Mc Kirkley Oral Defense 11122009 V2
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Mc Kirkley Oral Defense 11122009 V2

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Dissertation Defense Presentation

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  • Organizations are exploring varying degrees of telework in response to turbulent and unpredictable changes in technology and global competition (Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Lim & Teo, 2002). Technological advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) since the 1990s (Harpaz, 2002; Staples, 2001) and additional tragic events, for example, the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, led to an emphasis on deconcentrating or redistributing American corporate assets into a more flexible, survivable structure. Once an Organization institutes virtual processes, procedures, and working arrangements, leadership and management practices must also change (Malhotra, Majchrzak, & Rosen, 2007). Overcoming traditional face-to-face managerial practices is a difficult lesson to learn (Fisher & Fisher, 2001) Managerial attitudes toward telework and managers’ self-confidence in virtual management skills remain crucial components for the enhancement of virtual collaboration among teleworkers (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). As traditional organizational structures, processes, and employment practices change to accommodate the new virtual working phenomenon, traditional managers must also adapt their skills to become virtual managers (Frank & Taylor, 2004).
  • Data collected by the Dieringer Research Group (Scharff, 2005; “World at Work,” 2007) and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (USDL, 2004) indicated a 2% increase in total telework performed by the nonagricultural workforce in virtual organizational environments, from 18% in 2005 to 20% in 2006. The issue expands exponentially with the manager-to-staff ratio at 1:4 in a traditional organization and estimated at 1:40 within virtual organizations (“Telework Facts,” n.d.). The steady growth of the use of telework has not translated to an overwhelming managerial endorsement for these working arrangements (Frank & Taylor, 2004). Addressing how traditional managers face challenges in managing virtual organizational structures and adapt current leadership skills towards the management of virtual employees is a gap and limitation in the existing literature (Scharff, 2005). The attitudes and confidence of managers in telework and virtual management skills are crucial components for increasing virtual organizational collaboration among leadership teams across the organization (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Remote management training and the willingness of organizational leaders to undergo virtual management training may increase the acceptance of telework and the continued growth of the virtual organization (Fenson & Hill; 2003, Froggatt, 2000; Rosen, Furst, & Blackburn, 2006).
  • The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to ascertain the attitudes, perceptions, and lived experiences of frontline managers’ adaptation of traditional managerial techniques to telework and virtual organizational environments during the turbulent technological changes of the early 21st century. The purposive sampling method for this study included 14 frontline managers from telecommunications and information technology organizations located in Dallas, Texas, who met certain criteria for inclusion in this study. Each participant was required to meet specific criteria for participation A qualitative research approach was appropriate for the study because data collection relied on the views of participants; allowed broad, general questions to be asked; and collected data consisting largely of words or text from participants. The phenomenological design was appropriate for the study due to the limited sample of experienced virtual managers in providing a comprehensive understanding of the complex issues of managing teleworkers in a virtual organizational environment and overall virtual management practices (Creswell, 2007; Moustakas, 1994).
  • Few studies based in the United States have investigated the nature of the impact disruptive technological advances have on traditional managers’ abilities to lead in an environment where advanced software applications and technical infrastructures increase virtual collaboration between employees (Malhotra et al., 2007; Stevenson & McGrath, 2004). Managerial attitudes toward virtual work arrangements and managerial ability to overcome the lack of face-to-face management techniques should be studied (Dewar, 2006; Elmore, 2006). Little research was evident on the subject of managers’ abilities to adapt their current skill sets to lead and manage telework within virtual organizational environments (Malhotra et al., 2007; Stevenson & McGrath, 2004). Frontline managers are left to adapt to the changes with little to no formalized training or guidance concerning which new skills, capabilities, and processes might ease their transition to the virtual environment (Dimitrova, 2003, Froggatt, 2000; Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002). Studies fall short of providing tangible and pragmatic lessons in transitioning traditional face-to-face management procedures to virtual management processes.
  • The central question incorporates the impact of disruptive technology on management skills. The key issue is how do traditional managers adapt to these changes. Subquestions further explored specific elements and contexts associated with the phenomenon or sought foundations for procedural requirements within the phenomenon (Creswell, 2007; Moustakas, 1994). Each subquestion adds an additional dimension to the primary research question and further limits the overall scope of the inquiry.
