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Biodiversity in the MontereyBay National Marine Sanctuary                    QuickTime™ and a                      decompr...
Outline• History of National Marine Sanctuaries• What is a NMS?• Monterey Bay NMS• Biodiversity   – Wetlands   – Beaches &...
History
Santa Barbara Oil Spill• Jan. 29, 1969• 3 million gallons of oil                                          QuickTime™ and a...
Marine Protection, Research,and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)• 1972• National Marine Sanctuaries Act• Ecologically or culturally...
What is a NMS?•   Undersea counterpart to National Parks•   Unique/unusual habitats•   Sensitive or endangered species•   ...
Federal Organization                            Department of Commerce (DOC)                  National Oceanic & Atmospher...
National Marine Sanctuaries•   USS Monitor (NC)- 1975•   Channel Islands (CA) - 1980•   Gulf of the Farallones (CA)- 1981•...
Monterey Bay NMS•   Established 1992•   Largest of the 13 NMS•   5,300 sq mi                                   QuickTime™ ...
Monterey Submarine Canyon• 10,633 ft (~2 mi) deepest point  – Twice as deep as the Grand Canyon!• Area of continued resear...
Code of Conduct• Allowed activities:   – Fishing (recreational and commercial)• Prohibited activities:   – NO exploring fo...
Habitats
Wetlands                         QuickTime™ and a                           decompressor                 are needed to see...
• Break down pollutants and purify water• Nutrient rich  – Decaying plants and animals - detritus• Feeding ground for bird...
QuickTime™ and a                                                                         QuickTime™ and a          decompr...
Beaches & Dunes            QuickTime™ and a              decompressor    are needed to see this picture.
• Sand dunes constantly changing  – Waves  – Wind                      QuickTime™ and a                        decompresso...
QuickTime™ and a                         QuickTime™ and a                                                decompressor     ...
Rocky Shores          QuickTime™ and a            decompressor  are needed to see this picture.
• Tide pools• 4 intertidal zones  – Splash zone                      QuickTime™ and a                                     ...
Splash Zone• Crashing waves• Covered by water for a few hours/day• Hardy animals                                          ...
High Intertidal Zone  • Covered by water about 1/2 the day                                            QuickTime™ and a    ...
Middle Intertidal Zone      • Covered by water most of the day                                                            ...
Low Intertidal Zone      • Normally always covered by water                                             QuickTime™ and a  ...
QuickTime™ and a                                                                          QuickTime™ and a          decomp...
Coral Reefs          QuickTime™ and a            decompressor  are needed to see this picture.
• Home to larger animals                                                                                     QuickTime™ an...
QuickTime™ and a                      QuickTime™ and a            decompressor                          decompressor  are ...
Kelp Forests           QuickTime™ and a             decompressor   are needed to see this picture.
• Brown algae         QuickTime™ and a                  QuickTime™ and a           decompressor                      decom...
• Nutrients absorbed throughout plant  – Holdfasts, stipes, blades• MB is perfect habitat  – Cold water  – Nutrient-rich  ...
QuickTime™ and a                    QuickTime™ and a            decompressor                        decompressor  are need...
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Sandy Sea Floor         QuickTime™ and a           decompressor are needed to see this picture.
“Flat things and squishy things”         QuickTime™ and a                  QuickTime™ and a           decompressor        ...
Flat fish   • The migrating eye…                                          QuickTime™ and a                                ...
QuickTime™ and a                                                      QuickTime™ and a           decompressor             ...
Meet the Octopus           QuickTime™ and a                                                         QuickTime™ and a      ...
Octopus Outline•   Classification•   Habitat•   Appearance•   Diet•   Reproduction
Classification•   Phylum Mollusca•   Class Cephalopoda•   Order Octopoda•   Genus Octopus, Enteroctopus, etc.
Habitat• Found in every ocean at every depth• Live in dens• Burrow in mud, hole in rock, empty  shell, coral, beer bottle ...
Appearance•   Camouflage•   Change entire appearance in <1 sec.•   Color, texture, shape•   Move arms
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a                      decompressor            are needed to see this picture.Mimic OctopusThaumoctopus mim...
Diet• Eat almost anything that can’t get away• Crabs, clams, fish                                                  QuickTi...
QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Sex at Last!•   Mating and reproduction occurs at end of life•   Males die after mating - senescence•   Females die after ...
Now, back to our regularly  scheduled program…
Open Waters                        QuickTime™ and a                          decompressor                are needed to see...
• Floaters, drifters, and swimmers        QuickTime™ and a                                                    QuickTime™ a...
QuickTime™ and a                         QuickTime™ and a           decompressor are needed to see this picture.          ...
QuickTime™ and a           decompressor                                                                QuickTime™ and a ar...
Deep Sea           QuickTime™ and a             decompressor   are needed to see this picture.
•   Great pressure                      QuickTime™ and a•                                          decompressor    Cold (3...
QuickTime™ and a          QuickTime™ and a                                                           decompressor         ...
Monterey Bay Aquarium              QuickTime™ and a                decompressor      are needed to see this picture.
Open Sea Exhibit• 1 million gallon tank• Pumps in water straight from Bay                       QuickTime™ and a          ...
QuickTime™ and a                  QuickTime™ and a                          decompressor                      decompressor...
Kelp Forest Exhibit• 28 ft tall tank                            QuickTime™ and a                              decompressor...
QuickTime™ and a                                    decompressor                          are needed to see this picture. ...
Giant Pacific Octopus              QuickTime™ and a                decompressor      are needed to see this picture.
Outdoor Exhibits           QuickTime™ and a             decompressor   are needed to see this picture.
“The mission of the nonprofit Monterey Bay Aquarium is        to inspire conservation of the oceans.”                     ...
Conclusion• National Marine Sanctuaries Act  – Ecological and cultural importance• Monterey Bay NMS is made up of a variet...
References•   Ambrose, R.F. 1984. Food preferences, food availability and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus    Verrill. Jour...
Questions?        QuickTime™ and a          decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Mbnms semiar
Mbnms semiar
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Transcript of "Mbnms semiar"

  1. 1. Biodiversity in the MontereyBay National Marine Sanctuary QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Megan Childers
  2. 2. Outline• History of National Marine Sanctuaries• What is a NMS?• Monterey Bay NMS• Biodiversity – Wetlands – Beaches & Dunes – Rocky Shores – Coral Reefs – Kelp Forests – Sandy Sea Floor • Octopus – Open Waters – Deep Sea• Monterey Bay Aquarium• Conclusion
  3. 3. History
  4. 4. Santa Barbara Oil Spill• Jan. 29, 1969• 3 million gallons of oil QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• Severe impacts on wildlife QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  5. 5. Marine Protection, Research,and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)• 1972• National Marine Sanctuaries Act• Ecologically or culturally significant• Resource protection, research, education, public use• NMS Mission: – “…to manage marine areas of special national significance to protect their ecological and cultural integrity for the benefit of current and future generations.”
  6. 6. What is a NMS?• Undersea counterpart to National Parks• Unique/unusual habitats• Sensitive or endangered species• Rich biological diversity• Open to the public
  7. 7. Federal Organization Department of Commerce (DOC) National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Sanctuaries & Reserve DivisionNMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS
  8. 8. National Marine Sanctuaries• USS Monitor (NC)- 1975• Channel Islands (CA) - 1980• Gulf of the Farallones (CA)- 1981• Gray’s Reef (GA)- 1981• Fagatele Bay (American Samoa) - 1986• Cordell Bank (CA) - 1989• Florida Keys (FL)- 1990• Flower Garden Banks (Gulf of Mexico)- 1992• Monterey Bay (CA)- 1992• Stellwagen Bank (MA)- 1992• Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale (HI)- 1992• Olympic Coast (WA)- 1994• Thunder Bay (MI)- 2000
  9. 9. Monterey Bay NMS• Established 1992• Largest of the 13 NMS• 5,300 sq mi QuickTime™ and a decompressor• 275 mi along CA coast are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  10. 10. Monterey Submarine Canyon• 10,633 ft (~2 mi) deepest point – Twice as deep as the Grand Canyon!• Area of continued research – Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  11. 11. Code of Conduct• Allowed activities: – Fishing (recreational and commercial)• Prohibited activities: – NO exploring for or developing or producing oil, gas, or mineral resources – NO discharging or depositing any materials in the water – NO altering the seabed or constructing new structures (ex: piers) – NO harassing marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds – NO operating personal watercraft except in designated areas
  12. 12. Habitats
  13. 13. Wetlands QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Elkhorn Slough
  14. 14. • Break down pollutants and purify water• Nutrient rich – Decaying plants and animals - detritus• Feeding ground for birds• 4 subhabitats – Waterways – Mud flats QuickTime™ and a – decompressor Salt marshes are needed to see this picture. – Uplands
  15. 15. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and aMud Crab decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fat Innkeeper Worm Snowy Egret QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Pacific Herring Bat Ray
  16. 16. Beaches & Dunes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  17. 17. • Sand dunes constantly changing – Waves – Wind QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  18. 18. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Peregrine Falcon Smith’s Blue Butterfly*Marbled Murrelet* QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Steller Sea Lion*Black Legless Lizard* California Least Tern*
  19. 19. Rocky Shores QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  20. 20. • Tide pools• 4 intertidal zones – Splash zone QuickTime™ and a decompressor – High intertidal zone are needed to see this picture. – Middle intertidal zone – Low intertidal zone
  21. 21. Splash Zone• Crashing waves• Covered by water for a few hours/day• Hardy animals QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Acorn Barnacle Limpet
  22. 22. High Intertidal Zone • Covered by water about 1/2 the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Ochre StarAggregating Anemone Shore Crab
  23. 23. Middle Intertidal Zone • Covered by water most of the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Red AbaloneSea Urchin Coralline Sculpin
  24. 24. Low Intertidal Zone • Normally always covered by water QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sea SpongeOpalescent Nudibranch Orange Sea Cucumber
  25. 25. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Brown Pelican Brandt’s Cormorant California Sea Lion QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Harbor Seal Sea Otter*
  26. 26. Coral Reefs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  27. 27. • Home to larger animals QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Sea StarGiant Green Anemone QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Acorn Barnacle
  28. 28. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Giant Octopus Leopard Shark QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Blue Rockfish Wolf-Eel
  29. 29. Kelp Forests QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  30. 30. • Brown algae QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Bull Kelp Giant Kelp Nereocystis Macrocystis
  31. 31. • Nutrients absorbed throughout plant – Holdfasts, stipes, blades• MB is perfect habitat – Cold water – Nutrient-rich QuickTime™ and a – Rocks for holdfasts decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  32. 32. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Giant KelpfishGaribaldi QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sheephead Sea Urchins
  33. 33. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  34. 34. Sandy Sea Floor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  35. 35. “Flat things and squishy things” QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sand Dollar Thornback Ray QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Angel Shark California Halibut
  36. 36. Flat fish • The migrating eye… QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  37. 37. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Moon Snail Rainbow Nudibranch QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor Sea Pen are needed to see this picture.Sea Cucumber Market Squid
  38. 38. Meet the Octopus QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Red Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor Giant Pacific Octopus are needed to see this picture.Octopus rubescens Enteroctopus dofleini California Two-Spot Octopus Octopus bimaculoides
  39. 39. Octopus Outline• Classification• Habitat• Appearance• Diet• Reproduction
  40. 40. Classification• Phylum Mollusca• Class Cephalopoda• Order Octopoda• Genus Octopus, Enteroctopus, etc.
  41. 41. Habitat• Found in every ocean at every depth• Live in dens• Burrow in mud, hole in rock, empty shell, coral, beer bottle QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  42. 42. Appearance• Camouflage• Change entire appearance in <1 sec.• Color, texture, shape• Move arms
  43. 43. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  44. 44. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  45. 45. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  46. 46. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  47. 47. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Mimic OctopusThaumoctopus mimicus
  48. 48. Diet• Eat almost anything that can’t get away• Crabs, clams, fish QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  49. 49. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  50. 50. Sex at Last!• Mating and reproduction occurs at end of life• Males die after mating - senescence• Females die after eggs hatch• Males have erectile tissue - ligula – First finding in invertebrate QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  51. 51. Now, back to our regularly scheduled program…
  52. 52. Open Waters QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Green Sea Turtle*
  53. 53. • Floaters, drifters, and swimmers QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Plankton Bluefin Tuna Egg-Yolk Jelly
  54. 54. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Purple-Striped Jelly Pacific White-Sided Dolphin QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Ocean Sunfish Blue Shark
  55. 55. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Sperm Whale* QuickTime™ and a California Gray Whale decompressor are needed to see this picture. Killer Whale QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Humpback Whale* Blue Whale*
  56. 56. Deep Sea QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  57. 57. • Great pressure QuickTime™ and a• decompressor Cold (39°F) are needed to see this picture.• Dark• Bioluminescence• Food scarcity – Detritus and drift kelp from above
  58. 58. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Cock-Eyed SquidAnglerfish QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dumbo Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Northern Lampfish Midwater Jelly
  59. 59. Monterey Bay Aquarium QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  60. 60. Open Sea Exhibit• 1 million gallon tank• Pumps in water straight from Bay QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  61. 61. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture.are needed to see this picture.
  62. 62. Kelp Forest Exhibit• 28 ft tall tank QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  63. 63. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  64. 64. Giant Pacific Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  65. 65. Outdoor Exhibits QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  66. 66. “The mission of the nonprofit Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the oceans.” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  67. 67. Conclusion• National Marine Sanctuaries Act – Ecological and cultural importance• Monterey Bay NMS is made up of a variety habitats – Wetlands to Deep Sea• Remarkable biodiversity – Octopus• Monterey Bay Aquarium inspires conservation
  68. 68. References• Ambrose, R.F. 1984. Food preferences, food availability and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verrill. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77: 29-44.• Craig, J., A.J. Jamieson, P.M. Bagley, and I.G. Pirede. 2011. Naturally occurring bioluminescence on the deep-sea floor. Journal of Marine Systems 88 (4): 563-567.• Hanlon, R. 2007. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage. Current Biology 17 (11): 400-404.• Jessup, D. A., M. Miller, J. Ames, M. Harris, C. Kreuder, P.A. Conrad, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2004. Southern sea otter as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. EcoHealth 1: 239-245.• Mather, Jennifer A., Roland C. Anderson, and James B. Wood. Octopus: The Ocean’s Intelligent Invertebrate. Portland: Timber Press, 2010. Print.• Mautner, Don. ENVS 282 - Monterey Bay: A Case Study in Environmental Science and Policy. California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA. Jan.-May 2012. Lecture/Class.• McDonnell, P.J. 2008. Symmetrical versus asymmetrical globe placement: It’s no fluke. Ophthalmology Times 33 (22): 4-4. 2/3 p.• Monterey Bay Aquarium. A Natural History of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, 1997. Print.• NOAA. 2009. Nat’l Marine Sanctuaries – America’s ocean and Great Lakes treasures. NOAA Fact Sheet, 2 p.• http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/• http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/
  69. 69. Questions? QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
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