A guide for the ‘Information Seeker” Andrew Brown is the academic channel director at Knovel, a web- based application which provides online quality engineering content to worldwide customers and universities. Brown (2012) comments on the value of the Librarian as an information specialist, manager and guide: “Educators want to make sure students are aware of information available outside of traditional search ….and the most credible information and the best answers may not be available on public websites.” and “Librarians and teachers play a critical role in the advancement of information literacy. Programs that introduce and encourage students to use a variety of credible resources will improve research skills that are vital to lifelong learning. Additionally, the ability to find and to discern credible information is required for success in the workplace. The earlier students develop these skills, the better.”
What is an Information Literate Person?As defined by the Association of College and Research Libraries, Presidential Committeeon Information Literacy: Final Report released on January 10, 1989, in Washington, D.C. • Those who have learned to learn. • They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information and how to use information so that others can learn from them. • They are people prepared for lifelong learning because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand.
The Information Literate Student This learning process would actively involve students in the process of: • knowing when they have a need for information • identifying information needed to address a given problem or issue • finding needed information and evaluating the information • organizing the information • using the information effectively to address the problem or issue at hand. Association of College & Research Libraries 1989
Skills to negotiate the Information Maze Reading Literacy Technology Literacy Information Literacy Students are able to read and Students possess the ability Students are able to identify when interpret the variety of printed to use, manage and information is needed, locate the and online information understand the technology most relevant sources and they will encounter available to them. demonstrate how to critically throughout their lives. evaluate and share information. Seymour Library supports students‟ development of Information Literacy skills by: Reading Literacy Technology Literacy Information Literacy Provision of a rich literature collection• Promoting reading engagement/ • Information access skills • Research skills literature circles • Mastering electronic • Critical evaluation techniques• Independent Reading referencing tools • Information ethics• Online information sources & forums
Developing the Information Literate person Model efficient and effective research skills based around a historical inquiry. Practice locating relevant sources and demonstrate how to evaluate and share information to develop each learners‟ information literacies. Encourage students to be confident yet discerning researchers. Develop an environment which celebrates lifelong learning in order to prepare students for life after Somerville.
How can we achieve this in the school environment? Collaboration – what do you suggest? At Somerville House… o With year level subject areas: introduce, review, practice and add to students‟ information literacy skills, with increasing complexity throughout each progressive year level. o With classroom teachers: whole class and individual guidance when students‟ needs are greatest – in conjunction with assessment. o Provision of Library Research Pathways o Participation in online student discussion forums
The practical steps Staff Technical – tutorials provided to staff on various programs eg MovieMaker / Scootle / YouTube / Databases / Microsoft Office Citation tool / PowerPoint Other libraries - organised excursions to State and University libraries - introduction to other library catalogues - organise free membership to State and National Libraries for access to a huge range of free online databases and websites New Print & Online Resources - sourcing to meet Curriculum needs - displays and presentations at Departmental meetings Communication of details on new resources / contents of print journals / online educational tools etc
Newspaper Archives Books Electric Library (all subject areas) Access through the Australia & New Zealand Reference Library catalogue Centre (all subject areas) Newstore Print National Library of Aus – historical archived newspapers Journals A range of print journals Databases are available for loan World Book Online (all subject areas) Seymour Library Gale World History in Context Portal (History) Global Issues in Context Databases/Online Journals (Issues database) Applicable to all Echo (Issues database) subject areas Gale Science in Context (Science) BrainPOP (Science) Online Literature Resource Centre Literature Reference Centre AustLit Websites on the The Source (Literature & Poetry) Library catalogueResearch Project ALII (Legal)Where can I find the Online Journals best resources to Australian Financial Review University Libraries meet my needs. Good Reading Magazine University of Qld SpineOut e-zine QUT Queensland Economic Review Griffith New Scientist Other Libraries Griffith Review Public & State Libraries Links on Seymour Library Portal Brisbane City Council State Library of Qld Apply for membership online. Extensive list of Databases and National Library of Aust Outside Seymour resources available online. Library Walls Search Engines Use Advanced Search The Internet - Skills to Be aware of domain names Search and Evaluate eg .gov (Government) or Information on Advanced Searching country code eg .au (Australia) and evaluation techniques on the Seymour Library Portal. Internet Invisible Web Subject Directories are often Subject Directories - links on created by librarians and Seymour Library Portal subject experts for a specific LII / Infomine / Scirius audience.