  • The phenomenological research design was appropriate for the study because the literature contained gaps concerning traditional managerial adaptation to virtual organizational innovation, processes, and procedures. Phenomenology refers to a person’s perception of the meaning of an event and not to the temporal or physical presence of that event (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). Of the two phenomenological research methods (Hermeneutical and Emperical-Transcendetal) the transcendental method was selected because of its adherence to a structured analysis (Creswell, 2007; Moustakas, 1994). The objective of this study was to ascertain a composite description of the phenomenon. The Transcendental Phenomenological research method encompassed four distinct phases to achieve this end. The additional structure incorporated in the participant selection criteria and the structured interview protocol ensure the unbiased collection of qualitative data from the 14 participating managers.
  • Foundational studies included: U.S. Government internet sites (USDL, 2004), the Telework Coalition (TelCoa, 2006), the Dieringer Research Group (“World at Work,” 2007).
  • The general population included 456,700 professionals from the Telecom Corridor of the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area (Silicon Prairie, n.d.; Telecom Corridor, n.d.). Purposive Sampling was used to solicit 14 volunteers from the membership of the AITP-Dallas Chapter. A pilot of the structured interview instrument was completed and the interview questions were reduced from 18 to 14 questions. The complete instrument included the informed consent documentation, survey of demographic data, a procedure to execute the structured interview protocol, and the structured interview protocol. A written response option was included in the structured interview protocol process. The Nvivo 7 data analysis software enabled the bracketing of the key concepts, the development of subthemes, and the establishment of textural descriptions (Creswell, 2007; Moustakas, 1994).
  • Participants’ ages were distributed between the ages of 31 to 40, 41 to 50, and 51 to 50. Fifty percent of all participants were from the age group 41 to 50. Eight of 14 participants (57%) had Bachelor’s of Science degrees while 6 out of 14 (43%) had a Master’s of Science or Master’s of Business Administration degrees. The vast majority (86%) of all participants were male. Nine participants (64%) were Caucasian, and five participants (36%) were African American. Seven managers had more than 16 years of management experience and 5 managers had between 5 and 15 years experience. Only two participants had less than five years experience Six participants managed 16 to 45 employees. Four participants managed 5 to 15 employees. Four participants managed more than 46 individuals Eight participants managed less than 10 virtual employees during the workday. The remaining 6 participants reported managing 16 individuals or more during their work day Seven of the management participants admitted 1 to 20 hours of virtual collaboration during a workweek. The remaining seven participants had more that 16 hours of virtual collaboration during a work week Eight of the management participants reported they worked between 1 and 20 hours a week from virtual locations. The remaining six participants stated they work more than 21 hours per week from a virtual work location Three participants worked within traditional information technology organizations. Eight participants worked for traditional telecommunications organizations. The remaining three participants worked in consulting, professional services, and marketing organizations
  • The transcendental phenomenological reduction phase featured the analysis of the qualitative data associated with the 14 Survey Questions (SQs) The bracketing step was accomplished through a tree-node structure provided by the Nvivo 7.0 qualitative data analysis tool. Qualitative data was imported directly into the tool The structure accomplished during bracketing enhanced the process of horizontalization, as each coded statement was analyzed, treated as equal noesis for each individual participant. This was accomplished by importing the output of Nvivo 7.0 to MS Excel. The clustering step established the noema or perceptual meaning of the horizontalized statements. In the final step, irrelevant statements and redundant responses are eliminated revealing the textural themes associated with the phenomenon In total, 17,440 words were coded, revealing 290 key words, 73 horizontalized patterns, and 24 invariant textural themes.
  • Emergent theme 1: Virtual leadership strategies : The analysis and bracketing of 5,326 words produced 23 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 9 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes. Emergent theme 2: Organizational commitment : The second emergent theme is related closely to the central research question. The analysis and bracketing of 2,427 words produced 12 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 3 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes. Emergent theme 3: Social and cultural impact : The analysis and bracketing of 1,249 words produced 7 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 2 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes. Emergent theme 4: Virtual organizational support mechanisms : The analysis and bracketing of 3,901 words produced 9 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 4 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes. Emergent theme 5: Managerial adaptations : The analysis and bracketing of 2,430 words produced 12 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 2 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes. Emergent theme 6: Virtual environment training : The analysis and bracketing of 2,107 words produced 8 horizontalized patterns that were further reduced to 4 textural descriptions or invariant sub-themes.
