Grammar BookSpanish 31st PeriodCesar McKeeth
Table of Contents1.  Presente -ar -er -ir     12.   Imperfecto2. Stem Changers               ◦     Irregulars3. Irregulars...
Presente –ar –er –ir endings  • AR    • ER      • IR  -o      -o        -o  -as     -es       -es  -a      -e        -e  -...
Stem Changers   Does not change in the nosotros or    vosotros form. Changes the middle of the    words                  ...
Irregulars -go -zco -yo The irregular  present verbs            -zco:  change in the „yo‟        ◦ Conocer - Conozco  fo...
Saber vs Conocer Saber and conocer both mean “to  know” in English. Saber is used to  express knowledge about facts, whil...
Reflexives Reflexives are used when the subject  and object is the same. Reflexive verbs have a subject pronoun  added b...
Impersonal „se‟   Impersonal „se‟ is used when the    subject us not important or unknown;    A general statement.
Dipthongs   Dipthongs are the strong and weak    vowels that are represented in words.    When two vowels are next to eac...
Verbs like... Uir/guir         Atribuir            Destruir         Concluir            Distribuir         Construir      ...
Verbs like...Cer/cir      Convencer        Mecer      Esparcir         Remecer      Ejercer          Vencer      Coercer  ...
Verbs like...Ger/gir The yo form of ger and gir verbs  changes the g to a j. Every other form  uses a g. Example conjuga...
Hace + __ + que +present/presente   The Hacer expressions are formed by    saying hace + a time length + que +    present...
Imperfecto   Imperfecto tense is used to show an    action that is not yet completed.Conjugation      -Ar         -Er / -...
Preterite  Past tense  Known beginning/and or ending  “snapshot” of timeConjugation:-AR              -ER/IRÉ           ...
Trigger Words Ayer Anoche Anteayer Las semana pasada El mes pasado El ano pasado El fin de semana pasada
Los irregularesCar Gar Zar Change in the preterite yo form Car > Qué Gar > gué Zar > cé
Spock Hacer: -hacer, hice, hiciste, hizo,  hicimos, hicieron Ir/Ser: - fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron Dar/Ler: - d/vi...
Cucaracha   Andar/andujve         Traducir/Traduje   Estar/Estuve          E   Poder/Pude            Iste   Poner/P...
Snake/Snakey   Snakes              Snakeys    ◦ Dormir             ◦ Leer        Dormí               Leí        Dormi...
Comparatives   Superiority    ◦ más + (adjective/adverb) + que       Más + bonita + que   Inferiority    ◦ menos + (adj...
Superlatives Superlatives compare two things as  well, but it is the greatest degree of  comparison. El/La + noun + mas/...
Futuro Vivir Estar Comer Add below after ending of infinitive. -é -ás -á -emos -án
Futuro: Irregular Stem   Decir: Dir to say   Haber: Habr there to be, to have   Hacer: Har to make, do   Poder: Podr t...
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Grammar Book

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Grammar Book

  1. 1. Grammar BookSpanish 31st PeriodCesar McKeeth
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Presente -ar -er -ir 12. Imperfecto2. Stem Changers ◦ Irregulars3. Irregulars -go -zco -yo ◦ Trigger Words4. Saber vs Conocer 13. Preterito5. Reflexives ◦ Irregular Car/ Gar/ Zar6. se impersonal ◦ Spock Verbs7. Dipthongs ◦ Cucaracha ◦ Snakes/Snakeys8. Verbs like... Uir/guir ◦ Trigger Words9. Verbs like...Cer/cir 14. Comparatives/Superlativ10. Verbs like...Ger/gir es11. Hace + __ + que + 15. Future present/presente ◦ Irregulars ◦ Trigger Words
  3. 3. Presente –ar –er –ir endings • AR • ER • IR -o -o -o -as -es -es -a -e -e -amos -emos -imos -áis -éis -ís -an -en -en (Present Tense Verbs)
  4. 4. Stem Changers Does not change in the nosotros or vosotros form. Changes the middle of the words e -> ie u -> ue o -> ue
  5. 5. Irregulars -go -zco -yo The irregular present verbs  -zco: change in the „yo‟ ◦ Conocer - Conozco form. ◦ Producir - Produzco -go: ◦ Conducir - ◦ Caer - Caigo Conduzco ◦ Decir - Digo  -yo: ◦ Hacer - Hago ◦ Ser - Soy ◦ Oir - Oigo ◦ Estar - Estoy ◦ Poner - Pongo ◦ Ir - Voy ◦ Tener - Tengo ◦ Saber - Se ◦ Traer - Trago ◦ Dar - Doy ◦ Venir - Vengo
  6. 6. Saber vs Conocer Saber and conocer both mean “to know” in English. Saber is used to express knowledge about facts, while conocer is used to express knowledge about places and people. Both Saber and Conocer have irregular yo forms: Sé and Conozco
  7. 7. Reflexives Reflexives are used when the subject and object is the same. Reflexive verbs have a subject pronoun added before the conjugated verb: Yo lavo > yo me lavo Tú lavas > Tú te lavas me (myself) te (yourself) se (himself, herself, yourself) nos (ourselves) os (yourselves) se (themselves, yourselves)
  8. 8. Impersonal „se‟ Impersonal „se‟ is used when the subject us not important or unknown; A general statement.
