusion of education for Black Americans. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Compulsory Attendance <ul><li>Forebears : Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786). </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : Landschulreglement (1763) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : Attendance of youth at schools is necessary for a good society and is therefore a matter of law. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcome : Massachusetts Compulsory Attendance Act of 1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Autonomy and the appropriate age through which to require attendance at school. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE) <ul><li>Modern scientific worldview: Optimistic, endless discovery, mastery of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Secular nation-state government: Democratic, monarchic, fascist, communist, totalitarian. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE) <ul><li>Rational Education (not limited by religion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke (English, d. 1704), Some Thoughts Concerning Education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companionship, good habits , teacher as model of virtue . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular more important than Latin. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE) <ul><li>Rational Education (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August Herman Francke (German, d. 1727). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benevolent education—opened hundreds of schools for low and middle class children . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claude Helvetius (French, d. 1771), On the Mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools administered by the state rather than the church. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include children of all cultures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instituted standards for teachers . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE) <ul><li>Natural Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau (Swiss, d. 1778), Emile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are naturally good but corrupted by society . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education should follow the natural interests of the child . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educator models curiosity, observation, virtue. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural sequence of learning : physical sensation during infancy, bodily coordination during boyhood, self-directed thinking during pre-adolescence, social learning during adolescence. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Enlightenment (18th - 20th cent. CE) <ul><li>Natural Education (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (Swiss, d. 1827), How Gertrude Teaches Her Children . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established a school for poor children on his farm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education for whole child : vocational, moral, intellectual. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School should resemble family , teacher resemble parents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“General Method”: Develop the innate goodness of children through love and security. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Special Method”: group instruction and object learning to develop children’s innate powers to perceive, think, and create. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE) <ul><li>Schooling is a national responsibility and must reflect the national character —thus it is universal , compulsory , and Protestant . </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are publicly funded . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest Ordinances of 1785 and 1787. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrill Act, 1862. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE) <ul><li>Schools belong to the public —not to churches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disestablishment clause, 1st Amendment, 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools are engines of assimilation . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horace Mann, Twelve Annual Reports, 1837-1848 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Schools movement, 1840s </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE) <ul><li>Mrs. Howland, The Infant School Manual, 1830s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional value of music—harmony, pleasure, character -building (reminiscent of Plato). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative Protestant vs. Enlightenment/Jeffersonian. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The National Experience (1783-1876 CE) <ul><li>Horace Mann and the Common School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring order and reform to haphazard schools already established. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote accessibility for all to education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by taxation , not fees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by government . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-denominational Protestant—using the King James Bible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum for general knowledge —reading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, political education, music, drawing (utilitarian). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum for national character —support individual conscience, avoid political controversies, reduce crime. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Public Education Accountability <ul><li>Forebear : John Stuart Mill </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact : On Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : Quantitative measures of educational results that are publicly reported. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcome : Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Sanctions versus support for schools not accomplishing “adequate yearly progress.” </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Schooling is a national priority —thus it is expanding, variable, succeeding and failing, and contested. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving national character —The Committee of Ten report, 1893 </li></ul><ul><li>Serving child development —Progressive Educational Association, 1901 </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Four commitments of Progressive education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden the curriculum to include heath, vocation, family, and community life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive pedagogy from scientific evidence on psychology and sociology. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Four commitments of Progressive education (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor pedagogy to the child—learning styles, developmental stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratize schooling—equal education for all. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Francis W. Parker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quincy system of child-centered education (1873). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James Huff Stout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Learning by Doing” center at Menomonie, Wisconsin (1889). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Laboratory School at the University of Chicago (1896). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James Earl Russell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher training at NY Teachers College (1897). </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Charles Van Hise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and practical higher education, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1904). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marietta Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child-centered education guided by inner satisfaction, the Organic School in Fairhope, MS (1907). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Wirt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “platoon system” of classroom, auditorium, and tutorials in Gary, IN (1907). </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Learner-Based Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociological and psychological studies of learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed observations of child behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky (Russian, d.1934). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental development follows natural progression from thought to language to reasoning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers provide “scaffolding” to enable children to move to the next stage—their “ zone of proximal development .” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Learner-Based Education (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Montessori (Italian, d. 1952), Spontaneous Activity in Education . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed methods based on observations of learning in schools for underprivileged and students with significant learning and cognitive difficulties . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children select their own activities to develop skills and concentration, in a learning environment especially constructed to match their stage of development . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Learner-Based Education (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Dewey (American, d. 1952), Democracy and Education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School should be modeled on the community —no artificial divisions among disciplines, occupations, or age groups. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students led by curiosity and inner purpose , in an environment intentionally structured to stimulate growth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers guide students by their interests to the riches of Western tradition , as called for by learning process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education as lever for social advancement—especially democracy . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Learner-Based Education (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget (French, d. 1980), The Moral Development of the Child . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of psychological development of the child: stages of practice paralleled by stages of consciousness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive process of development with peers (vs. from authority). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. The Metropolitan Experience (1876 - Present) <ul><li>Serving democracy —Jane Addams, Democracy and Social Ethics, 1902; John Dewey, Democracy and Education, 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting (maintaining?) social inequities — Brown v. Board of Education, 1954; No Child Left Behind Act, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are economic engines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building the national labor force—NEA Cardinal Principles, 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering the global competition— A Nation at Risk , 1983; Goals 2000. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. U.S. Educational Standards <ul><li>Forebears: National Commission on Excellence in Education (1981-1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact: A Nation at Risk (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : Instruction should be aimed at student attainment of defined educational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Outcome : Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : Cultural and political bias in definition of standards, pedagogical autonomy, and attainment by all students. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Education = European Patriarchy? <ul><li>Most of the “forebears” you have just seen are European males. Why? Is this a changing trend? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western history has tended to record the accomplishments of European males? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American education system really is founded upon European patriarchy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female and non-European scholars also have had an influence and still offer a valuable and unique view? </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. So, here we are… <ul><li>In what historical and cultural tradition are you participating right now? </li></ul><ul><li>How did this happen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal History </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is this happening? </li></ul><ul><li>Ought this be happening? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Consider for yourself… <ul><li>Is teaching a form of history-making, or history-breaking? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose history is at stake? </li></ul><ul><li>When is there potential conflict in and between personal and collective histories? </li></ul><ul><li>How ought you respond to these historical conflicts? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Conclusions <ul><li>Teaching is a historical act. </li></ul><ul><li>The current state of education is the product of a long and often violent past , and the future is no less ominous. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical political upheavals are inevitably tied to positive, and negative, changes in educational systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Historical systems contain perpetuated societal priorities – e.g. commerce, technology, ideology – as well as allow systemic changes in education, for better or for worse. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Bagley, A. (2006). The virtual museum of educational iconics. http://www.education.umn.edu/EdPA/iconics/Sponsor.html </li></ul><ul><li>Schweigert, F. (2006). Traditions of American education. School and Society lecture, University of Minnesota, July 11, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Schweigert, F. (2006). The Western European heritage of education and schooling. School and Society lecture, July 13, 2006. </li></ul>

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