  • Theme 1: managers appeared to readily accept the need to modify and adjust their management abilities because technological advancements occurred at alarmingly fast rates. Participants also indicated that the use of web-based technology tools were not as disruptive as major organizational change initiatives imposed on the workforce by company leaders. Theme 2: managers expressed concern over the lack of consistent implementation of the processes and procedures. The managers indicated the execution of many virtual processes was governed by traditional management ideals and that managerial adjustment to the new environment is tempered by their ability to learn as they go. Theme 3: Managerial observations revealed an individual’s job satisfaction could be enhanced when employees were afforded the ability to manage work/life issues. Participants concurred that the individual’s ability to manage his or work/life balance introduced a level of employee trust not normally required in traditional brick-and-mortar organizations.
  • Theme 4: Participants suggested guidance or mentorship from organizational leaders was not a component of their learning experiences. The deployment and use of knowledge management (KM) systems, organizational support systems (OSS), and virtual processes and procedures were steps in the right direction. However, participating managers agreed the development of operational processes and procedures and their implementation within the organization were hampered by the level of commitment of organizational leaders. Theme 5: A majority of the participating managers (12 of 14) inferred that experience with virtual collaboration provided the best opportunity for personal change. The theme, managerial adaptations, is the preamble to the issue of virtual environment training. Managers are expected to learn from doing and adapt their managerial and personal skill sets accordingly. Theme 6: A majority of the participating managers (10 of 14) inferred a need for additional personal skills and abilities because of the implementation of virtual processes within their organizations. Thirteen of the 14 participants concurred their organizations did not commit to providing virtual environment training, individual telework training, telework management training, or virtual team training. Note: The issue of limited guidance from organizational leaders was present within many of the subthemes observed: managing the virtual environment, organizational guidance and support, organizational commitment, and managerial adaptations.
  • Credibility of the data, representing individual participants’ descriptions of their lived experience with the phenomenon under observation, was achieved through the direct insertion of written responses to the structured interview protocol into the Nvivo 7 data analysis tool. Sample population demographics demonstrate the observer’s compliance to the selection criteria. Transferability in this study was achieved using a structured interview protocol and strict adherence to defined participant selection criteria. A pilot study ensured the accuracy of the data collection instrument to collect meaningful information concerning the lived experiences of participants. The dependability of the data collection instrument was confirmed through its ability to collect lived experiences through telephonic interviews and in written responses provided by the participants. The participation criteria and structure interview protocol can be used to collect similar data within other contexts or settings (Trochim, 2006). Triangulation is a methodology employed by qualitative researchers to confirm and establish the validity of their research projects through a comparison of data obtained from different individuals, types of data, or different researchers (Creswell, 2002; Guion, 2002). Methodological triangulation was achieved through the comparison of the observations within the review of literature in chapter 2, observations made during the pilot study, and the analysis of the lived experiences provided by the participants.
  • Advances in ICTs enhance organizational communications, have a positive effect on virtual management attitudes, create a minimum of management issues-centered predominantly on individual or group performance management , and involve processes and procedures the require personal adaptations. Organizations have committed to the introduction of virtual environment processes and procedures without the requisite emphasis on consistent implementation throughout those organizations. Traditional managers are left to manage new organizational structures with the rules of the old organizational structure. Virtual environment processes and procedures alter the social and cultural landscape of an organization. Managers are expected to adjust their skills and abilities without guidance from leadership or conversations and interactions with referent others. Managers require flexibility in the execution of procedural fairness because working arrangements may be as numerous as there are individuals. Virtual processes and procedures require managers to articulate the organization’s intent, processes, procedures, and expectations to individuals and teams clearly . Specific skills and abilities traditional managers must acquire are a willingness to embrace a learning curve, improved listening skills, improved writing skills, the ability to multitask, and patience . Organizations are not committing to the training of individual teleworkers, virtual environment managers, or virtual teams in the collaborative process. It is important that each human component within the virtual environment possess the skills to interact or obtain the skills through
  • Specific Issues revealed in this study include: The speed of technological change creates an observed managerial malaise about the immediate relevance of any particular technological innovation as managers used new technologies as they were integrated into their own personal skill sets. Traditional performance management standards must be modified for the virtual work environment . Manager communication of organizational, team, and individual tasks and goals are crucial to the enhancement of virtual collaboration. Virtual manager guidance or referent others (mentors) can play a vital role in traditional manager transition to the virtual environment. Managers and individuals are required to return the basic constituents of effective communication , including sound reading and writing skills and a focus on listening to ideas and concepts. The introduction of new technologies means that managers are expected to increase their technical learning curve with new technologies and processes or procedures. Multitasking, or the ability to perform many tasks simultaneously, is a required skill of all participants in the virtual environment. Managerial perceptions of performance in the virtual environment should be tempered with patience . Virtuality involves many resources in diverse temporal locations. The ability to obtain knowledge, manage, and motivate virtual employees includes the individual’s ability to interact and respond. The virtual environment requires detailed instructions, methodical procedures, and job aids to enhance individual contributions.
