Composing a Mental Outline
“Establishing clear relationships among your ideas”
Objectives
• To organize your thoughts into a logical
sequence that leads the audience to a clearly
defined goal.
• To bui...
Speaking outline
• speaking outline— the most widely
recommended form of notes for extemporaneous
speeches.
What to talk about? “TOPIC”
Choose a TOPIC “Subject of interest”
Narrow down the topic
Example: SPORTS (general topic)  C...
Brainstorming for a topic
• Personal Inventory
-First, make a quick inventory of your experiences,
interests, hobbies, ski...
Brainstorming for a topic
• Clustering
People
Barrack Obama
Mitt Romney
John McCain
Gloria Macapagal-
Arroyo
Hillary Clint...
Brainstorming for a topic
• Free-associate
Television
Movies
Academy Awards
Prizes
Lotteries
Gambling
Campus Crime
Police
...
Determining the general purpose
• Along with choosing a topic, you need to determine the
general purpose of your speech. I...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Write the Purpose Statement as a Full Infinitive
Phrase , Not as a Fra...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Express your Purpose as a Statement, Not as a
Question.
Ineffective: W...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Avoid Figurative Language in your Purpose Statement.
Ineffective: To p...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Limit Your Purpose Statement into One Distinct Idea
Ineffective: To pe...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Limit Your Purpose Statement into One Distinct Idea
Does this mean you...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or
broad.
Ineffective...
Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement
Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or
broad.
Example: To...
What is the Central Idea?
• The specific purpose of a speech is what you hope
to accomplish. The central idea is a concise...
What is the Central Idea?
• Another way to think of the central idea is as your
residual message- what you want your audie...
What is the Central Idea?
• Example:
Topic: Dia de los Muertos
General purpose: To inform.
Specific purpose: To inform my ...
Central Idea
• We can assume from the central idea that the body
of the speech shall contain three main points: (1)-
on th...
Develop an OUTLINE
• Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about some of the
major uses of hypnosis.
• Central Idea: Thr...
INTRODUCTION
The opening of your speech is designed to catch
immediate attention. It must arouse the audience’s
interest i...
BODY
•The body of your speech contains the facts. The
amount of information you include in the body of
your speech will be...
TIPS for preparing your main points
Keep Main Points Separate. Each main point in a speech
should be clearly independent o...
TIPS for preparing your main points
Use the same pattern of wording for main points.
Ineffective
I.Regular exercise increa...
CONCLUSION
The audience always remembers best what it hears
last. This means closing must be memorable. It
should reinforc...
ACTIVITY
• Choose a topic of your interest. Write your own
speech outline, including the central idea,
specific purpose an...
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Composing a mental outline

