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Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
Whats The Use Of Lectures
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Whats The Use Of Lectures

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  • 1. Lectures and presentation technology Stephen Bostock Teaching and Learning with Technology ? ?
  • 2. Summary Slide - an automatic ‘agenda’ slide with hyperlinks to four ‘custom shows’ of selected slides. <ul><li>What’s the use of lectures? Donald Bligh 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking University Education Laurillard 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to teach in HE Ramsden 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Possible uses of Lectures? </li></ul>
  • 3. What’s the use of lectures? Donald Bligh 1972 <ul><li>His review of research found that lectures </li></ul><ul><li>might be good for: </li></ul><ul><li>transmitting information ? </li></ul><ul><li>promoting thought ? </li></ul><ul><li>changing student attitudes ? </li></ul>
  • 4. What’s the use of lectures? Donald Bligh 1972 <ul><li>His review of research found that lectures </li></ul><ul><li>might be good for: </li></ul><ul><li>transmitting information ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as effective as other media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>promoting thought ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>changing student attitudes ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not very effective </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Rethinking University Education Laurillard 1993 <ul><li>Lectures are only one educational process: teacher transmits information </li></ul><ul><li>do not encourage dialogue, for example or encourage student reflection </li></ul><ul><li>‘ inspirational’ effects are rare and short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>many opportunities for student errors in getting information and making sense of it </li></ul><ul><li>lectures cannot deal with a variety of students </li></ul><ul><li>Q. why aren’t lectures scrapped? </li></ul>
  • 6. Rethinking University Education Laurillard 1993 <ul><li>Lectures are only one educational process: teacher transmits information </li></ul><ul><li>do not encourage dialogue, for example or encourage student reflection </li></ul><ul><li>‘ inspirational’ effects are rare and short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>many opportunities for student errors in getting information and making sense of it </li></ul><ul><li>lectures cannot deal with a variety of students </li></ul><ul><li>Q. why aren’t lectures scrapped? A. 800 years of tradition </li></ul>
  • 7. Learning to teach in HE Ramsden 1992 <ul><li>lectures are no more economical than other methods in transmitting information to large numbers </li></ul><ul><li>they are efficient , but less so than reading </li></ul><ul><li>they will ‘cover the ground’ by the teacher, but not by the student learning </li></ul><ul><li>students are passive and dependent, promoting a surface approach to learning </li></ul><ul><li>not effective for deep learning outcomes needing activity, responsibility, interaction </li></ul>
  • 8. Possible uses of Lectures? <ul><li>introduce a new topic, give an overview and relate to other topics, where detailed information comes later </li></ul><ul><li>course administration and changes </li></ul><ul><li>social function between students and with staff </li></ul><ul><li>engage student interest, motivation, stimulate thinking, make memorable demonstrations - difficult and rare! </li></ul><ul><li>some students like lectures </li></ul>
  • 9. Lecturing to large groups Andreson 1990 <ul><li>faced with bigger classes and more classes, two responses are possible for lectures </li></ul><ul><li>refinement as theatre: enhance style, techniques, presentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>augmentation with student activity, feedback, dialogue, using other media </li></ul>
  • 10. Lecturing to large groups Andreson 1990 <ul><li>faced with bigger classes and more classes, two responses are possible for lectures </li></ul><ul><li>refinement as theatre: enhance style, techniques, presentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>augmentation with student activity, feedback, dialogue, using other media </li></ul>better presentations less lecturing
  • 11. Lecture less but better <ul><li>Augmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ lecture’ less in Lectures bring student activity into lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have fewer Lectures (no space here) replace some lectures with more independent learning, resource-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refinement - lecture better use media and technology to make presentation of information more efficient </li></ul>
  • 12. ‘ lecture’ less in Lectures <ul><li>stop talking and let the learners do something, wake them up! </li></ul><ul><li>what could they do? what have you seen or tried? </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>students like well structured lectures but they also need variety to stay alert. So change the pace, activity, style, media, ... </li></ul><ul><li>maximum attention span : ______ mins </li></ul><ul><li>divide longer periods into blocks of varied activities with breaks </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. mini lecture + problem + buzz group + plenary + elaboration/clarification </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. students read the lecture handouts in small groups (20 min) + an overview </li></ul>‘ lecture’ less - vary the activities
  • 14. <ul><li>students like well structured lectures but they also need variety to stay alert. So change the pace, activity, style, media, ... </li></ul><ul><li>maximum attention span : 15 mins </li></ul><ul><li>divide longer periods into blocks of varied activities with breaks </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. mini lecture + problem + buzz group + plenary + elaboration/clarification </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. students read the lecture handouts in small groups (20 min) + an overview </li></ul>‘ lecture’ less - vary the activities
  • 15. Refinement - e.g. more efficient transmission <ul><li>give handouts of slides for accuracy and to save time especially e.g. diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>give ‘semi-notes’ with important points missing, incomplete diagrams, tables, bullets - instruct to complete </li></ul><ul><li>give ‘skeleton notes’ with structure + keywords only - to fill in </li></ul>note-taking is passive, boring and inefficient - look at their notes! So, for example ...
  • 16. Presentation software - advantages <ul><li>clear, legible text, good designs are easy </li></ul><ul><li>well structured, information in chunks </li></ul><ul><li>attractive colours, designs </li></ul><ul><li>include images, diagrams, charts </li></ul><ul><li>handouts are copies of screens but can have gaps, questions </li></ul><ul><li>use the same slides on digital projector, acetate, web pages, handouts, with different groups and locations </li></ul><ul><li>modifying presentations, reusing slides </li></ul>
  • 17. Presentation software - disadvantages <ul><li>many ready-made designs are too complex and print badly </li></ul><ul><li>imposes modular structure of slides and bullets, can fragment an argument or story </li></ul><ul><li>drawing is time-consuming, (but images are easy) </li></ul><ul><li>all content can look the same, boring </li></ul><ul><li>keeping 2 versions for handouts and screen, or hiding some slides </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint has limitations and irritations </li></ul><ul><li>file sizes are large! </li></ul>
  • 18. the end
  • 19. References <ul><li>Lee Andreson, Lecturing to large groups, in C. Rust, Teaching in Higher Education, 1990, SCED Paper 57, ISBN 0946815178 </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Bligh, What’s the use of lectures? Exeter: Intellect, 1998, 5th ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Diana Laurillard, Rethinking University Education, 1993, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09289-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Ramsden, Learning to teach in Higher Education, 1992, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-06415-5 </li></ul><ul><li>www.umist.ac.uk/apt/ for presentation technology </li></ul>

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