  • Participants of this study affirmed previous conclusions that the transition from traditional brick-and-mortar organizations to virtual organizational structures created diverse human resources issues (Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Perez et al., 2002). Day et al. (2000) surmised that the development of a new technological model requires fundamental change in management practices. Thematic factors identified in this study indicated that organizational leaders could enhance the acceptance of the virtual organization by clearly defining new processes and procedures. The findings affirmed an observation made in the literature that virtual individual, manager, and team training is required to increase virtual organizations’ efficiency (Hambley et al., 2007: Rosen et al., 2006). Participants agreed that organizational leaders had little regard for providing training (Jamrog, 2002). The study confirmed academicians of higher learning institutions should provide virtual managers and employees with information and knowledge based on the lessons learned and the generic skills required to become valued contributors within the virtual organization (Fenson & Hill, 2003).
  • The selection of a transcendental phenomenological research design placed a significant limitation on the research in that the design was focused on the establishment of a composite description of the phenomenon. The qualitative data was restricted to the participant selection criteria and the structured interview protocol. The full impact of ICT innovations and the enabling of geographically dispersed virtual organizations (Beranek & Martz, 2005; Katz, 2003; Kearney, 2006) were not explored. The impact of the change from traditional to virtual processes and procedures (Vakola & Wilson, 2004) was described, but there was little opportunity for additional analysis. Data analysis was limited to managerial struggles with virtual employee management and difficulties evolving current processes and procedures and not the virtual team building process (Hill, 2004; Kerber & Buono, 2004; Rosen et al., 2006). Managerial concerns with respect to the merits of executing virtual tasks and the negative effect of not allowing employees to work virtually (Fisher & Fisher, 2001; Manochehri & Pinkerton, 2003; Shuster, 1999; Vega, 2003) received minimal attention. The focus on managerial perceptions and lived experiences with adaptations made because of ICT innovation and the introduction of virtual processes omitted issues associated with managerial attempts to set virtual examples and to remove barriers to virtual team effectiveness (Fisher & Fisher, 2001).
  • In this study, managerial concerns about the loss of the water cooler effect within traditional brick-and-mortar organizations were identified. It is important that managers encourage social and cultural interactions within their virtual collaborative environments. Traditional managers require additional guidance with respect to actions and steps that can alleviate a virtual employee’s apprehension with organizational and cultural acceptance. Human resource issues surfaced with the lack of clarity in organizational direction, ambiguous descriptions of the operational context of virtual working arrangements, and the ethical prosecution of procedural fairness (Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Perez et al., 2002). A qualitative study of the attitudes and perceptions of human resource professionals and their lived experiences with the issues associated with the implementation and cultivation of virtual organizational processes may provide additional clarification for organizational leaders. Organizations have committed to competing globally within the limited pool of technically and functionally qualified human resources capable of interacting within virtually collaborative environments (Jamrog, 2002; Frank & Taylor, 2004). However, the study also confirmed limited organizational commitment to providing virtual organization training. The results raise questions about whether the direction of corporate governance within virtual organizations is to abandon the requirement to provide organization-sponsored training in new technologies, new business practices, and altered working relations. This and similar questions should be in the focus of a qualitative data collection instrument and submitted to a population of human resource managers. De Kluyver and Pearce (2003) concluded the management of the implementation of a chosen strategy is a leader’s responsibility. In this study, the attitudes and perceptions of organizational leaders as they adjusted to technological advances and the entrance of global competitors was not considered. The textural themes might be used to develop a scaled instrument for collecting additional quantitative data about each constituent and testing strength of relationships among variables. In addition, social, cultural, human resources, and organizational commitment issues could be investigated with the scaled instrument. Bulletize this.