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Composing a mental outline

  1. 1. Composing a Mental Outline “Establishing clear relationships among your ideas”
  2. 2. Objectives • To organize your thoughts into a logical sequence that leads the audience to a clearly defined goal. • To build a speech outline that includes an opening, body and conclusion.
  3. 3. Speaking outline • speaking outline— the most widely recommended form of notes for extemporaneous speeches.
  4. 4. What to talk about? “TOPIC” Choose a TOPIC “Subject of interest” Narrow down the topic Example: SPORTS (general topic)  Children’s Sport (narrowed topic)  Children’s Soccer (Specific topic). PURPOSE of the speech
  5. 5. Brainstorming for a topic • Personal Inventory -First, make a quick inventory of your experiences, interests, hobbies, skills, beliefs, and so forth. Write down anything that comes to mind. From this list may come a general subject area out of which you can fashion a specific topic. Examples: The history of facebook Aromatherapy Native Americans Robotics Zamboanga City Judaism
  6. 6. Brainstorming for a topic • Clustering People Barrack Obama Mitt Romney John McCain Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo Hillary Clinton Places Iraq The moon Zamboanga City Grand Canyon Paris America Things Projector Laptop Scissors Robots Events Philippine Independence September 11 Attack Birthday
  7. 7. Brainstorming for a topic • Free-associate Television Movies Academy Awards Prizes Lotteries Gambling Campus Crime Police Fingerprints Hands Gloves Murder Lighting Thunder Noise Traffic Air pollution NASA Example: “Gambling Addiction: Why can’t you beat the odds?”
  8. 8. Determining the general purpose • Along with choosing a topic, you need to determine the general purpose of your speech. It usually will fall under one of two categories- to inform or to persuade. • To Inform- Your aim is to enhance the knowledge and understanding of your listeners – to give them information they did not know before. • To persuade- You want to change or structure the attitudes or actions of your audience. In doing so, you cannot help but give information; but your primary goal is to win over your listeners to your point of view.
  9. 9. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Write the Purpose Statement as a Full Infinitive Phrase , Not as a Fragment. Ineffective: Calendars More Effective: To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today. The ineffective statement is adequate as an announcement of the speech topic, but it is not thought out fully enough to indicate the specific purpose.
  10. 10. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Express your Purpose as a Statement, Not as a Question. Ineffective: What is Dia de los muertos? More Effective: To inform my audience about the history of Mexico’s Dia de los Muertos celebration. The question might arouse the curiosity of an audience, but it is not effective as a specific purpose statement. It gives no indication about what the direction of the speech will take or what the speaker hopes to accomplish.
  11. 11. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Avoid Figurative Language in your Purpose Statement. Ineffective: To persuade my audience that the campus policy on student parking really stinks. More Effective: To persuade my audience that the campus policy on student parking should be revise to provide more spaces for students before 5 p.m. The question might arouse the curiosity of an audience, but it is not effective as a specific purpose statement. It gives no indication about what the direction of the speech will take or what the speaker hopes to accomplish.
  12. 12. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Limit Your Purpose Statement into One Distinct Idea Ineffective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to the Special Olympics. This purpose statement expresses two distinct idea, either of which could be the subject of a speech. The easiest remedy is to select one or the other as a focus of your presentation.
  13. 13. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Limit Your Purpose Statement into One Distinct Idea Does this mean you can never use the word “and” in your specific statement? Not at all. Suppose your specific purpose is “To inform my audience about the causes and effects of epilepsy.” In this case, the use of “and” is necessary because it connects two related parts of a unified topic.
  14. 14. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or broad. Ineffective: To persuade my audience that something must be done about medical care. Effective: To persuade my audience that the Philippine government should change the existing insurance law of the country. It is too broad or ill-defined. It gives no clue about what the speaker believes should be done about medical care.
  15. 15. Tips for formulating the Specific Purpose Statement Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or broad. Example: To inform my audience about hot-air balloons. Is the purpose statement acceptable? No. What about hot-air balloons? The speaker should narrow down the topic- ex: uses of hot- air balloons, or history.
  16. 16. What is the Central Idea? • The specific purpose of a speech is what you hope to accomplish. The central idea is a concise statement of what you expect to say. Sometimes, it is called the thesis statement, the subject sentence, , or the major thought. • The central idea is usually expressed as a simple, declarative sentence. That refines or sharpens the specific purpose statement.
  17. 17. What is the Central Idea? • Another way to think of the central idea is as your residual message- what you want your audience to remember after have forgotten everything else in the speech. • Most of the time, the central idea will encapsulate the main points to be developed in the body of your speech.
  18. 18. What is the Central Idea? • Example: Topic: Dia de los Muertos General purpose: To inform. Specific purpose: To inform my audience about the history of Mexico’s Dia de los Muertos celebration. Central idea: Dia de los Muertos can be traced to the Aztecs, was moved from summer to fall by Spanish priests., and today is celebrated in different regions of Mexico.
  19. 19. Central Idea • We can assume from the central idea that the body of the speech shall contain three main points: (1)- on the Aztec origins of the celebration (2)- on how it was changed by the Spanish, (3)- on the ways it is celebrated today in the different regions of Mexico. • The central idea reveals about the content of the speech than does the specific purpose.
  20. 20. Develop an OUTLINE • Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about some of the major uses of hypnosis. • Central Idea: Three major uses of hypnosis today are to control pain in surgery, to help people stop smoking, and to help students improve their academic performance. Main Points: I. Hypnosis is used in surgery as an adjunct to chemical anesthesia. II. Hypnosis is used to help people stop smoking. III. Hypnosis is used to help students improve their academic performance.
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION The opening of your speech is designed to catch immediate attention. It must arouse the audience’s interest in your topic. It also must lead into the speech subject of your speech and the main point you are making. Example of a good opening are: •A startling question or a challenging statement •An appropriate quotation, illustration, or story •A display of some appropriate object or picture •An attention-getting generalization that ties in with your subject
  22. 22. BODY •The body of your speech contains the facts. The amount of information you include in the body of your speech will be limited by the amount of time available to you and how much your audience can remember. •Most listeners will remember only three to five main facts or ideas.
  23. 23. TIPS for preparing your main points Keep Main Points Separate. Each main point in a speech should be clearly independent of the others. Compare these two sets of main points for a speech about the process of producing a Broadway play: 1. The first step is choosing a play. 2. The second step is selecting the cast. 3. The third step is conducting rehearsals then performing the play.. 3. The first step is conducting rehearsals. 4. The fourth step is performing the play
  24. 24. TIPS for preparing your main points Use the same pattern of wording for main points. Ineffective I.Regular exercise increases your endurance II.Your sleeping pattern is improved by regular exercise III.It is possible to help control your weight by regular exercise Effective I.Regular exercise increases your endurance II.Regular exercise improves your sleeping pattern III.Regular exercise helps control your weight
  25. 25. CONCLUSION The audience always remembers best what it hears last. This means closing must be memorable. It should reinforce your ideas and leave your listeners with a lasting impression. If your mission was to inform your listeners, you may want to conclude simply with a summary of the ideas presented in the body of the speech. If your purpose was to persuade or motivate the audience to take some action, you may want to suggest a course of action listeners could take.
  26. 26. ACTIVITY • Choose a topic of your interest. Write your own speech outline, including the central idea, specific purpose and with at least three main points.

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