School & Society PowerPoint - Nov 14


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University of Minnesota
Fall 2006

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School & Society PowerPoint - Nov 14

  1. 1. International Development Education: A Case Study of School and Society Christopher Johnstone University of Minnesota and Augsburg College ( [email_address] )
  2. 3. Who Belongs in Schools? <ul><li>Historically, societies have rejected (or not made available) schooling options for particular populations </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the United Nations and other global organizations have discussed the “Right” to education </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, education systems are encouraged to be “inclusive” </li></ul>
  3. 4. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Do you know (or have you heard of) a society that limits the rights to people’s education? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that people should have the right to education? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there people who should not have the right to education? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Background <ul><li>Educational rights discussions have become a worldwide focus for the following groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who work for their families or in industry </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Global Proclamations <ul><li>Multi-national agreements sponsored by United Nations agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Member nation “commit” to implementing agreement </li></ul><ul><li>No “teeth” (i.e., if member nations do not implement, there are no consequences) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Declaration of Human Rights <ul><li>Adopted in post-WWII climate </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the “right to education” </li></ul><ul><li>Education is a tool that can be employed to enhance national economic development and to create an active and participative citizenry. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Education for All (1990, 2000) <ul><li>Dedicated to removing educational barriers for traditionally underserved groups such as: the poor; children with disabilities; street and working children; rural and remote populations; nomads and migrant workers; indigenous peoples; ethnic, racial, and linguistic minorities; refugees; and people displaced by war. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Caveats to EFA <ul><li>No power of law </li></ul><ul><li>Nations may implement “within the constraints of resource availability” </li></ul>
  9. 10. Discussion Question <ul><li>What are some issues that may prohibit “Education for All” for happening in different societies? </li></ul><ul><li>Can these issues be ameliorated? If so, how? </li></ul>
  10. 11. My work <ul><li>Inclusive education policy implementation in Lesotho (as U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer) </li></ul><ul><li>A result of Lesotho’s King Moshoeshoe’s Hlokomela Bana focus on children with disabilities </li></ul>
  11. 14. “ School and Society” for Lesotho <ul><li>2 systems of education (traditional model and formal model) </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusive education applied to formal schooling, focused on primary schools </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Why do you think primary schools were the focus? </li></ul>
  12. 15. Why was inclusive education for students with disabilities attractive? <ul><li>Lack of infrastructure for special schools </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of resources for new special schools (inclusion was cheaper) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family traditions </li></ul>
  13. 16. Challenges to Inclusive Policy <ul><li>Traditional beliefs about disability (contagion, laziness, curse) </li></ul><ul><li>High pupil to teacher ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of specialized equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of specialized personnel (met through providing all teachers with training) </li></ul>
  14. 17. Societal Assets that Support Inclusive Education <ul><li>Collectivist culture </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-Africanism and Post-apartheid optimism </li></ul><ul><li>86% of primary teachers female (nurturers) </li></ul><ul><li>Free Primary Education (as of 2000) </li></ul>
  15. 19. My Challenges <ul><li>Translating technical knowledge to new environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social meaning of disability is culturally bound </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of resources </li></ul>
  16. 20. Meeting Challenges <ul><li>Understanding history </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding language (subtle terms) </li></ul><ul><li>Amateur anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Translating terms </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>Lesotho: “I try to have the children work on the same concepts, but I make the work easier for some children” – </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.: “Differentiated instruction” </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Lesotho: “I work with the children by themselves or in small groups to help them catch the others” </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.: “Remediation” </li></ul>
  19. 23. School, Society, and International Education <ul><li>Who is expected to attend school is culturally mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to how to school children are locally decided upon </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange can help facilitate idea sharing and new understanding, if done carefully </li></ul>
  20. 24. Interactive Activity <ul><li>I will ask a series of questions. Write these down on a sheet of paper, then share answers with a group of your colleagues </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Think of an educational innovation that might improve schooling rights for a population in a society. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to answer why you think this innovation would improve educational rights. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>What are the characteristics in this society that may create problems for implementing this innovation? </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>What are the characteristics of this society that would support this innovation? </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>If you had a voice, how would you suggest implementing this innovation? (Think about what might best work in the context of this society). </li></ul>