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Logic model only represents reality, it is not reality Programs are not linear Programs are dynamic interrelationships that rarely follow sequential order Logic model focuses on expected outcomes: also need to pay attention to unintended or unexpected outcomes: positive, negative, neutral Challenge of causal attribution Program is likely to be just one of many factors influencing outcomes Consider other factors that may be affecting observed outcomes Does not “prove” that program caused results Contribution vs. attribution Doesn’t address: Are we doing the right thing
Relationships among the resources, the activities, and the changes or results.
Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact
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Logical chain of connections showing what the program is to accomplish What we do Who we reach What results INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES Program invest-ments Activities Participation Short Medium Long-term What we invest
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How will activities lead to desired outcomes? A series of if-then relationships We invest time and money Students struggling acade mical -ly can be tutored They will learn and improve their skills They will get better grades They will move to next grade level on time IF then IF Then IF then IF then We can provide tutoring 3 hrs/week for 1 school year to 50 children IF then Tutoring Program Example
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Logic Model Components
INPUTS : resources, contributions, investments that go into the program
OUTPUTS : activities, services, events and products that reach people who participate or who are targeted
OUTCOMES : results or changes for individuals, groups, communities, organizations, communities, or systems
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More Logic Model Elements
ASSUMPTIONS : the beliefs people have about the program, other people involved, and the context and the way people think the program will work
EXTERNAL FACTORS : the environment in which the program exists includes a variety of external factors that interact with and influence the program action
EVALUATION : a process of deciding what to evaluate, collecting information, analyzing that information, and reporting it
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Sample Logic Model
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Logic Model…
Represents intention, is not reality
Focuses on expected outcomes
Challenge of causal attribution
Many factors influence process and outcomes
Doesn’t address: Are we doing the right thing?
Limitations
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Relevance for Grant Proposals
Logic models are opportunities to think about plans, outcomes and measurement
Logic models help everyone get on the same page before proceeding with a project
Everything you put into a logic model can help you write a grant proposal
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Logic Model Resources
University of Wisconsin: http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html