  • The modification of the selection criteria centered on the alteration of the first two requirements. The initial definition called for each individual’s possession seven years of management experience and the management of at least 10 employees. The stated data collection process was purposive sampling of the Association of Information Technology Professional (AITP) Dallas, Texas, chapter. After multiple email invitations to the membership, the scope of the population was altered to include the national population of AITP members. When the tactic failed, snowball sampling within the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area was used. An initial assumption of the project stated that the AITP would have qualified members willing to participate in this study. In reality, most members were undergraduate students of universities in the Dallas, Texas, metropolitan area.

Mc Kirkley Oral Defense 11122009 V2 Mc Kirkley Oral Defense 11122009 V2 Presentation Transcript

  • An Exploration of Managerial Shift Toward Virtual Organizations: Managing Virtual Employees in Select Technology Organizations By: Michael C. Kirkley For: Patricia Traynor, PhD, Mentor Susanne Beier, PhD, Committee Member Robin Throne, PhD, Committee Member
  • Introductions Patricia Traynor, PhD, Mentor Susanne Beier, PhD, Committee Member Robin Throne, PhD, Committee Member
  • Outline
    • Background
    • Statement of the Problem
    • Purpose of the Study
    • Lack of Theoretical Framework
    • Research Questions
    • Research Method and Design
    • Literature Foundation
    • Data Collection and Analysis
    • Demographics
    • Findings (Phase 2): Transcendental Phenomenological Reduction
    • Findings (Phase 3): Imaginative Variation
    • Validity and Reliability
    • Phase 4: Composite Description
    • Relevance to Current Literature
    • Significance of the Findings to Leadership
    • Limitations of the Research Process
    • Recommendations for Future Study
    • Reflections of the Research Process
  • Background
    • Organizations are exploring varying degrees of telework (Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Lim & Teo, 2002).
    • Technological advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the deconcentration of American corporate assets (Harpaz, 2002; Staples, 2001).
    • Once an Organization institutes virtual processes, procedures, and working arrangements, leadership and management practices must also change (Malhotra, Majchrzak, & Rosen, 2007).
    • Overcoming traditional face-to-face managerial practices is a difficult lesson to learn (Fisher & Fisher, 2001)
    • Managerial attitudes toward telework is a crucial component of virtuality (Kouzes & Posner, 2002).
    • The virtual working phenomenon requires traditional managers to change (Frank & Taylor, 2004).
  • Statement of the Problem
    • General Problem : Virtual organizational environments continued to grow during the early years of the 21st century ( Perez, Sanchez, Carnicer, & Jimenez, 2002). Data indicates a 2% annual growth (Scharff, 2005; “World at Work,” 2007; USDL, 2004).
    • Specific Problem : The steady growth of the use of telework has not translated to an overwhelming managerial endorsement for these working arrangements (Frank & Taylor, 2004). A gap exists in literature concerning traditional manager transition to virtual organizational structures (Scharff, 2005).
  • Purpose of the Study
    • The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to ascertain the attitudes, perceptions, and lived experiences of frontline managers’ adaptation of traditional managerial techniques to telework and virtual organizational environments during the turbulent technological changes of the early 21st century.
      • Purposive sampling of 14 frontline managers from the Association of Information Technology Professional (AITP) Dallas, Texas chapter
      • Participant selection criteria
    • A qualitative research approach was appropriate for the study
    • The transcendental phenomenological design was chosen (Creswell, 2007; Moustakas, 1994).
  • Lack of Theoretical Framework
    • Few studies based in the United States have investigated the nature of the impact disruptive technological advances have on traditional managers ( Malhotra, Majchrzak, & Rosen, 2007; Stevenson & McGrath, 2004).
