Hormonal Regulation                           Reference: Pathophysiology by Kathryn                                       ...
Hormones       General characteristics                Specific rates and rhythms of secretion                          ...
The Endocrine System       Hypothalamus       Pituitary         Adenohypophysis         Neurohypophysis       Thyroid...
Regulation of Hormone Release       Hormones are released:                In response to an alteration in the cellular  ...
Feedback                                                      5Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
Hormone Transport          Hormones are released into the circulatory           system by endocrine glands              ...
Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction       Target cell       Up-regulation       Down-regulation       Hormone effects ...
Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction       Hormone receptors                Located in or on the plasma membrane or in th...
Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction       Water-soluble hormones                First messenger                Signal t...
Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction                                                      10Mosby items and derived items ©...
Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction       Lipid-soluble hormones                Steroid hormones                       ...
Lipid-Soluble Hormones                                                      12Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosb...
Structure and Function of theEndocrine Glands       Hypothalamic-pituitary axis                Hypothalamus             ...
The Pituitary Gland                                                      14Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, ...
Posterior Pituitary Hormones       Synthesized with their        binding proteins in the        supraoptic and        par...
Anterior Pituitary Hormones       Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)       Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)       G...
Anterior Pituitary Hormones                                                      17Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by...
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands       Thyroid gland                Two lobes lateral to the trachea                Isthm...
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands       Thyroid hormones                90% T4 and 10% T3                          T4 conv...
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands                                                      20Mosby items and derived items © 2006...
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands       Parathyroid glands                Small glands located behind the upper and lower  ...
Endocrine Pancreas       The pancreas is both an endocrine and an exocrine        gland        Islets of Langerhans     ...
Endocrine Pancreas                                                      23Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, I...
Endocrine Pancreas       Insulin                Synthesized from proinsulin                Secretion is promoted by inc...
Endocrine Pancreas       Glucagon                Secretion is promoted by decreased blood glucose                 levels...
Endocrine Pancreas                                                      26Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, I...
Adrenal Glands       Adrenal cortex                80% of an adrenal                 gland’s total weight               ...
Adrenal Glands       Adrenal cortex                Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone                 (ACTH)     ...
Adrenal Glands       Adrenal cortex                Mineralocorticoid hormones                          Affect ion trans...
Aldosterone                                                      30Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
Adrenal Glands       Adrenal cortex                Adrenal estrogens and androgens                          Estrogen se...
Adrenal Glands       Adrenal medulla                Chromaffin cells (pheochromocytes)                          Chromaf...
Tests of Endocrine Function       Radioimmunoassay                Measures minute quantities of hormone in blood       ...
Aging and the Endocrine System       Thyroid gland                Glandular atrophy, fibrosis, nodularity, and increased...
Hormones from other tissues       Erythropoietin                Released by kidney                          Stimulus is...
The End       Questions?                                                      36Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by M...
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Endocrine a p s2010 1

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  • LIpid based hormones --> arachadonic acid, and cholesterol based. Sex hormones, Leuk and prostiglandins. Mostly autocrin, peracrin, vs endocrin. \n
  • Permssive effect -- Insulin makes the mamery glands more sensitive to prolactin. \n\nn biology, permissiveness is a certain relationship between hormones and the target cell. It can be applied to describe situations in which the presence of one hormone, at a certain concentration, is required in order to allow a second hormone to fully affect the target cell. For example, thyroid hormone increases the number of receptors available for epinephrine at the latter's target cell, thereby increasing epinephrine's effect at that cell. Without the thyroid hormone, epinephrine would only have a weak effect.[1]\n
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  • More rapid response with a PM protien and machinery already to go inside the cell. \nWater soluble hormones cannot! So Fat soluble can go fast and slow. \n
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  • Close to optic chiasm. \n
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  • CRH --> MSH --> melanin production\n
  • Portal system - Vein connecting two capillary beds.\n
  • T4- 4 iodines on tyrosine. Most produces.\nT3 - Thyroxin, predominate in the body.\nT4 is turned into T3. \nIodide is what we consume, Iodine is what is in our bodies. \n
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  • brain does not need insulin\n
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  • Endocrine a p s2010 1