The practical steps Students Year 7 - programmed lessons / general intro to basic library/research skills Pre and post testing of skills Year 8 – programmed lessons to introduce more specific skills in conjunction with students‟ first history assessment. (Great Britain – Middle Ages) Research skills are assessed as part of the assignment.
The practical steps All year levels - collaboration with classroom teachers Ensure print and online resources meet curriculum needs /attend Curriculum meetings /liaise frequently with classroom teachers Booking system to alert Librarians: Research pathways created Team teaching to introduce relevant skills/resources to classes as well as providing individual assistance to students
The programs…. Year 7 - at the start of the year, 6 lessons per class. Pre-test and post test to evaluate program. An introduction and overview of library/ research skills. Lessons incorporate topics being studied eg History (Qin Dynasty) and Science (Food Webs). Feedback from teaching staff confirms that students are more aware of the quality of their sources as indicated by their bibliographies eg online sources include databases, encyclopedias, education/government sites.
Students set up a split screen to enable themto search and fill out the question sheet (kept in their library folder for future reference)
Introduce Search Engines or Directorieswith content evaluated by research experts.http://www.sweetsearch.com/http://lii.org/http://infomine.ucr.edu
Google is good, Libraries are better. (2010) A humourous comment on the benefits of the „human‟ search engine.
Year 8 program Librarians and teachers collaborate to deliver information literacy skills refresher integrated into the students‟ first history assessment Medieval Britain (William the Conqueror). Students complete a Research Planner. (included as part of their assessment) Research Planner is reviewed annually. Variations to this format are also completed as part of history assessments in Year 7 and Year 9.
Year 8 Research skills & Planner- links to ‘PowerPoint on research skills’ and ‘Research Planner’The Research Planner must be handed in with the assignment and isassessed on the Criteria Sheet.
All Year Levels At the beginning of the first research assignment, librarians provide classes with a review of resources (both within the library and outside of library) which will be relevant to the year level. Throughout the year: Teachers advise librarians of current research topics and provide a list if students are focusing on their own historical research question. Librarians spend time with classes during research and offer individual assistance. Close collaboration between teacher and librarians leads to individual targeted intervention when required. As the Librarian is subscribed to all subject pages and forums, we are included in all communication between teachers and students. Enables librarian to upload relevant documents or participate in forum conversations.
All year levels – pathways to information What are Pathways/Pathfinders To support assignment research, Seymour Library creates Pathways A pathway or pathfinder does not necessarily contain a complete list of sources on a topic. Rather it serves as a model and guide for the user to find his/her own specific information on a topic. Universities also provide guides to subject specific resources called Subject Guides. Examples of University of Qld Subject Guides
Somertube Somertube is an initiative of the Somerville House Director of eLearning in collaboration with Seymour Library and Technology Services. Somertube is the designated name for the Somerville House media server which is a repository for virtual learning objects, free to air film and documentaries, interactive PowerPoints and any other media created by teachers or students. It is extensively used by the History Department to display samples of student work. Because it is accessible via the Library catalogue, it is searchable and can be viewed on any student or staff laptop or PC. Librarians guide students in accessing and editing video material to add to multimodal presentations
Creating video tutorials Preference is for locally created tutorials as they can be specific to the age group/task. The school provides Camtasia but I have used screen capture freeware such as: Wink / Camstudio / Screencastomatic freeware Examples: 1. Searching the Library Catalogue 2. Advanced Search Techniques in Google Google also provides standard and more advanced tutorials. Power Searching with Google
Online Referencing Guide- for more detailed examples
Harvard referencing - as supported by the QueenslandSchool Library Association of Queensland
Self paced exercise on referencing provided for Year 11s and 12s
The School Library providing a welcoming place and space continuously reflecting on the current and future needs of the client. Whole school surveys (staff and students) conducted every 3 years using „Survey Monkey‟. Conan the Librarian (2006)
Referencing Did you arrive at university with a basic understanding of how to reference your assignments? 1.6% Yes No 98.4% When you graduated from Somerville House, how would you rate your knowledge of referencing/bibliographies? 13.9% Basic knowledge - has some knowledge of the process Competent knowledge - has 44.4% a reasonable/good knowledge of the process Sound knowledge - has a well developed knowledge of the process 41.7%
Advanced Search techniques Have Advanced Search techniques been helpful when researching both the Internet and Databases? 8.2% Yes No 91.8%
Access to free academic print sources anddatabases for all students Access University catalogues online to view resources. Students are welcome to visit University Libraries to research books and print journals. Most University Libraries are open evenings and week-ends for all researchers - check the following websites to view the catalogue and opening times. Griffith University Queensland University of Technology University of Queensland Note: If your school library is a member of the University of Queensland Cyberschool community, the University of Queensland offers Year 11 & Year 12 Somerville House students the opportunity to borrow from their libraries. State Library of Queensland - visit the State Library in South Brisbane (see website for opening hours) - access catalogue to view range of resources - become a member (get a library card) online - members can access a huge range of databases free online National Library of Australia - access catalogue to view range of resources - become a member (get a library card) online - members can access a huge range of databases free online http://www.qhatlas.com.au/
Finally…… Research involves thoughts and feelings as well as actions. Carol Kuhlthau (Professor II Emerita, Library and Information Science, School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University) reminds us that the Information Search Process can be monitored so that we can be aware of when students may feel uncertain, vague or confused.
Carol Kuhlthau (n.d.) Information Search ProcessInitiation, when a person first becomes aware of a lack of knowledge or understanding and feelings of uncertaintyand apprehension are common.Selection, when a general area, topic, or problem is identified and initial uncertainty often gives way to a briefsense of optimism and a readiness to begin the search.Exploration, when inconsistent, incompatible information is encountered and uncertainty, confusion, and doubtfrequently increase and people find themselves “in the dip” of confidence.Formulation, when a focused perspective is formed and uncertainty diminishes as confidence begins to increase.Collection, when information pertinent to the focused perspective is gathered and uncertainty subsides asinterest and involvement deepens.Presentation, when the search is completed with a new understanding enabling the person to explain his or herlearning to others or in someway put the learning to use.
BibliographyAmerican Association of School Librarians 2007, „Standards for the 21st-Century Learner‟, American Library Association, viewed 15 November 2012, http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/guidelinesandstandards /learningstandards/AASL_Learning_Standards_2007.pdfAmerican Library Association 2001, „A library advocates guide to building better information literate communities.‟, viewed 15 November 2012, http://www.ala.org/offices/sites/ala.org.offices/files/content/ola/informationlite racy.pdfAssociation of College & Research Libraries 1989, „Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Report‟, American Library Association, viewed 10 November 2012, http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidentialBrown, A. 2012, „Educating Millennials: Information literacy neither starts or ends with Wikipedia‟, Information Today, vol. 29, no. 5, p. 9, viewed 23 November, 2012, in Australia and New Zealand Reference Centre database.„Conan the Librarian’ 2006, online video clip, YouTube, viewed 22 November 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZHoHaAYHq8„Google is good. Libraries are better.‟ 2010, online video clip, YouTube, viewed 21 November 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IW_ubJJ8SnE
„Inquiry into school libraries and teacher librarians in Australian schools‟ n.d., House of Representatives Committees, Parliament of Australia, viewed 01 November 2012, http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Repre sentativeHerrick, S. 2012, „The School Librarian‟, online video clip, YouTube, viewed 20 November 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wPRJgy5Y1cAHeye, D. „Shushing Librarian‟, online picture, Obnoxious Librarian from Hades, retreived 14 November 2012, http://olfh.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/one- where-we-revive-shushing-skills.htmlKhulthau, C. 2012, „Information Search Process‟, Department of Library and Information Science, Rutgers University, viewed 20 October 2012, http://comminfo.rutgers.edu/~kuhlthau/information_search_process.htmLackie, R.J.2007, „Superlibrarian : Virus‟, online picture, Library Garden, retrieved 14 November 2012, http://librarygarden.net/2007/05/05/free-comic-book-day- highlighting-super-librarian-comic-in-nj-2/Moore, T. n.d., „Look it up‟, online picture, retrieved 14 November 2012, http://www.strangersinparadise.com/Wiese, K. 2010, „Creating a standard of positivity‟, InCite, vol. 31, no. 7, p. 15, viewed 23 November 2012, in Australia and New Zealand Reference Centre database.