Table of Contents1. Presente -ar -er -ir 12. Imperfecto2. Stem Changers ◦ Irregulars3. Irregulars -go -zco -yo ◦ Trigger Words4. Saber vs Conocer 13. Preterito5. Reflexives ◦ Irregular Car/ Gar/ Zar6. se impersonal ◦ Spock Verbs7. Dipthongs ◦ Cucaracha ◦ Snakes/Snakeys8. Verbs like... Uir/guir ◦ Trigger Words9. Verbs like...Cer/cir 14. Comparatives/Superlativ10. Verbs like...Ger/gir es11. Hace + __ + que + 15. Future present/presente ◦ Irregulars ◦ Trigger Words
Presente –ar –er –ir endings • AR • ER • IR -o -o -o -as -es -es -a -e -e -amos -emos -imos -áis -éis -ís -an -en -en (Present Tense Verbs)
Stem Changers Does not change in the nosotros or vosotros form. Changes the middle of the words e -> ie u -> ue o -> ue
Irregulars -go -zco -yo The irregular present verbs -zco: change in the „yo‟ ◦ Conocer - Conozco form. ◦ Producir - Produzco -go: ◦ Conducir - ◦ Caer - Caigo Conduzco ◦ Decir - Digo -yo: ◦ Hacer - Hago ◦ Ser - Soy ◦ Oir - Oigo ◦ Estar - Estoy ◦ Poner - Pongo ◦ Ir - Voy ◦ Tener - Tengo ◦ Saber - Se ◦ Traer - Trago ◦ Dar - Doy ◦ Venir - Vengo
Saber vs Conocer Saber and conocer both mean “to know” in English. Saber is used to express knowledge about facts, while conocer is used to express knowledge about places and people. Both Saber and Conocer have irregular yo forms: Sé and Conozco
Reflexives Reflexives are used when the subject and object is the same. Reflexive verbs have a subject pronoun added before the conjugated verb: Yo lavo > yo me lavo Tú lavas > Tú te lavas me (myself) te (yourself) se (himself, herself, yourself) nos (ourselves) os (yourselves) se (themselves, yourselves)
Impersonal „se‟ Impersonal „se‟ is used when the subject us not important or unknown; A general statement.
Dipthongs Dipthongs are the strong and weak vowels that are represented in words. When two vowels are next to each other, one is weak while the other is strong. The strong vowel is emphasized in the pronunciation.
Comparatives Superiority ◦ más + (adjective/adverb) + que Más + bonita + que Inferiority ◦ menos + (adjective/adverb) + que Menos + alto + que Equality ◦ tan + (adjective/adverb) + como As + tall + as ◦ tanto + (noun) + como As many/much + money + as
Superlatives Superlatives compare two things as well, but it is the greatest degree of comparison. El/La + noun + mas/menos + adjective + de
Futuro Vivir Estar Comer Add below after ending of infinitive. -é -ás -á -emos -án
Futuro: Irregular Stem Decir: Dir to say Haber: Habr there to be, to have Hacer: Har to make, do Poder: Podr to put, place, set Querer: Querr to want, love Saber: Sabr to know a fact Salir: Saldr to leave, go out Tener: Tendr to have Valer: Valdr to be worth Venir: Vendr to come
Preterite vs. Imperfect The preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and definite end. The imperfect is used for actions in the past that are not seen as completed. Use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end.
Future vs. Conditional Future tense is used to express „will‟ in the future. Conditional tense is used to express you „would‟ in the future. Both tenses keep the infinitive verb and add their endings to it.
Por vs. Para Por Para ◦ Approximate time or ◦ Destination (for, to) duration(for, during, in, per) ◦ A purpose, goal, or ◦ Movement (along, objective (for, by) through, by, via, around) ◦ A point of view (for) ◦ Manner or means (by) ◦ A point of reference ◦ Exchange (for, in or comparison (for) exchange for) ◦ Purpose (for, because ◦ Para + infinitive = in of, on behalf of, for the order to (verb) sake of) ◦ Duration ◦ Por + infinitive = because of, or for reason for
Informal „tú‟ Commands Informal commands are used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. Negative Conjugation: ◦ Take the infinitive, change the ending to opposite vowel, drop the „r‟, and add an „s‟ at the end. Affirmative Conjugation: ◦ Take the infinitive and drop the „r‟
Present Perfect Tense The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. Conjugation: ◦ He + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Has + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Ha + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Hemos + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Han + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟
Double Object Pronouns Direct Object Pronouns are placed either directly before a verb or attached to an infinitive. If the letter l occurs as the first letter of both the indirect object pronoun (le, les) and the direct object pronoun (lo, la, los, las), the indirect object pronoun is changed to se. Me - yo Te - tú lo, la – el, ella Nos - nosotros los, las – ellos, ellas