    1. 1. Hormonal Regulation Reference: Pathophysiology by Kathryn McCance Mindy Milton, MPA, PA-C July 29, 2010 1Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    2. 2. Hormones General characteristics  Specific rates and rhythms of secretion  Diurnal, pulsatile and cyclic, and patterns depending on circulating substances  Operate within feedback systems  Most common negative feedback  Affect only cells with appropriate receptors  Endocrine communication  The liver inactivates hormones, rendering the hormones more water soluble for renal excretion 2Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    3. 3. The Endocrine System Hypothalamus Pituitary  Adenohypophysis  Neurohypophysis Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenals Pancreas Ovaries Testes 3Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    4. 4. Regulation of Hormone Release Hormones are released:  In response to an alteration in the cellular environment  To maintain a regulated level of certain substances or other hormones Hormones are regulated by chemical, hormonal, or neural factors Negative feedback 4Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    5. 5. Feedback 5Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    6. 6. Hormone Transport  Hormones are released into the circulatory system by endocrine glands  Water-soluble hormones circulate in free, unbound forms  short half life  Peptides, glucoproteins, polypeptides  Insulin  PTH  Pituitary hormones  Hypothalamic hormones  Lipid soluble hormones are primarily circulating bound to a carrier  Circulate on protein carrier – longer half life  Steroid hormones 6Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    7. 7. Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction Target cell Up-regulation Down-regulation Hormone effects  Direct effects  Permissive effects 7Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    8. 8. Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction Hormone receptors  Located in or on the plasma membrane or in the intracellular compartment of the target cell Water-soluble hormones  High molecular weight  Cannot diffuse across the plasma membrane Lipid-soluble hormones  Easily diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to cytosolic or nuclear receptors 8Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    9. 9. Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction Water-soluble hormones  First messenger  Signal transduction  Second-messenger molecules  Calcium  Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)  Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) 9Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    10. 10. Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction 10Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    11. 11. Cellular Mechanism of HormoneAction Lipid-soluble hormones  Steroid hormones  Androgens, estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and thyroid hormones  Diffuse across the plasma membrane  Bind to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors  Activate  RNA polymerase  DNA transcription and translation 11Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    12. 12. Lipid-Soluble Hormones 12Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    13. 13. Structure and Function of theEndocrine Glands Hypothalamic-pituitary axis  Hypothalamus  Secretes regulatory hormones  Releasing and inhibiting  Autonomic center neural control  Endocrine organ  Pituitary gland  Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)  Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) neuro- attachments to adrenal medulla. Has trophic hormones too. 13Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    14. 14. The Pituitary Gland 14Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    15. 15. Posterior Pituitary Hormones Synthesized with their binding proteins in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus Secreted by the posterior pituitary  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)  Controls plasma osmolality  Oxytocin  Uterine contractions and milk ejection in lactating women 15Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    16. 16. Anterior Pituitary Hormones Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Growth hormone (GH)<-- GHRH Prolactin (has “releasing” and “inhibiting”(Dopamine). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) <-- GRH Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)<-- GRH 16Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    17. 17. Anterior Pituitary Hormones 17Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    18. 18. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid gland  Two lobes lateral to the trachea  Isthmus  Follicles (follicle cells surrounding colloid)  Parafollicular cells (C cells)  Secrete calcitonin  Stimulus is high serum ionized calcium  Regulation of thyroid hormone secretion  Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone 18Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    19. 19. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid hormones  90% T4 and 10% T3  T4 converted to T3 in the liver, kidneys, and peripheral tissues  T3 has greatest metabolic effects  Bound to thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine- binding prealbumin, or albumin  Affect growth and maturation of tissues, cell metabolism, heat production, and oxygen consumption 19Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    20. 20. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 20Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    21. 21. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid glands  Small glands located behind the upper and lower poles of the thyroid gland  Produce parathyroid hormone  Regulator of serum calcium  Stimulus is low serum ionized calcium level  Antagonist of calcitonin 21Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    22. 22. Endocrine Pancreas The pancreas is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland Islets of Langerhans  Secretion of glucagon and insulin  Cells  Alpha—glucagon  Beta—insulin  Delta—somatostatin and gastrin  F cells—pancreatic polypeptide  ANS innervation  PNS +  SNS – 22Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    23. 23. Endocrine Pancreas 23Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    24. 24. Endocrine Pancreas Insulin  Synthesized from proinsulin  Secretion is promoted by increased blood glucose levels  Facilitates the rate of glucose uptake into the cells of the body  Anabolic hormone  Synthesis of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids 24Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    25. 25. Endocrine Pancreas Glucagon  Secretion is promoted by decreased blood glucose levels  Stimulates glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and lipolysis Somatostatin  Possible involvement in regulating alpha and beta cell secretions 25Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    26. 26. Endocrine Pancreas 26Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    27. 27. Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex  80% of an adrenal gland’s total weight  Zona glomerulosa  Zona fasciculata  Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla  20% of total weight  Innervated by ANS  Pre-ganglionic cholinergic fibers  SNS and PNS 27Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    28. 28. Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex  Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  Glucocorticoid hormones  Direct effects on carbohydrate metabolism  Anti-inflammatory and growth-suppressing effects  Influence awareness and sleep habits  Most potent naturally occurring glucocorticoid is cortisol 28Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    29. 29. Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex  Mineralocorticoid hormones  Affect ion transport by epithelial cells  Increase the activity of the sodium pump of the epithelial cells  Cause sodium retention and potassium and hydrogen loss  Most potent naturally occurring mineralocorticoid is aldosterone  Regulated by the renin-angiotensin system 29Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    30. 30. Aldosterone 30Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    31. 31. Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex  Adrenal estrogens and androgens  Estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex is minimal  The adrenal cortex secretes weak androgens  Androgens are converted by peripheral tissues to stronger androgens such as testosterone 31Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    32. 32. Adrenal Glands Adrenal medulla  Chromaffin cells (pheochromocytes)  Chromaffin cells secrete the catecholamine epinephrine (majority) and norepinephrine  Release of catecholamine has been characterized as a “fight or flight” response  Catecholamines promote hyperglycemia 32Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    33. 33. Tests of Endocrine Function Radioimmunoassay  Measures minute quantities of hormone in blood Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  Similar to RIA but less expensive 33Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    34. 34. Aging and the Endocrine System Thyroid gland  Glandular atrophy, fibrosis, nodularity, and increased inflammatory infiltrates  TSH and TH secretion diminished  Hypothyroidism Parathyroid glands  Related to alterations in calcium balance  Inadequate intake, malabsorption, or renal changes Adrenal glands  Decreased clearance of cortisol  Secondary to decline in liver and renal functions 34Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    35. 35. Hormones from other tissues Erythropoietin  Released by kidney  Stimulus is low oxygen levels  Increases RBC production in bone marrow Renin  Released by Kidney  Stimulus is low volume, hypotension, low GFR  Angiotensin II and Aldosterone – retains sodium, water, and vasoconstriction increases blood pressure ANP  Released by atrium  Stimulus is increased wall stretch due to increased blood volume  Promotes loss of Na+ and water  Decreases release of Renin, aldosterone, ADH  Suppresses thirst Thysosin  Released by Thymus  Maturation of lymphocytes 35Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.
    36. 36. The End Questions? 36Mosby items and derived items © 2006 by Mosby, Inc.

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