Crop residue management


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Crop residue management

  1. 1. Crop Residue Management<br />Stubble ManagementCrop residue cuttingResidue managers<br />Jack McHugh<br />Contributions from Dr Jack Desbiolles (Ashworth et al., 2010) and Baker et al., (2007)<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Tine systems: short residue, well spread to maximise trash flow<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />Discs Systems: Long residue, well spread.<br />Minimise blade interaction – cut high & spread chaff evenly <br />Orientation of crop residue is significant factor in disc seeder performance and crop establishment<br />
  4. 4. Stubble management for disc seeders<br />Retain stubble, uniformity of spread<br />Benefits<br />Limitations<br />Increase handling problems. (Hair pinning, poor clearance)<br />Reduced herbicide efficacy<br />Reduced soil erosion<br />Increase water infiltration (matting?)<br />Increased OM and C sequestration<br />Reduced evap - Increased WUE<br />Heat insulation<br />Weed smothering<br />Nutrient release<br />Thereforemaximise stubble height<br />Reduced hair pinning<br />Increase water capture <br />Reduced evap from wind<br />Even soil moisture and crop estab<br />Seedling protection<br />Integrated before sowing (herbicide) IBS improved<br />Further increases in WUE<br />Reduced radiation and soil temp<br />Inter row evap and run off<br />
  5. 5. Inter row sowing<br />Benefits<br />Limitations<br />Minimise disc opener residue interaction<br />Access to all agronomic benefits<br />Best IBS operation<br />Investment in precision guidance<br />Implement tracking<br />Unsuitable for narrow row (<22mm)<br />Increased seeding rates<br />Possible nutrient deficiency<br />
  6. 6. Knife rollers<br />Characteristics & Operations<br />Maximum benefits<br />but – must operate seeder in same direction of rolling…..if not:<br /><ul><li>Reduced penetration
  7. 7. Reduced row clearance
  8. 8. Reduced emergence </li></li></ul><li>Spreading and chopping<br />Critical<br />Reducing chaff and stubble density by harvesting high & spreading evenly<br />Pinning reduced <br />Reduced humidity<br />Better furrow closure<br />Reduced soil moisture variability<br />Optimise weed control (pre-emergents)<br />Spreading improves with cutting height – straw full width & chaff at least 50%<br /><ul><li> rotor speed and deflector setting critical</li></ul>Chopping: <br />Higher input<br />Reduces width<br />Nutrient tie up<br />Reduced establishment<br />Reduced herbicide effectiveness<br />Pest and disease pressure (rotation)<br />Increased runoff (matting)<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Crop Residue Cutting<br />Cutting – application of sliding and wedging forces<br />High disc speed improves sliding (Bubble, ripple, turbo + sweep angle to increase speed ratio)<br />Strong soil backing maximises wedging<br />Other factors:<br />Disc size (Larger is best but Increased draft)<br />Disc sweep angle (drive, self sharpen, disturbance)<br />Depth (Deeper is best but pinning can occur)<br />Notch & tooth features (Deeper, drive, shear & sliding action, lower vertical forces)<br />Sharpness and fineness (improved wedging action – maintenance critical)<br />Avoid the residue (inter row, directional rolling) <br />CA Transplanter video<br />
  11. 11. Crop Residue Managers<br />
  12. 12. Crop Residue Managers<br />Designed to improve stubble handling by :<br />Removing (row cleaners)<br />Improve residue cutting (pinning)<br />Clear the path (ground driven, notched curved straight fingers, toothed, coulter style)<br />Adjustable (to dir of travel – flexibility for heavy or wet residue and soft soils)<br />Floatation for least soil disturbance<br /> Fixed (only float attached to seeding unit, must be close to opener)<br /> Floating (fully independent)<br />
  13. 13. Aggressive – large amounts of residue – soil for drive<br />Wide – more residue clearance<br />Off set – soft conditions<br />
  14. 14. Flotation and drive – suited to soft soils – can be used for herbicide incorporation<br />General specifications<br />Down pressure (adjustable springs to cope with load)<br />Contour following (swing arm/parallelogram - independent of opener)<br />Flotation (treader wheels or depth rings)<br />Adjustable aggressiveness(minimum opening – limited by rows)<br />Maintain high speed (8-10km – monitor performance. Erosion, moisture loss, crusting)<br />
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