    • Managerial attitudes toward virtual work arrangements and managerial ability to overcome the lack of face-to-face management techniques should be studied (Dewar, 2006; Elmore, 2006).
    • Limited research was evident on traditional managers’ abilities to adapt current skill sets to virtual organizational environments (Malhotra et al., 2007; Stevenson & McGrath, 2004).
    • Frontline managers are left to adapt to the changes with little to no formalized training or guidance (Dimitrova, 2003, Froggatt, 2000; Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002).
  • Research Questions
    • Central Question : How might experienced managers change or adapt their leadership strategies, processes, and management practices to better support telework processes and teleworkers in virtual environments during disruptive technological innovations in the telecommunications and information technology industry for the 21st century?
    • Subquestions :
      • RQa: What leadership strategies promote and support the increased use of virtual employees?
      • RQb: How can internal processes and procedures be changed or adapted to increase effective support mechanisms for virtual employees?
      • RQc: What different types of skills, abilities, experiences, and adjustments are required beyond traditional management practices to manage virtual employees effectively?
      • RQd: How can training recommendations and best practices assist frontline managers and virtual employees to better adjust to a virtual collaborative environment?
  • Research Method and Design Moustakas, 1994
  • Literature Foundation
    • A total of 351 specific references were reviewed. Specific areas of concentration included:
      • Foundational studies
      • A Historical Overview of Telework
      • Impact of Disruptive Innovation
      • Impact of Globalization on Traditional Management Practices
      • 21st Century Contextual Frameworks for Virtual Organizations
      • Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks for Managing Telework
      • Traditional Management and System Obstacles to Telework
      • Influence of Virtual Managers on Organizational Effectiveness
      • Virtual Management Gaps
  • Data Collection and Analysis
    • General population
    • Purposive Sampling
    • Pilot Study
    • Final data collection instrument
    • Written response option
    • The Nvivo 7 data analysis software
  • Demographics
    • The primary demographic data collected was age, education, gender, race, and type of organization. Additional qualifying information was collected to measure the diversity of participants within the fields of information technology (IT) and telecommunications.
    • Additional characteristics of the participants were observed in the selection criteria. The details of these characteristics are present in Appendix G. The additional characteristics included:
      • Management experience between 2000 and 2007
      • Manage at least five subordinates
      • Virtual Management Experience
      • Virtual Environment Experience
      • Virtual Work Experience
  • Phase 2: Transcendental Phenomenological Reduction
    • This phase featured the analysis of the qualitative data associated with the 14 Survey Questions (SQs)
    • Bracketing was accomplished in the Nvivo 7.0 qualitative data analysis tool.
    • The structure enhanced the process of horizontalization
    • Clustering established horizontalized statements.
    • Irrelevant statements and redundant responses are eliminated revealing the 24 textural themes
  • Phase 3: Imaginative Variation
    • During the imaginative variation phase, alternative meanings for the 24 textural themes were sought through variation in frames of reference, polarities, reversals, and interpretation from divergent perspectives (Moustakas, 1994). The analysis led to the emergence of six structural themes.
      • Emergent theme 1: Virtual leadership strategies
      • Emergent theme 2: Organizational commitment
      • Emergent theme 3: Social and cultural impact
      • Emergent theme 4: Virtual organizational support mechanisms
      • Emergent theme 5: Managerial adaptations
      • Emergent theme 6: Virtual environment training
  • Phase 3: Continued
    • Theme 1 : technological advancements had a positive effect; instant messaging replaced face-to-face interactions; few issues with the introduction of virtual workers; disruptive ICT change requires a modification of organizational processes and procedures .
    • Theme 2 : organizations have committed to virtual processes and procedures; lack of consistent implementation; virtual processes and procedures governed by traditional management ideals .
    • Theme 3 : loss of water cooler interactions ; individual’s job satisfaction; virtual environment altered the social and cultural landscape, procedural fairness .
  • Phase 3: Continued
    • Emergent Theme 4 : Limited processes and procedures; guidance or mentorship from organizational leaders; positive strategies implemented; commitment of organizational leaders ; clear explanations of an organization’s intent required.
    • Emergent Theme 5 : direct experience inspired change ; specific skills and abilities required; geographic and temporal dispersal hampered by organizational ambiguity.
