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    Mbnms semiar Mbnms semiar Presentation Transcript

    • Biodiversity in the MontereyBay National Marine Sanctuary QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Megan Childers
    • Outline• History of National Marine Sanctuaries• What is a NMS?• Monterey Bay NMS• Biodiversity – Wetlands – Beaches & Dunes – Rocky Shores – Coral Reefs – Kelp Forests – Sandy Sea Floor • Octopus – Open Waters – Deep Sea• Monterey Bay Aquarium• Conclusion
    • History
    • Santa Barbara Oil Spill• Jan. 29, 1969• 3 million gallons of oil QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• Severe impacts on wildlife QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
    • Marine Protection, Research,and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)• 1972• National Marine Sanctuaries Act• Ecologically or culturally significant• Resource protection, research, education, public use• NMS Mission: – “…to manage marine areas of special national significance to protect their ecological and cultural integrity for the benefit of current and future generations.”
    • What is a NMS?• Undersea counterpart to National Parks• Unique/unusual habitats• Sensitive or endangered species• Rich biological diversity• Open to the public
    • Federal Organization Department of Commerce (DOC) National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Sanctuaries & Reserve DivisionNMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS
    • National Marine Sanctuaries• USS Monitor (NC)- 1975• Channel Islands (CA) - 1980• Gulf of the Farallones (CA)- 1981• Gray’s Reef (GA)- 1981• Fagatele Bay (American Samoa) - 1986• Cordell Bank (CA) - 1989• Florida Keys (FL)- 1990• Flower Garden Banks (Gulf of Mexico)- 1992• Monterey Bay (CA)- 1992• Stellwagen Bank (MA)- 1992• Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale (HI)- 1992• Olympic Coast (WA)- 1994• Thunder Bay (MI)- 2000
    • Monterey Bay NMS• Established 1992• Largest of the 13 NMS• 5,300 sq mi QuickTime™ and a decompressor• 275 mi along CA coast are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Monterey Submarine Canyon• 10,633 ft (~2 mi) deepest point – Twice as deep as the Grand Canyon!• Area of continued research – Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Code of Conduct• Allowed activities: – Fishing (recreational and commercial)• Prohibited activities: – NO exploring for or developing or producing oil, gas, or mineral resources – NO discharging or depositing any materials in the water – NO altering the seabed or constructing new structures (ex: piers) – NO harassing marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds – NO operating personal watercraft except in designated areas
    • Habitats
    • Wetlands QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Elkhorn Slough
    • • Break down pollutants and purify water• Nutrient rich – Decaying plants and animals - detritus• Feeding ground for birds• 4 subhabitats – Waterways – Mud flats QuickTime™ and a – decompressor Salt marshes are needed to see this picture. – Uplands
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and aMud Crab decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fat Innkeeper Worm Snowy Egret QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Pacific Herring Bat Ray
    • Beaches & Dunes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • • Sand dunes constantly changing – Waves – Wind QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Peregrine Falcon Smith’s Blue Butterfly*Marbled Murrelet* QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Steller Sea Lion*Black Legless Lizard* California Least Tern*
    • Rocky Shores QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • • Tide pools• 4 intertidal zones – Splash zone QuickTime™ and a decompressor – High intertidal zone are needed to see this picture. – Middle intertidal zone – Low intertidal zone
    • Splash Zone• Crashing waves• Covered by water for a few hours/day• Hardy animals QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Acorn Barnacle Limpet
    • High Intertidal Zone • Covered by water about 1/2 the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Ochre StarAggregating Anemone Shore Crab
    • Middle Intertidal Zone • Covered by water most of the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Red AbaloneSea Urchin Coralline Sculpin
    • Low Intertidal Zone • Normally always covered by water QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sea SpongeOpalescent Nudibranch Orange Sea Cucumber
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Brown Pelican Brandt’s Cormorant California Sea Lion QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Harbor Seal Sea Otter*
    • Coral Reefs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • • Home to larger animals QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Sea StarGiant Green Anemone QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Acorn Barnacle
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Giant Octopus Leopard Shark QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Blue Rockfish Wolf-Eel
    • Kelp Forests QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • • Brown algae QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Bull Kelp Giant Kelp Nereocystis Macrocystis
    • • Nutrients absorbed throughout plant – Holdfasts, stipes, blades• MB is perfect habitat – Cold water – Nutrient-rich QuickTime™ and a – Rocks for holdfasts decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Giant KelpfishGaribaldi QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sheephead Sea Urchins
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • Sandy Sea Floor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • “Flat things and squishy things” QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sand Dollar Thornback Ray QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Angel Shark California Halibut
    • Flat fish • The migrating eye… QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Moon Snail Rainbow Nudibranch QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor Sea Pen are needed to see this picture.Sea Cucumber Market Squid
    • Meet the Octopus QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Red Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor Giant Pacific Octopus are needed to see this picture.Octopus rubescens Enteroctopus dofleini California Two-Spot Octopus Octopus bimaculoides
    • Octopus Outline• Classification• Habitat• Appearance• Diet• Reproduction
    • Classification• Phylum Mollusca• Class Cephalopoda• Order Octopoda• Genus Octopus, Enteroctopus, etc.
    • Habitat• Found in every ocean at every depth• Live in dens• Burrow in mud, hole in rock, empty shell, coral, beer bottle QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Appearance• Camouflage• Change entire appearance in <1 sec.• Color, texture, shape• Move arms
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Mimic OctopusThaumoctopus mimicus
    • Diet• Eat almost anything that can’t get away• Crabs, clams, fish QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
    • Sex at Last!• Mating and reproduction occurs at end of life• Males die after mating - senescence• Females die after eggs hatch• Males have erectile tissue - ligula – First finding in invertebrate QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Now, back to our regularly scheduled program…
    • Open Waters QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Green Sea Turtle*
    • • Floaters, drifters, and swimmers QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Plankton Bluefin Tuna Egg-Yolk Jelly
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Purple-Striped Jelly Pacific White-Sided Dolphin QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Ocean Sunfish Blue Shark
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Sperm Whale* QuickTime™ and a California Gray Whale decompressor are needed to see this picture. Killer Whale QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Humpback Whale* Blue Whale*
    • Deep Sea QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • • Great pressure QuickTime™ and a• decompressor Cold (39°F) are needed to see this picture.• Dark• Bioluminescence• Food scarcity – Detritus and drift kelp from above
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Cock-Eyed SquidAnglerfish QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dumbo Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Northern Lampfish Midwater Jelly
    • Monterey Bay Aquarium QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Open Sea Exhibit• 1 million gallon tank• Pumps in water straight from Bay QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture.are needed to see this picture.
    • Kelp Forest Exhibit• 28 ft tall tank QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
    • Giant Pacific Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Outdoor Exhibits QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • “The mission of the nonprofit Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the oceans.” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    • Conclusion• National Marine Sanctuaries Act – Ecological and cultural importance• Monterey Bay NMS is made up of a variety habitats – Wetlands to Deep Sea• Remarkable biodiversity – Octopus• Monterey Bay Aquarium inspires conservation
    • References• Ambrose, R.F. 1984. Food preferences, food availability and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verrill. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77: 29-44.• Craig, J., A.J. Jamieson, P.M. Bagley, and I.G. Pirede. 2011. Naturally occurring bioluminescence on the deep-sea floor. Journal of Marine Systems 88 (4): 563-567.• Hanlon, R. 2007. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage. Current Biology 17 (11): 400-404.• Jessup, D. A., M. Miller, J. Ames, M. Harris, C. Kreuder, P.A. Conrad, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2004. Southern sea otter as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. EcoHealth 1: 239-245.• Mather, Jennifer A., Roland C. Anderson, and James B. Wood. Octopus: The Ocean’s Intelligent Invertebrate. Portland: Timber Press, 2010. Print.• Mautner, Don. ENVS 282 - Monterey Bay: A Case Study in Environmental Science and Policy. California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA. Jan.-May 2012. Lecture/Class.• McDonnell, P.J. 2008. Symmetrical versus asymmetrical globe placement: It’s no fluke. Ophthalmology Times 33 (22): 4-4. 2/3 p.• Monterey Bay Aquarium. A Natural History of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, 1997. Print.• NOAA. 2009. Nat’l Marine Sanctuaries – America’s ocean and Great Lakes treasures. NOAA Fact Sheet, 2 p.• http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/• http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/
    • Questions? QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.