Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Algorithm itabq
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Algorithm itabq

1,067

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,067
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Flow chart of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers a and b in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by successive subtractions in two loops: IF the test B ≥ A yields "yes" (or true) (more accurately the numberb in location B is greater than or equal to the numbera in location A) THEN the algorithm specifies B ← B − A (meaning the number b − a replaces the old b). Similarly IF A > B THEN A ← A − B. The process terminates when (the contents of) B is 0, yielding the g.c.d. in A. (Algorithm derived from Scott 2009:13; symbols and drawing style from Tausworthe 1977).Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AlgorithmiTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue Please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • Image and analogy idea: ediblealgorithms.com/iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue Please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue Please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue Please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue Please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue please contact ictcpd1@gmail.comSome uses for this iTAB.Use this iTAB to highlight the use of ICT in society and link to work that you may be doing on algorithmsAll iTABs have been cross-referenced against the GCSE ICT Specifications from EdExcel, OCR and AQA as well as against the Cambridge Nationals. iTABs are also cross referenced against the existing Programme of Study for ICT at KS3 and KS4. Use iTABs for:Starter / plenary activities. What's hot/what's not cool-wall. A rolling slide show. Use the prompt in red to promote discussion in a lesson or for homework. Useful materials for debates / group and paired work.iTABs and the iTABs idea are © ICTCPD1 .You are free to use, edit or otherwise manipulate iTABs but only in the school purchasing iTABS. You can share with colleagues within the same site! For use on stand-alone computers, Intranets, secure / closed portals and VLEs within the purchasing school. Permissions regarding wider publication – e.g. on your school website, please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • iTaCS is an occasional set of resources to support the study of Information Technology and Computer Science and are free to use. iTABs and the iTABs idea are weekly published resources, reflecting ICT, IT and CS news stories with supporting activities to support the teaching of ICT, IT and CS. For a free sample of our back-catalogue please contact ictcpd1@gmail.comSome uses for this iTAB.Use this iTAB to highlight the use of ICT in society and link to work that you may be doing on algorithmsAll iTABs have been cross-referenced against the GCSE ICT Specifications from EdExcel, OCR and AQA as well as against the Cambridge Nationals. iTABs are also cross referenced against the existing Programme of Study for ICT at KS3 and KS4. Use iTABs for:Starter / plenary activities. What's hot/what's not cool-wall. A rolling slide show. Use the prompt in red to promote discussion in a lesson or for homework. Useful materials for debates / group and paired work.iTABs and the iTABs idea are © ICTCPD1 .You are free to use, edit or otherwise manipulate iTABs but only in the school purchasing iTABS. You can share with colleagues within the same site! For use on stand-alone computers, Intranets, secure / closed portals and VLEs within the purchasing school. Permissions regarding wider publication – e.g. on your school website, please contact ictcpd1@gmail.com
  • Transcript

    • 1. Algorithms What Is An Algorithm? Simply put, an algorithm is a series of instructions (a procedure) that solves a problem by using a finite number of steps. A Computer Scientist would more accurately describe an algorithm as an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, will proceed through a finiteSource: Wikipedia number of well-defined successive states, Source: eventually producing output and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Algorithm terminating at a final ending state. (Phew)! Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 2. Algorithms: Example 1 Food Recipe A food recipe is a step-by-step procedure – like a list of instructions - to complete a task. A food recipe therefore is like an algorithm. In this analogy it can be compared to the software in a system. The hardware is the oven and the other cooking utensils. The input is the ingredients and the output is the cake.Source: Wikipedia Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 3. Algorithms: Example 2 ―Get To School‖ 1. Walk to bus 1. Get in car Designing algorithms is about designing stop 2. Be driven solutions to solve problems. 2. Wait for bus along City If you were to design an algorithm to solve No.123 Road the problem of ‗getting to school‘ you 3. Get on bus 3. Turn left into would be able to solve this problem in 4. Ride bus to Town Lane several different ways (see left). school 4. Car stops in Different algorithms can solve the same5. Get off bus at drop off zone problem – but in different ways. school bus 5. Get out of car Algorithms that solve the same problem stop 6. Walk to class may differ in length, efficiency and cost.6. Walk to class In computer programming there are many different ways - algorithms - of solving aFor more examples visit : problem and completing a task.http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ques A computer program can be viewed as antion717.htm elaborate algorithm. Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 4. Algorithms: Flowcharts …making your thinking ‗visible‘Lamp does not work Developing a flowchart helps to formalise the algorithm – and allows more choices, complexity and variables - crucial as you Lamp No move past the simplest of algorithms. Plug in plugged lamp Simple problems can often be shown best in? as a flowchart.Yes Flowcharts can help you to think logically about problems by working through each Yes step. Bulb Replace ‘blown’? bulb Flowcharts can help you explain your work to others – and they can follow your thinking (very useful when trying to ‗faultNo What other steps find‘ errors /mistakes‘ in your algorithms). Repair could be included in lamp this example? Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 5. Algorithms: Flowcharts A Guide to understanding flow charts Source: xkcd.com/518/ http://www.cs.nyu.edu/~acase/classes/spring11/intropr og/handouts/notes/class5.pdf stion717.htmInformation Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 6. Algorithms: Pseudocode ….like ‗real‘ code1.. If students grade is greater than or Computer languages need the correctequal to 60 syntax or they do not work properly.Print "passed" Pseudocode has no real syntax ruleselse because it is not real computer code – it isPrint "failed" a natural language that is close to ‗computer ‗language.2. Set total to zero The benefit of pseudocode is that itSet grade counter to one enables the programmer to concentrate onWhile grade counter is less than or the algorithms without worrying about allequal to ten the syntax which is specific to a particularInput the next grade programming language. You can evenAdd the grade into the total write pseudocode without knowing whatSet the class average to the total programming language you will use for thedivided by ten solution – and others could take your codePrint the class average. but use it with a different language! Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 7. Algorithms On The Internet (1) PageRank PageRank is a famous algorithm used by the Google Internet search engine, that assigns a numeric value that represents how important a page is on the web. When one page links to another page, it is effectively casting a vote for the other page. The more votes that are cast for a page, the more important (in theory) the page must be. PageRank is Googles way of deciding a pages importance. It matters because it is one of the factors that determines a pages ranking in the searchCartoon representation of PageRank.Source Wikipedia: results. It isnt the only factor that Googlehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank uses to rank pages, but it is an important one. Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 8. Algorithms On The Internet (2) EdgeRank / Amazon / Facebook EdgeRank is an algorithm developed by Facebook to govern what is displayed— and how high—on each users News Feed. Amazon uses a number of algorithms. The popularity list algorithm is the accumulated sales of a book‘s last 30 days compared to those in its category–but free books given away only count for roughly 10% of a paid sale, and price is factored in as well, in that the higher your price, the more each sale counts for on the list. Formula: (sales + (0.1 x free downloads)) x (unknown sales factor) / last 30 days. Youtube uses a number of modified Amazon algorithms. Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 9. Algorithms In The News (1) ‗Right Place Right Time‘Image: Cutegeek.com Picture yourself in an expensive designer clothes shop. Your smartphone knows where you are – (thanks to the GPS) - and it alerts your bank through an automated system that youve signed up to. Knowing youve got a history of buying from similar stores, your bank also knows that youre running a bit low on cash. Your phone beeps. A text message. Buy it in the next 20 minutes and you can borrow the money at a good rate. Also youll getResearch: Find out more about this type of 20% off the clothes.algorithm: You make the purchase – thanks in part tohttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-19286426 a ‗right place, right time‘ algorithm. Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science
    • 10. Algorithms In The News (2) Google Algorithms Sued Bettina Wulff - the wife of a former German Image source: http://pulse2.com president has filed a lawsuit against Google to remove autocomplete suggestions that she is claiming as libel. Some of the suggestions that pop-up when searching for Bettina include the words ―prostitute‖ and ―red light‖. Head of PR for Google Germany, Kay Oberbeck, said the sites search terms were "algorithmically generated" and "include the popularity of the entered search terms". "All terms that appear have beenDebate: Can the Google algorithm be manipulated? previously entered by Google users," heWhat problems may a case like this cause forGoogle? added in a statement. Information Technology ITaCS and Computer Science

    ×