Building a semantic website
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Building a semantic website



A simple tutorial introducing methods and technologies used to build semantic websites, and why you should want to.

A simple tutorial introducing methods and technologies used to build semantic websites, and why you should want to.



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    Building a semantic website Building a semantic website Presentation Transcript

    • Build a semantic web website
    • What is the semantic web?
      • It is a very powerful way to access information on the web.
        • It is a “web of data” where everything is linked in.
        • It allows applications to “talk to each other”, reusing and sharing this data.
        • The data is shared via a common web architecture (e.g.URI's)
        • Relationships in the data are created by tools and some are also created manually.
        • Thus machines can interact with data and humans can access far more accurate and useful data.
    • How is it useful in practise?
      • You could not only access your photos, calendar, diary and so on, but also have relevant photos appear when you look at a specific event in your calendar
      • You could be writing a document and you could ask for other documents that you want to reference without having to look for them.
      • You can do a search and share that data with a friend or colleague, and relevant additional information that is relevant would be available to you both.
    • Why does this matter to my site?
      • Without semantic mark-up, databases, ontologies and so on, your site cannot be picked up by engines like Google and others able to use semantic elements.
      • Your site would then not get the visibility it deserves and could have.
      • Your competitors may have prepped their site already and although you show #1 in the rankings, they are have more pulling power than you do.
      • Mozilla are deploying a whole host of RDF tools
    • How does it work?
      • Instead of using hyperlinks to link documents, the SW can be linked to any 2 resources (not just one document). This is achieved using RDF, OWL, SKOS.
      • These allow you to describe documents, resources, people, categories, anything you like, in a machine readable way.
      • RDF also provides an XML based syntax.
      • These are linked by URI's
    • Example RDF
      • It's about Bob Dylan (from W3C schools)
    • Example OWL
      • This the famous “Koala Bear” example - “ Wine ” is
      • very thorough and a good tutorial though.
    • Example SKOS
      • “ Single knowledge organisation system reference”
      • From
    • GRDDL
      • It stands for “Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Language”.
      • It allows RDF triples to be extracted from XML documents like XHTML which is often used as an example.
      • GRDDL transformations can be attached to XML documents.
      • The output of that is an RDF representation of the data and it can be queried using SPARQL (don't worry, it's covered a few slides on)
      • There is a full example of GRDDL at W3C .
    • RDFa
      • It stands for “Resource Description Framework- in-attributes” and it extends XHTML.
      • It uses attributes from XHTML to allow you to tag everything up for semantic stuff.
      • It extracts RDF triples using a mapping method.
      • It allows for the data to be easily visible to humans and to machines, as the HTML and RDF are self-contained (separate).
      • Data is reusable. Non-duplicated, and each site can have its own standards.
      • See W3C for a good primer and examples.
    • URI's
      • URIs are the Nouns (Uniform Resource Identifier)
      • HTTP is the Verbs (GET, PUT, POST)
      • The URI as you may know is used for “mailto:”, “http:” and so on (used to be called URL).
      • They are used to access representations of resources.
      • URIs give RDF identifiers so statements can be made about statements.
    • Example URI
      • In N-Triple format (Plain text MIME format – represents the “correct” answers for parsing RDF)
        • <Bananas><are><yellow>
        • In URI format (the RDF is appended):
        • rdfuri:%3cBananas%3e%20%3are%3e%20%3cyellow%3e%20
        • There is a full list of official URI schemes to use here .
    • SPARQL
      • It stands for “SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language” pronounced “Sparkle”.
      • It's like an SQL language especially made for the SW.
      • It's based on the RDF framework and uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
      • It has a query language, access protocol and the RDF data model.
      • It's basically a search engine for the SW.
    • so...
      • You can retrieve data, as you would in a normal or even massive database using a relatively small application from the entire web.
      • You can query all comments, RSS feeds, images, FOAF, everything you might want want to all at the same time.
      • It's easy to code and very short too, even though it is very powerful
    • SPARQL example
      • This is from Wiki Musicontology – see there for more examples.
    • FOAF
      • This stands for “Friend Of A Friend”.
      • It allows you to create a file that sites with your website.
      • It is a machine readable social network where each profile has an individual URI.
      • In the FOAF file you state who you are connected to, which projects, any publications you've written, anything at all.
      • Their official site is here .
      • Also see Libby's blog here .
    • Example FOAF
      • The vocab specification is here , example from
    • There are tools to help you
      • Converter Tools:
        • - TopBraid (available as Eclipse Plugin)
        • - Put your Palm OS data into RDF
        • - MindSwap CSV to RDF
        • - FlickCurl – Flicker to RDF
        • - XML to RDF
        • - Manchester Uni Owl syntax converter
    • And more...
      • Development environments:
          • - Protege opensource java tool
          • - Jena Java Famework
          • - The RDFeditor
          • - Altova from Semanticworks
          • - RDFe in Python
          • - Simplistic RDF editor
    • And more...
      • RDF Generators:
        • - KWARC RDF extractor
        • - OpenCalais – superb
        • - Triplify plugin for applications
        • - Zemanta – I love it
        • - FOAF-Visualizer – to work with FOAF
        • - Foaf-o-matic to generate FOAF files
        • - Ruby RDF generator – for Ruby fans
    • And more...
      • Extras:
        • - MOAT – meaning of a tag
        • - Amalgram – good for linguists
        • - Allegrograph RDF store
        • - BrownSauce RDF browser
        • - Conceptool - check your ontologies
        • - Fact++ is an OWL reasoner
        • - Add semantics to Excel
        • - IBM semantic Layered Resource Platform
        • And there are many many more...
    • Tips
      • To put RDF into (X)HTML use RDFa which has an XHTML 1.1 module.
      • Use an RDF data browser to see RDF on the web such as Disco or OpenLink RDF – or a Firefox extension .
      • PingtheSemanticWeb is a good source of RDF all ready made and so is SchemaWeb
      • Oh and Dapper will semantify your site :)
    • Links
      • Book: “The explorer's guide to the semantic web”
      • Book: A Semantic web guide
      • Book: “ Semantic web for the working ontologist ”
      • Book: “ The explorers guide to the semantic web
      • Tim Berners-Lee – Why RDF is different to XML
      • RDF core working group
      • IBM: Planning a semantic website
      • Stanford: Semantic website clustering