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Grammar Book


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  • 1. Grammar BookSpanish 31st PeriodCesar McKeeth
  • 2. Table of Contents1. Presente -ar -er -ir 12. Imperfecto2. Stem Changers ◦ Irregulars3. Irregulars -go -zco -yo ◦ Trigger Words4. Saber vs Conocer 13. Preterito5. Reflexives ◦ Irregular Car/ Gar/ Zar6. se impersonal ◦ Spock Verbs7. Dipthongs ◦ Cucaracha ◦ Snakes/Snakeys8. Verbs like... Uir/guir ◦ Trigger Words9. Verbs like...Cer/cir 14. Comparatives/Superlativ10. Verbs like...Ger/gir es11. Hace + __ + que + 15. Future present/presente ◦ Irregulars ◦ Trigger Words
  • 3. Presente –ar –er –ir endings • AR • ER • IR -o -o -o -as -es -es -a -e -e -amos -emos -imos -áis -éis -ís -an -en -en (Present Tense Verbs)
  • 4. Stem Changers Does not change in the nosotros or vosotros form. Changes the middle of the words e -> ie u -> ue o -> ue
  • 5. Irregulars -go -zco -yo The irregular present verbs  -zco: change in the „yo‟ ◦ Conocer - Conozco form. ◦ Producir - Produzco -go: ◦ Conducir - ◦ Caer - Caigo Conduzco ◦ Decir - Digo  -yo: ◦ Hacer - Hago ◦ Ser - Soy ◦ Oir - Oigo ◦ Estar - Estoy ◦ Poner - Pongo ◦ Ir - Voy ◦ Tener - Tengo ◦ Saber - Se ◦ Traer - Trago ◦ Dar - Doy ◦ Venir - Vengo
  • 6. Saber vs Conocer Saber and conocer both mean “to know” in English. Saber is used to express knowledge about facts, while conocer is used to express knowledge about places and people. Both Saber and Conocer have irregular yo forms: Sé and Conozco
  • 7. Reflexives Reflexives are used when the subject and object is the same. Reflexive verbs have a subject pronoun added before the conjugated verb: Yo lavo > yo me lavo Tú lavas > Tú te lavas me (myself) te (yourself) se (himself, herself, yourself) nos (ourselves) os (yourselves) se (themselves, yourselves)
  • 8. Impersonal „se‟ Impersonal „se‟ is used when the subject us not important or unknown; A general statement.
  • 9. Dipthongs Dipthongs are the strong and weak vowels that are represented in words. When two vowels are next to each other, one is weak while the other is strong. The strong vowel is emphasized in the pronunciation.
  • 10. Verbs like... Uir/guir Atribuir Destruir Concluir Distribuir Construir Excluir Contribuir Incluir Example  Example Conjugation for - Conjugation for uir: guir: ◦ Atribuir ◦ Conseguir  Atribuyo  Consigo  Atribuyes  Consigues  Atribuye  Consigue  Atribuimos  Consigimos  Atribuyen  Consiguen
  • 11. Verbs like...Cer/cir Convencer Mecer Esparcir Remecer Ejercer Vencer Coercer Zurcir Example Conjugation  Example Conjugation for -cer: for cir: ◦ Conocer ◦ Decir  Conozco  Digo  Conoces  Dices  Conoce  Dice  Conocemos  Dicemos  Conocen  Decin
  • 12. Verbs like...Ger/gir The yo form of ger and gir verbs changes the g to a j. Every other form uses a g. Example conjugation: ◦ Coger  Cojo  Coges  Coge  Cogemos  Cogeis  Cogen
  • 13. Hace + __ + que +present/presente The Hacer expressions are formed by saying hace + a time length + que + present tense verb. They are used to state how long an action is taking.