  9. 9. Dipthongs Dipthongs are the strong and weak vowels that are represented in words. When two vowels are next to each other, one is weak while the other is strong. The strong vowel is emphasized in the pronunciation.
  10. 10. Verbs like... Uir/guir Atribuir Destruir Concluir Distribuir Construir Excluir Contribuir Incluir Example  Example Conjugation for - Conjugation for uir: guir: ◦ Atribuir ◦ Conseguir  Atribuyo  Consigo  Atribuyes  Consigues  Atribuye  Consigue  Atribuimos  Consigimos  Atribuyen  Consiguen
  11. 11. Verbs like...Cer/cir Convencer Mecer Esparcir Remecer Ejercer Vencer Coercer Zurcir Example Conjugation  Example Conjugation for -cer: for cir: ◦ Conocer ◦ Decir  Conozco  Digo  Conoces  Dices  Conoce  Dice  Conocemos  Dicemos  Conocen  Decin
  12. 12. Verbs like...Ger/gir The yo form of ger and gir verbs changes the g to a j. Every other form uses a g. Example conjugation: ◦ Coger  Cojo  Coges  Coge  Cogemos  Cogeis  Cogen
  13. 13. Hace + __ + que +present/presente The Hacer expressions are formed by saying hace + a time length + que + present tense verb. They are used to state how long an action is taking.
  14. 14. Imperfecto Imperfecto tense is used to show an action that is not yet completed.Conjugation -Ar -Er / -Ir -aba -ía -abas -ías -aba -ía -ábamos -íamos -abáis -íais -aban -ían
  15. 15. Preterite  Past tense  Known beginning/and or ending  “snapshot” of timeConjugation:-AR -ER/IRÉ ÍAste IsteÓ IóAmos ImosAron ieron
  16. 16. Trigger Words Ayer Anoche Anteayer Las semana pasada El mes pasado El ano pasado El fin de semana pasada
  17. 17. Los irregularesCar Gar Zar Change in the preterite yo form Car > Qué Gar > gué Zar > cé
  18. 18. Spock Hacer: -hacer, hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicieron Ir/Ser: - fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron Dar/Ler: - d/vi, d/viste, d/vio, d/vimos, d/vimos, d/vieron
  19. 19. Cucaracha Andar/andujve  Traducir/Traduje Estar/Estuve  E Poder/Pude  Iste Poner/Puse  O Guerer/Guise  Imos Saber/Supe  Ieron Tener/Tuve  If j, take I off of Venir/Vine ieron. Conducir/Conduje Producir/Produje
  20. 20. Snake/Snakey Snakes  Snakeys ◦ Dormir ◦ Leer  Dormí  Leí  Dormiste  Leiste  Durmío  Leimos  Dormimos  Leyó  Durmieron  Leyeron
  21. 21. Comparatives Superiority ◦ más + (adjective/adverb) + que  Más + bonita + que Inferiority ◦ menos + (adjective/adverb) + que  Menos + alto + que Equality ◦ tan + (adjective/adverb) + como  As + tall + as ◦ tanto + (noun) + como  As many/much + money + as
  22. 22. Superlatives Superlatives compare two things as well, but it is the greatest degree of comparison. El/La + noun + mas/menos + adjective + de
  23. 23. Futuro Vivir Estar Comer Add below after ending of infinitive. -é -ás -á -emos -án
  24. 24. Futuro: Irregular Stem Decir: Dir to say Haber: Habr there to be, to have Hacer: Har to make, do Poder: Podr to put, place, set Querer: Querr to want, love Saber: Sabr to know a fact Salir: Saldr to leave, go out Tener: Tendr to have Valer: Valdr to be worth Venir: Vendr to come
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