    • Emergent Theme 6 : organizations not providing virtual environment training; personal skills learned; individual, virtual team, virtual manager assumed capable of achieving efficient virtual processes and procedures without guidance.
  • Validity and Reliability Methodological triangulation was achieved through the comparison of the observations within the review of literature, observations made during the pilot study, and the analysis of the lived experiences provided by the participants. Confirmability The participation criteria and structure interview protocol can be used to collect similar data within other contexts or settings. Dependability Transferability was achieved using a structured interview protocol, defined participant selection criteria. Transferability Credibility of the data was achieved through the direct insertion of written responses to the structured interview protocol into the Nvivo 7 data analysis tool. Demographics Data documents compliance to the selection criteria. Credibility Investigator validity and reliability actions Alternative validity criteria
  • Phase 4: Composite Description
    • The integration of the six structural themes created a composite description of the phenomenon. The extracted description of the stated phenomenon is as follows:
      • Advances in ICTs enhance organizational communications.
      • Organizations have committed to the introduction of virtual environment processes and procedures without guidance for traditional managers.
      • Virtual environment processes and procedures alter the social and cultural landscape of an organization.
      • Virtual processes and procedures require managers to articulate the organization’s intent , processes, procedures, and expectations to individuals and teams clearly .
      • Specific skills and abilities traditional managers must acquire; faster learning curve, improved listening skills, improved writing skills, the ability to multitask, and patience.
      • Organizations are not committing to virtual organization training of individuals, managers, or teams.
  • Relevance to Current Literature
    • Confirmed Findings : Lack of clear virtual processes ad procedures (Perez et al., 2004) Leaders assumed current managers were capable of adjusting without guidance (Fenson & Hill, 2003; Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Hill, 2004; Rosen, Furst, & Blackburn, 2006). Implementation of virtual organization processes and procedures tempered by individualistic interpretations (Kuhn, 1994). Virtual processes and procedures lead to cultural and technical conflicts ( Majchrzak, Malhotra, & John ’s 2005). Virtual team building requires managers with the ability to enhance virtual collaboration ( Hambley, O’Neill, & Kline, 2007).
    • Contrary Findings : Traditional managers were not overwhelmed by the introduction of virtual organizational processes and procedures (Malhotra et al., 2007; Stevenson & McGrath, 2004).
  • Significance of the Findings to Leadership
    • The transition from traditional brick-and-mortar organizations to virtual organizational structures created diverse human resources issues (Helms & Raiszadeh, 2002; Perez et al., 2002).
    • Organizational leaders could enhance the acceptance of the virtual organization by clearly defining new processes and procedures (Day, Gunther, & Schoemaker, 2000).
    • The findings affirmed virtual individual, manager, and team training is required to increase virtual organizations’ efficiency (Hambley et al., 2007: Rosen et al., 2006).
    • Organizational leaders had little interest in providing training (Jamrog, 2002).
    • Academicians should provide virtual managers and employees with lessons learned and generic skills required to become valued contributors within virtual organizations (Fenson & Hill, 2003).
  • Limitations of the Research Findings
    • The full impact of ICT innovations were not explored were not explored.
    • Transformational impact of virtual processes and procedures not explored (Vakola & Wilson, 2004).
    • Data analysis did not investigate the virtual team building process (Hill, 2004; Kerber & Buono, 2004; Rosen et al., 2006).
    • Managerial attitudes on virtual task execution was not explored (Manochehri & Pinkerton, 2003; Vega, 2003).
    • Managerial attempts to set virtual examples and remove collaborative barriers was not explored (Fisher & Fisher, 2001).
  • Recommendations for Future Study
    • A qualitative study of the attitudes and perceptions of human resource professionals on the implementation virtual organizational processes and procedures
    • A qualitative study of human resource managers on training in new technologies, new business practices, and altered working relations.
    • A qualitative study of organizational leaders concerning virtual organization transformation.
    • Quantitative study utilizing the 24 textural themes a a scaled instrument
  • Reflections of the Research Process
    • A modification of the selection criteria was required
    • Limited participation of AITP- Dallas Chapter membership forced snowball sampling
    • The AITP-Dallas Chapter membership was primarily undergraduate students
  • Questions ?
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