  • 14. Imperfecto Imperfecto tense is used to show an action that is not yet completed.Conjugation -Ar -Er / -Ir -aba -ía -abas -ías -aba -ía -ábamos -íamos -abáis -íais -aban -ían
  • 15. Preterite  Past tense  Known beginning/and or ending  “snapshot” of timeConjugation:-AR -ER/IRÉ ÍAste IsteÓ IóAmos ImosAron ieron
  • 16. Trigger Words Ayer Anoche Anteayer Las semana pasada El mes pasado El ano pasado El fin de semana pasada
  • 17. Los irregularesCar Gar Zar Change in the preterite yo form Car > Qué Gar > gué Zar > cé
  • 18. Spock Hacer: -hacer, hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicieron Ir/Ser: - fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron Dar/Ler: - d/vi, d/viste, d/vio, d/vimos, d/vimos, d/vieron
  • 19. Cucaracha Andar/andujve  Traducir/Traduje Estar/Estuve  E Poder/Pude  Iste Poner/Puse  O Guerer/Guise  Imos Saber/Supe  Ieron Tener/Tuve  If j, take I off of Venir/Vine ieron. Conducir/Conduje Producir/Produje
  • 20. Snake/Snakey Snakes  Snakeys ◦ Dormir ◦ Leer  Dormí  Leí  Dormiste  Leiste  Durmío  Leimos  Dormimos  Leyó  Durmieron  Leyeron
  • 21. Comparatives Superiority ◦ más + (adjective/adverb) + que  Más + bonita + que Inferiority ◦ menos + (adjective/adverb) + que  Menos + alto + que Equality ◦ tan + (adjective/adverb) + como  As + tall + as ◦ tanto + (noun) + como  As many/much + money + as
  • 22. Superlatives Superlatives compare two things as well, but it is the greatest degree of comparison. El/La + noun + mas/menos + adjective + de
  • 23. Futuro Vivir Estar Comer Add below after ending of infinitive. -é -ás -á -emos -án
  • 24. Futuro: Irregular Stem Decir: Dir to say Haber: Habr there to be, to have Hacer: Har to make, do Poder: Podr to put, place, set Querer: Querr to want, love Saber: Sabr to know a fact Salir: Saldr to leave, go out Tener: Tendr to have Valer: Valdr to be worth Venir: Vendr to come
  • 25. Preterite vs. Imperfect The preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed. Use of the preterite tense implies that the past action had a definite beginning and definite end. The imperfect is used for actions in the past that are not seen as completed. Use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end.
  • 26. Future vs. Conditional Future tense is used to express „will‟ in the future. Conditional tense is used to express you „would‟ in the future. Both tenses keep the infinitive verb and add their endings to it.
  • 27. Por vs. Para Por  Para ◦ Approximate time or ◦ Destination (for, to) duration(for, during, in, per) ◦ A purpose, goal, or ◦ Movement (along, objective (for, by) through, by, via, around) ◦ A point of view (for) ◦ Manner or means (by) ◦ A point of reference ◦ Exchange (for, in or comparison (for) exchange for) ◦ Purpose (for, because ◦ Para + infinitive = in of, on behalf of, for the order to (verb) sake of) ◦ Duration ◦ Por + infinitive = because of, or for reason for
  • 28. Informal „tú‟ Commands Informal commands are used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. Negative Conjugation: ◦ Take the infinitive, change the ending to opposite vowel, drop the „r‟, and add an „s‟ at the end. Affirmative Conjugation: ◦ Take the infinitive and drop the „r‟
  • 29. Present Perfect Tense The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. Conjugation: ◦ He + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Has + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Ha + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Hemos + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟ ◦ Han + verb + „ido‟ or „ado‟
  • 30. Double Object Pronouns Direct Object Pronouns are placed either directly before a verb or attached to an infinitive. If the letter l occurs as the first letter of both the indirect object pronoun (le, les) and the direct object pronoun (lo, la, los, las), the indirect object pronoun is changed to se. Me - yo Te - tú lo, la – el, ella Nos - nosotros los, las – ellos, ellas