africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa
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africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa

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africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa africa re:load 14 Gluth - Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in East Africa Presentation Transcript

  • LightSHIP
    Inorganic Binder Systems for Innovative Panel Technology in
    East Africa
    G. J. G. Gluth, W. Z. Taffese, G. S. Kumaran, H. C. Uzoegbo, H.-C. Kühne
  • Urban population
    *projection
    Urban population in Africa
    World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision; United Nations: New York, 2008.
  • Need for affordable building materials
    Large increase in urban population
    e.g., population of Addis Ababa has doubled nearly every decade
    • Associated problem of enormous pressure on social and physical infrastructures (slums)
    Alemayehu, E. Y. PhD Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2008.
    • Large need for affordable buidling materials to construct housings, public buildings etc.
  • Magnesia boards
    Approach in Addis Ababa: production of partition boards from magnesium oxychloride cement
  • The LightSHIP project
    Partners:
    • EiABC / Addis Ababa University
    • KIST Kigali Institute of Science and Technology
    • University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
    • BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing
    • German-African Business Association
    • Consido AG
    Addis Ababa
    African partners
    Kigali
    Johannesburg
    European partners
    www.google.de/maps
    • Generation of a continuing scientific partnership in the sector of building materials research
    • Analysis of problems and possibilities of the participating African countries related to the design, application and testing of building materials
    • Evaluation of possible approaches to overcome these problems and ultimately to develop new building materials for East Africa
    • Preparatory tests on available building materials
    • Development and preparation of follow-up cooperation
    Project objectives
  • Specifications for building materials
    • Pre-fabricated elements are to be prefered.
    • optimised fabrication process and minimization of risk of failures
    • Elements should be easily transportable and easy to assemble.
    • The materials should be produced with the highest possible fraction of local resources.
    • Existing know-how in the participating countries should be used.
    • Artificial stones and partition boards
  • Lightweight concrete: mix design
    Superplasticizer:
    PCE1.38 kg/m³
    (0.44% of cement mass)
    * Blend of CEM I 32.5 R and CEM I 52.5 R (50% each)
    ** Water which is absorbed by the lightweight aggregates in the first 10 minutes.
  • Lightweight concrete: results
    • Bulk density: 1.19 g/cm³
    • Compressive strength (28 d): 18.8 MPa
    • Flexural strength (28 d): 1.3 MPa
    • Drawback: relies on Portland cement
  • Magnesium oxychloride cement
    • Compressive strength (28 d): 7.4 MPa
    with fibres (28 d): 8.7 MPa
    • Flexural strength (28 d): 2.3 MPa with fibres (28 d): 6.1 MPa
    • Water absorption: 9.4%
    • Drawback: poor water resistance
  • Lightweight partition boards
    • 4 point bending test (DIN 53293:1982)
    • Total thickness of board: 101 mm
    • Thickness of panels: 3 mm
    • Max. bending moment: 1.5 kNm/m
    • Flexural strength of panel: 5.4 MPa
  • Binder systems
    • Portland cement
    • too expensive; mostly imported; high energy consumption and CO2 emission
    • Magnesium oxychloride cement
    • poor water resistance
    Alternative: natural pozzolans (volcanic rock)
    • Abundant in East Africa because of the Great Rift Valley ( flood basalts)
    Addis Ababa
    • Easily available (open-pit mining)
    Kigali
    • Already used: pumice as filler or aggregate for concrete and mortar
    Dar es Salaam
    Linlongwe
    Wood, J.; Guth, A. (Michigan Technological University) http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml
  • Lime-pozzolan binders
    • Starting materials: lime + pozzolan
    • Dissolution of silicate in alkaline solution
    • Precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (and other hydrates)
    SiO2 + xCa(OH)2 + yH2O -> xCaO∙SiO2∙(x+y)H2O [“C-S-H“]
    Ortega E. A. et al. Cem. Concr. Res. 2000,30, 1641-1646.
    • Compressive strength: up to ~20 MPa
    • compacted: up to ~40 MPa
    • Flexural strength: ~3 MPa
    • need for fibre reinforcement (?)
  • Geopolymers
    • Starting material: aluminosilicate + alkaline activator
    • Dissolution of silicate and aluminate species in alkaline solution
    • Condensation and gelation of alkaline aluminosilicate gel
    • Reorganisation and crystallization (zeolites)
    Lloyd, R. R. et al. J. Mater. Sci. 2009,44, 608-619.
    • Compressive strength: up to ~80 MPa
    • Flexural strength: up to ~8 MPa
    • Short setting and hardening times
  • Summary
    • Partition boards and artificial stones are appropriate construction elements for East African countries.
    • Conventional binders based on Portland cement are too expensive.
    • Alternative binder systems could be lime-pozzolan binders or geopolymers based on natural pozzolans.
    • Abundant in East Africa
    • Cheap
    • Already in use
    • Contribution to less energy consumption and CO2 release
    • Lime-pozzolan binders can be strong enough to produce artificial stones.
    • The production of partition boards from lime-pozzolan binders may require the use of fibre reinforcement.  Use of geopolymers?
  • Thank-you‘s
    Thank you
    for your kind attention!
    Funding: