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  • 1. Biodiversity in the MontereyBay National Marine Sanctuary QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Megan Childers
  • 2. Outline• History of National Marine Sanctuaries• What is a NMS?• Monterey Bay NMS• Biodiversity – Wetlands – Beaches & Dunes – Rocky Shores – Coral Reefs – Kelp Forests – Sandy Sea Floor • Octopus – Open Waters – Deep Sea• Monterey Bay Aquarium• Conclusion
  • 3. History
  • 4. Santa Barbara Oil Spill• Jan. 29, 1969• 3 million gallons of oil QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.• Severe impacts on wildlife QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 5. Marine Protection, Research,and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)• 1972• National Marine Sanctuaries Act• Ecologically or culturally significant• Resource protection, research, education, public use• NMS Mission: – “…to manage marine areas of special national significance to protect their ecological and cultural integrity for the benefit of current and future generations.”
  • 6. What is a NMS?• Undersea counterpart to National Parks• Unique/unusual habitats• Sensitive or endangered species• Rich biological diversity• Open to the public
  • 7. Federal Organization Department of Commerce (DOC) National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Sanctuaries & Reserve DivisionNMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS NMS
  • 8. National Marine Sanctuaries• USS Monitor (NC)- 1975• Channel Islands (CA) - 1980• Gulf of the Farallones (CA)- 1981• Gray’s Reef (GA)- 1981• Fagatele Bay (American Samoa) - 1986• Cordell Bank (CA) - 1989• Florida Keys (FL)- 1990• Flower Garden Banks (Gulf of Mexico)- 1992• Monterey Bay (CA)- 1992• Stellwagen Bank (MA)- 1992• Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale (HI)- 1992• Olympic Coast (WA)- 1994• Thunder Bay (MI)- 2000
  • 9. Monterey Bay NMS• Established 1992• Largest of the 13 NMS• 5,300 sq mi QuickTime™ and a decompressor• 275 mi along CA coast are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 10. Monterey Submarine Canyon• 10,633 ft (~2 mi) deepest point – Twice as deep as the Grand Canyon!• Area of continued research – Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 11. Code of Conduct• Allowed activities: – Fishing (recreational and commercial)• Prohibited activities: – NO exploring for or developing or producing oil, gas, or mineral resources – NO discharging or depositing any materials in the water – NO altering the seabed or constructing new structures (ex: piers) – NO harassing marine mammals, sea turtles, sea birds – NO operating personal watercraft except in designated areas
  • 12. Habitats
  • 13. Wetlands QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Elkhorn Slough
  • 14. • Break down pollutants and purify water• Nutrient rich – Decaying plants and animals - detritus• Feeding ground for birds• 4 subhabitats – Waterways – Mud flats QuickTime™ and a – decompressor Salt marshes are needed to see this picture. – Uplands
  • 15. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and aMud Crab decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fat Innkeeper Worm Snowy Egret QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Pacific Herring Bat Ray
  • 16. Beaches & Dunes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 17. • Sand dunes constantly changing – Waves – Wind QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 18. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Peregrine Falcon Smith’s Blue Butterfly*Marbled Murrelet* QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Steller Sea Lion*Black Legless Lizard* California Least Tern*
  • 19. Rocky Shores QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 20. • Tide pools• 4 intertidal zones – Splash zone QuickTime™ and a decompressor – High intertidal zone are needed to see this picture. – Middle intertidal zone – Low intertidal zone
  • 21. Splash Zone• Crashing waves• Covered by water for a few hours/day• Hardy animals QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Acorn Barnacle Limpet
  • 22. High Intertidal Zone • Covered by water about 1/2 the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Ochre StarAggregating Anemone Shore Crab
  • 23. Middle Intertidal Zone • Covered by water most of the day QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Red AbaloneSea Urchin Coralline Sculpin
  • 24. Low Intertidal Zone • Normally always covered by water QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sea SpongeOpalescent Nudibranch Orange Sea Cucumber
  • 25. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Brown Pelican Brandt’s Cormorant California Sea Lion QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Harbor Seal Sea Otter*
  • 26. Coral Reefs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 27. • Home to larger animals QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Sea StarGiant Green Anemone QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Giant Acorn Barnacle
  • 28. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Giant Octopus Leopard Shark QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Blue Rockfish Wolf-Eel
  • 29. Kelp Forests QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 30. • Brown algae QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Bull Kelp Giant Kelp Nereocystis Macrocystis
  • 31. • Nutrients absorbed throughout plant – Holdfasts, stipes, blades• MB is perfect habitat – Cold water – Nutrient-rich QuickTime™ and a – Rocks for holdfasts decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 32. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Giant KelpfishGaribaldi QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sheephead Sea Urchins
  • 33. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 34. Sandy Sea Floor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 35. “Flat things and squishy things” QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Sand Dollar Thornback Ray QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Angel Shark California Halibut
  • 36. Flat fish • The migrating eye… QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 37. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Moon Snail Rainbow Nudibranch QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor Sea Pen are needed to see this picture.Sea Cucumber Market Squid
  • 38. Meet the Octopus QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Red Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor Giant Pacific Octopus are needed to see this picture.Octopus rubescens Enteroctopus dofleini California Two-Spot Octopus Octopus bimaculoides
  • 39. Octopus Outline• Classification• Habitat• Appearance• Diet• Reproduction
  • 40. Classification• Phylum Mollusca• Class Cephalopoda• Order Octopoda• Genus Octopus, Enteroctopus, etc.
  • 41. Habitat• Found in every ocean at every depth• Live in dens• Burrow in mud, hole in rock, empty shell, coral, beer bottle QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 42. Appearance• Camouflage• Change entire appearance in <1 sec.• Color, texture, shape• Move arms
  • 43. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 44. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 45. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 46. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 47. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Mimic OctopusThaumoctopus mimicus
  • 48. Diet• Eat almost anything that can’t get away• Crabs, clams, fish QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 49. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.
  • 50. Sex at Last!• Mating and reproduction occurs at end of life• Males die after mating - senescence• Females die after eggs hatch• Males have erectile tissue - ligula – First finding in invertebrate QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 51. Now, back to our regularly scheduled program…
  • 52. Open Waters QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Green Sea Turtle*
  • 53. • Floaters, drifters, and swimmers QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressorare needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Plankton Bluefin Tuna Egg-Yolk Jelly
  • 54. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Purple-Striped Jelly Pacific White-Sided Dolphin QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Ocean Sunfish Blue Shark
  • 55. QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Sperm Whale* QuickTime™ and a California Gray Whale decompressor are needed to see this picture. Killer Whale QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.Humpback Whale* Blue Whale*
  • 56. Deep Sea QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 57. • Great pressure QuickTime™ and a• decompressor Cold (39°F) are needed to see this picture.• Dark• Bioluminescence• Food scarcity – Detritus and drift kelp from above
  • 58. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. Cock-Eyed SquidAnglerfish QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dumbo Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor QuickTime™ and a are needed to see this picture. decompressor are needed to see this picture.Northern Lampfish Midwater Jelly
  • 59. Monterey Bay Aquarium QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 60. Open Sea Exhibit• 1 million gallon tank• Pumps in water straight from Bay QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 61. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture.are needed to see this picture.
  • 62. Kelp Forest Exhibit• 28 ft tall tank QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 63. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 64. Giant Pacific Octopus QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 65. Outdoor Exhibits QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 66. “The mission of the nonprofit Monterey Bay Aquarium is to inspire conservation of the oceans.” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 67. Conclusion• National Marine Sanctuaries Act – Ecological and cultural importance• Monterey Bay NMS is made up of a variety habitats – Wetlands to Deep Sea• Remarkable biodiversity – Octopus• Monterey Bay Aquarium inspires conservation
  • 68. References• Ambrose, R.F. 1984. Food preferences, food availability and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verrill. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77: 29-44.• Craig, J., A.J. Jamieson, P.M. Bagley, and I.G. Pirede. 2011. Naturally occurring bioluminescence on the deep-sea floor. Journal of Marine Systems 88 (4): 563-567.• Hanlon, R. 2007. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage. Current Biology 17 (11): 400-404.• Jessup, D. A., M. Miller, J. Ames, M. Harris, C. Kreuder, P.A. Conrad, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2004. Southern sea otter as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. EcoHealth 1: 239-245.• Mather, Jennifer A., Roland C. Anderson, and James B. Wood. Octopus: The Ocean’s Intelligent Invertebrate. Portland: Timber Press, 2010. Print.• Mautner, Don. ENVS 282 - Monterey Bay: A Case Study in Environmental Science and Policy. California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA. Jan.-May 2012. Lecture/Class.• McDonnell, P.J. 2008. Symmetrical versus asymmetrical globe placement: It’s no fluke. Ophthalmology Times 33 (22): 4-4. 2/3 p.• Monterey Bay Aquarium. A Natural History of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, 1997. Print.• NOAA. 2009. Nat’l Marine Sanctuaries – America’s ocean and Great Lakes treasures. NOAA Fact Sheet, 2 p.• http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/• http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/
  • 69. Questions? QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture.